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Active teaching strategies, part 1 hms-egypt course william-1

Harvard Medical School
ET2T | eWorkshop 1
Day 3: Saturday, June 13, 2020

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Active teaching strategies, part 1 hms-egypt course william-1

  1. 1. Active Teaching Strategies, Part 1: Flipped Classroom Jeffrey H. William, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Associate Program Director, Nephrology Fellowship (BIDMC) Firm Chief, BIDMC Internal Medicine Residency Program June 5th, 2020
  2. 2. Goals/Objectives • Delineate reasons why “flipping the classroom” can enhance engagement and learning • Describe the preparation necessary to plan and execute a successful flipped classroom curriculum (the “recipe”) • Define the expectations of the learner and teacher in the flipped classroom model • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the flipped classroom model
  3. 3. Audience Response Question #1 Review the following teaching scenarios. Pick the best example of a “flipped classroom.” A) Students are provided with a course syllabus for “Introduction to Physiology” ahead of time. For all lectures, they are told to read this material and they also must always sit in a different seat in the classroom. B) Teacher records a session with a clinical colleague and works through case scenarios in which they discuss the risks and benefits of anticoagulation in different patients. The next day, students are instructed to watch these recordings together in small groups and discuss. C) Teacher assigns specific textbook readings and pre-recorded videos about blood pressure medications the day prior to a session. The next day, students are provided with unique clinical cases about blood pressure management that they are instructed to work through in a facilitated small group session.
  4. 4. Defining the “flipped classroom” • Educator/Facilitator involved in problem-solving, not presentation • In-class time with students used for inquiry, application, and feedback • Provides an excellent opportunity for utilization of other interactive strategies
  5. 5. Where lectures have gone wrong • Just because we teach it, it doesn’t mean students learn it. • Lectures are effective ways of delivering information to many observers, but they do not facilitate durable learning. • Research shows that after a lecture, learners are unable to retrieve the abstract knowledge needed to solve real-world problems (application). • Even though they are very knowledgeable, “experts” selected to give a lecture are not always the best teachers. !!!
  6. 6. A course without* lectures? • Take a moment to imagine a course you have attended, teach in, or currently run… º How are the learners “consuming” the lectures? • (i.e., Are they coming to the lecture hall?) º Are there other ways to present and/or learn this same content? º Do the lecturers know the learners? º Would the students benefit from more individual face-to- face time with faculty in a smaller group setting? * …or at least fewer lectures
  7. 7. A Flipped Classroom “recipe”
  8. 8. Curated content
  9. 9. Curating the course content • Learner will be acquiring knowledge at home, either alone or in study groups • Active preparation is KEY to a successful session the following day • Consider the scope of the content • Be respectful of the learners’ time in completing assigned preparatory material • Design the in-person session to build on the pre-work, stressing application of concepts and critical thinking
  10. 10. Content creation + delivery - Do vs. Don’t Curate textbook chapters and select the most important sections Create brief videos addressing the most important or complicated concepts Consider creating a course-specific syllabus that culls together the best content from multiple sources Clarify how long the preparatory work should take prior to each class session Provide “readiness assessment questions” to allow self-evaluation (either at home on own or in-person at the session) Align course objectives with content you provide Facilitate discussion amongst students in the live sessions, normalizing misconceptions and difficult concepts (but do provide the right answers!) Do
  11. 11. Assign an entire chapter of a textbook Create videos longer than 7-8 minutes that re-state straightforward printed content Over-assign prep work Pre-record prior year’s full-length lectures and present as preparatory material Expect the students to be experts in the content when arriving to the in-person session Provide answers PRIOR TO working through a difficult concept with the group in the live session Underprepare for the live session because “you are only facilitating.” Don’t Content creation + delivery - Do vs. Don’t
  12. 12. Curious students committed to learning
  13. 13. Preparing the learners • Set higher expectations than passively sitting in the lecture hall • Learning “contract” – sessions devoted to teaching and learning among colleagues and a shared responsibility • Active preparation = more durable/meaningful learning in the live sessions, moving “beyond the basics” • Cultivate “comfort with uncertainty” and that the struggle of not knowing is an essential part of the learning process • Generate questions for rich discussion, self-diagnose gaps in understanding, verbalize uncertainty, and cultivate curiosity and self-efficacy
  14. 14. Theory of self-efficacy “Self-efficacy is the belief we have in our own abilities, specifically our ability to meet the challenges ahead of us and complete a task successfully.” • Developed by Dr. Albert Bandura, who proposed that perceived self-efficacy influences what coping behavior is initiated when an individual is met with stress/challenges • When one is self-driven to work through their problems on their own terms, they gain positive experiences that in turn boosts their self-efficacy even more.
  15. 15. How we can improve learner self-efficacy (as educators) º Mastery experiences - Experiences gained when taking on a new challenge and succeeding º Vicarious experiences - Observing and emulating a role model º Verbal persuasion - Positive impact that our words can have º Emotional and physiological states - Supporting overall well-being
  16. 16. Longitudinal faculty facilitators
  17. 17. Setting faculty expectations • Facilitator >>> teacher • Resist the temptation to provide the “right answer” • Encourage individual practice, small group debate, and larger group discussion amongst learners • Role model how to think about the content and how to approach the content • Expect a longitudinal commitment to take advantage of the opportunity to learn more about the students (individual feedback, personal growth/development, diagnose content weaknesses, etc.) • Consider the best use of classroom time, both in advance and in real-time • Faculty development to disseminate best-practices
  18. 18. Access to basic technology
  19. 19. Audience response question #2 Which of the following is the most difficult “technological hurdle” you are currently facing in your own curriculum development and course creation? a) Video creation and production b) Centralized student access to course materials c) Connectivity between remote students/learners d) Reliable access to electronic textbooks and up-to-date medical literature e) Classroom electronics/computer access
  20. 20. (Minimal) technology requirements • Simple is best • ALL students must have internet accessibility/reliable connection • “Bells and whistles” often distract students rather than engage them • Consider whether the barriers of entry with certain video technologies are worthwhile (or perhaps a narrated PowerPoint accomplishes the same goal?) • Choose a central hub/website that provides easy access to preparatory content for learners to maximize their efficiency in completing the pre-work • Ability to review answers to pre-session readiness assessment questions • Test-taking software for efficient review of results
  21. 21. Optimal learning environment for small group sessions
  22. 22. Optimizing the learning environment • Physical space should be conducive to small group learning • Reiterate both learner and teacher expectations (as previously discussed) • Incorrect answers = learning opportunities • “Think out loud” • Learner participation is helpful for… º …self-assessment of understanding º …teaching of fellow learners º …allowing a facilitator/teacher to gauge global understanding amongst the group
  23. 23. Advantages and Disadvantages of the flipped classroom model • Technology!! • Integrate new course topics or teaching methods (PBL, TBL, CBCL) • Include more enthusiastic educators in the course • Increased educator–student interactions • Real-time feedback about what needs to be covered better • Flexible; not “all or nothing” • Technology…? • Higher risk of “information overload” of learners through prep work assignments • Time and energy needed for re- working current curriculum to adapt to new model • Increased faculty development required • Some students may feel a “lack of direction” Advantages Disadvantages
  24. 24. Audience Response #3 – Share your concerns! Are you ready to flip your classroom?!? (Click “Participants” at the bottom of your screen) If yes, give me a “Yes”! If not, give me a “No” …and write your concerns in the Chat so we can address them.
  25. 25. Recommended Reading
  26. 26. Goals/Objectives • Delineate reasons why “flipping the classroom” can enhance engagement and learning • Describe the preparation necessary to plan and execute a successful flipped classroom curriculum (the “recipe”) • Define the expectations of the learner and teacher in the flipped classroom model • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the flipped classroom model

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  • mostafahegazy18

    Jul. 9, 2020
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    Apr. 25, 2021

Harvard Medical School ET2T | eWorkshop 1 Day 3: Saturday, June 13, 2020

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