Networks

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  • You can’t say routers bas because it’s not only routers.. Fi routers switches and firewalls..soft switches etc… so saying routers is too specific ..so instead I recommend saying hardware devices such as routers,switches..etc

  • So here u can say why do we need layers in the first place?
    the reason is dividing anything to smaller parts make easier for troubleshooting and monitoring.. So if anything goes wrong I can know where the flow stopped and start trouble shooting from there.. The second thing is for updating ..so I can work on updating a certain protocol that addressed a certain layer without having to change any of the other layers.

    Bardo tell them that the sending is done form up to down..(layer 7 application to layer 1 physical)..and receiving data is the other way from 1 to 7
  • So here u can say why do we need layers in the first place?
    the reason is dividing anything to smaller parts make easier for troubleshooting and monitoring.. So if anything goes wrong I can know where the flow stopped and start trouble shooting from there.. The second thing is for updating ..so I can work on updating a certain protocol that addressed a certain layer without having to change any of the other layers.

    Bardo tell them that the sending is done form up to down..(layer 7 application to layer 1 physical)..and receiving data is the other way from 1 to 7
  • So here u can say why do we need layers in the first place?
    the reason is dividing anything to smaller parts make easier for troubleshooting and monitoring.. So if anything goes wrong I can know where the flow stopped and start trouble shooting from there.. The second thing is for updating ..so I can work on updating a certain protocol that addressed a certain layer without having to change any of the other layers.

    Bardo tell them that the sending is done form up to down..(layer 7 application to layer 1 physical)..and receiving data is the other way from 1 to 7
  • Here specify what u mean by encryption because this level is not the security encryption level… it means the format of the text and file so pdf…xml..etc
  • Try to put in a fragmented packet so they can see what you mean by “breaks up data”
  • You can say that mainly the most common hardware device of this layer is the router because it works with IP addresses..therefore a router is a layer 3 device
  • Here you can say that the layer 2 device is a switch because it can only understand MAC addresses and can’t understand IP addresses.
  • Networks

    1. 1. NETWORKS Part one
    2. 2. OUR AGENDA TODAY WILL BE What is a network ?. Data networks. Networks types. The OSI model.
    3. 3. WHAT IS A NETWORK?!
    4. 4. DATA NETWORKS Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the following three problems: i. How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources. ii. How to communicate efficiently. iii. How to set up and manage a network.
    5. 5. BUSINESSES REALIZED THAT NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY COULD INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY WHILE SAVING MONEY.
    6. 6. WHAT MAKES UP A NETWORK? Protocol. Network interface cards (NICs). Cable. Network device.
    7. 7. NETWORKS TYPES LAN. WAN. VPN.
    8. 8. LAN
    9. 9. LAN LOCAL AREA NETWORK Operates within a limited geographic area. High speed data transfer rates. Full time connectivity to local services Cabling is primary transmission medium
    10. 10. WAN WIDE AREA NETWORK Operate over a large geographical area. Allow access over serial interfaces operating at lower speeds. Provide full-time and part-time connectivity. Connect devices separated over wide, even global areas.
    11. 11. THE OSI MODEL OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION  It is a way of sub-dividing a data communications system into smaller parts called Layers. A layer is a collection of similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. The reason is dividing anything to smaller parts make easier for troubleshooting and monitoring.
    12. 12. OSI model 7-Application layer 6-Presentation layer 5-Session layer 4-Transport layer 3-Network layer 2-Data link layer 1-Physical layer
    13. 13. A GOOD WAY TO REMEMBER THE OSI MODEL OSI model 7-Application layer 6-Presentation layer 5-Session layer 4-Transport layer 3-Network layer 2-Data link layer 1-Physical layer
    14. 14. THE MAIN BENEFITS OF THE OSI MODEL Helps users understand the big picture of networking. Helps users understand how hardware and software elements function together. Makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into manageable pieces. Defines terms that networking professionals can use to compare basic functional relationships on different networks.
    15. 15. 7-APPLICATION LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer It provides an interface for the end user operating a device connected to a network.  Examples of application layer functionality include:  Support for file transfers  Ability to print on a network  Electronic mail  Electronic messaging  Browsing the World Wide Web
    16. 16. 6-PRESENTATION LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer  It is responsible for how an application formats the data to be sent out onto the network.  It basically allows an application to read (or understand) the message.  Functions:  Encryption and decryption of a message for security.  Compression and expansion of a message so that it travels efficiently.
    17. 17. 5-SESSION LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer This session layer allows applications functioning on devices to establish, manage and terminate a dialog through a network. Functions:  Synchronization of data flow.  Retransmission of data if it is not received by a device.
    18. 18. 4-TRANSPORT LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer  It offers end-to-end communication between end devices through a network.  This layer breaks up the data into packets from the sending host and then reassembles it in the receiver(Segmentation).  It also is used to insure reliable data transport across the network.
    19. 19. 3-NETWORK LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer  Responsible for routing packets.  It provides an end-to-end logical addressing system so that a packet of data can be routed across several layer 2 networks  The Internet Protocol (IP) addresses make networks easier to both set up and connect with one another.  The main hardware of this layer is the Router because it works with IP addresses.
    20. 20. 2-DATA LINK LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer  Allows a device to access the network to send and receive messages.  Provides error-detection capability.  Works with a device’s networking software when sending and receiving messages.  The main device is Switch, it only understand MAC addresses.
    21. 21. 1-PHYSICAL LAYER OSI model Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer  It defines connector and interface specifications, as well as the medium(cable) requirements in order to connect the network.  It deals with Zeros and Ones ONLY, it takes them from the source to destination through the medium which is Cables.  The main devices on this layer is Hub and Repeater.
    22. 22. QUESTIONS?
    23. 23. THANK YOU Mostafa Hussien

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