a live direct or indirect view
of a physical real-world environment
whose elements are augmented
by virtual computer-generated imagery.
• It combines real and virtual
• It is interactive in real time
• It is registered in 3D
by Ronald Azuma, Hughes Research Lab.
R. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality”,
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1997, pp. 355–385.
현실세계와 읶갂의 신체를
어떠한 임의의 기술로
By Jun Rekimoto, Tokyo Univ.
≒ Ubiquitous Computing
≒ Context Awareness
≒ Web Squared
(Web2.0 x World = W²)
History of MAR: 1968
Ivan Sutherland creates
the first augmented
Three Dimensional Display”
I. Sutherland, “A Head-Mounted Three Dimensional Display”,
Proceedings of Fall Joint Computer Conference, 1968, pp. 757-764.
History of MAR: 1992
and David Mizell
coin the term
T. P. Caudell, and D. W. Mizell, “Augmented Reality: An Application of
Heads-Up Display Technology to Manual Manufacturing
Processes”, Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Hawaii International Conference
on Systems Sciences, 1992, pp 659-669.
History of MAR: 1995
and Katashi Nagao
create the ”NaviCam”
J. Rekimoto and K. Nagao, “The World through the Computer: Computer
Augmented Interaction with Real World Environments”, Proceedings of
the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software
technology (UIST '95),1995, pp. 29-36.
History of MAR: 1997
Steve Feiner et al.
“the Touring Machine”,
the first MAR system.
S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Höllerer and A. Webster, “A touring machine:
Prototyping 3D mobile augmented reality systems for exploring the
urban environment”, Proceedings of First IEEE International Symposium
on Wearable Computers (ISWC '97), 1997, pp 74–81. Cambridge, MA.
History of MAR: 1999
and Mark Billinghurst
H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a
video-based augmented reality conferencing system, Proceedings of the
2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality
(IWAR 99), 1999, pp. 85-94.
History of MAR: 2002
Michael Kalkusch et al.
present a MAR system
to guide a user through
an unfamiliar building
to a destination room.
M. Kalkusch, T. Lidy, M. Knapp, G. Reitmayr, H. Kaufmann and D.
Schmalstieg, “Structured Visual Markers for Indoor Pathfinding”,
Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on ARToolKit
History of MAR: 2006
Reitmayr et al.
presents a model-based
hybrid tracking system
for outdoor MAR.
G. Reitmayr and T. Drummond, “Going Out: Robust Model-based Tracking
for Outdoor Augmented Reality”, Proceedings of 5th IEEE and ACM
International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR
2006), 2006, pp. 109-118.
History of MAR: 2008
“2009 is a breakout year
for Augmented Reality
in the minds of many consumers.
Much of the media
and consumer attention is
on mobile AR.”
- ISMAR’09 Homepage