Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries (Internet Librarian 2013)


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Peter Morville's keynote for Internet Librarian 2013 in Monterey, California.

Published in: Design, Education, Technology

Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries (Internet Librarian 2013)

  1. 1. Peter Morville, Internet Librarian 2013 1
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  5. 5. Design for Discovery Search Patterns Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender 5
  6. 6. “I say we fight for and maintain our very long-term and hardwon connection to books and what they represent.” Joseph Janes 6
  7. 7. The structural design of shared information environments. The organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems in websites and intranets. 7
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  10. 10. Fragmentation Fragmentation into multiple sites, domains, and identities is clearly a major problem. Users don’t know which site to visit for which purpose. Findability Users can’t find what they need from the home page, but most users don’t come through the front door. They enter via a web search or a deep link, and are confused by what they find. Even worse, most never use the Library, because its resources aren’t easily findable.
  11. 11. Web Strategy Web 1.  One Library 2.  Core Areas Online Onsite Library Congress (about/for) National Library Copyright Hierarchy 3.  Network Intelligence top-down + Network bottom-up 12
  12. 12. Wireframes Interfaces •  Portal •  Search •  Object •  Set •  Page Caveats •  Visual Design •  Starting Point 13
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  14. 14. Search is a Complex, Adaptive System Goals Psychology Behavior Interaction Affordances Language Features Technology Algorithms Indexing Structure Metadata Tools Process Incentives Interface Query Results Engine Content Users Source: Search Patterns (2010) Creators 15
  15. 15. “Give me a fulcrum and a place to stand, and I will move the world.” —Archimedes Portal Dis t ou Ab Brand Paths Patterns Incentives co ve ry Users Find Search Ask Objects Federated Faceted Fast Goal Gateway Collection Browse Findable Social 16
  16. 16. Web Governance Board 17
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  21. 21. Technology + Pedagogy 22
  22. 22. “When I was playing baseball, most of the time I wasn’t playing full-scale, four bases, nine innings. I was playing a perfectly suitable junior version of the game...But when I was studying those shards of math and history, I wasn’t playing a junior version of anything. It was like batting practice without knowing the whole game. Why would anyone want to do that?” 23
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  24. 24. The MOOCs must first compete with nonconsumption by meeting demand outside the schools (e.g., developing countries, home-schooling) and then within (e.g., letting students take courses not offered by their district). Later, this self-paced, studentcentered model may gain sufficient momentum to become the dominant paradigm. 25
  25. 25. The Architecture of a Class 26
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  27. 27. Regardless of all the time and effort libraries put into providing a variety of research tools and resources on their websites, the literature suggests that students still prefer to start their research using Google or some other form of search engine. It is clear that there is an overwhelming preference for easy to use, familiar search tools that transcend education level, discipline of study, and student demographics. Discovery Layers and the Distance Student Jessica Mussell (2012) 28
  28. 28. Strengths •  Fast, easy, familiar •  Cross-disciplinary searching •  Links to citing and related articles 29
  29. 29. Weaknesses •  No “advanced search” functionality •  Limited, inaccurate metadata •  Inconsistent coverage across disciplines •  No transparency (coverage, algorithms, usage, monetization) •  Not customizable or interoperable 30
  30. 30. Information Literacy Employers claimed that college hires rarely conducted the thorough research required of them in the workplace. At worst, some college hires solved problems with a lightning quick Google search, a scan of the first couple of pages of results, and a linear answer finding approach. “I had a new graduate hire who only searched for papers on Google. I said, you’re missing things, you need to use PubMed, and he responded, ‘Well, I did this quick search, and that’s what I got.’ But that’s not good enough.” Project Information Literacy: Learning Curve by Alison J. Head (2012) 31
  31. 31. “The academic library is increasingly being disintermediated from the discovery process, risking irrelevance in one of its core functional areas.” Faculty rate importance of library roles Key Strategic Insights for Libraries, Publishers, and Societies by Roger C. Schonfeld (2010) 32
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  33. 33. 34 Federated “Bento Box” NCSU Stanford Dartmouth Virginia Columbia
  34. 34. 35 Aggregated “Faceted” Cornell Duke McGill Northwestern U. Washington
  35. 35. Faceted Navigation 36
  36. 36. Adaptive Facets 37
  37. 37. Gross and Sheridan conducted a usability study that examined how Summon (“web-scale discovery”) was used for common library search tasks. Summon was positioned as the primary search box on the library’s home page for the study. They found that the single search box was employed for 80% of the assigned tasks. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013) 38
  38. 38. Use of full-text online content dramatically increased in the year following implementation. Librarians found they could focus instruction less on choosing a database or catalog and more on refining a search, research as an iterative process, and other high level search skills. The Impact of Serial Solutions’ Summon on Information Literacy Instruction Stephanie Buck and Margaret Mellinger (2011) 39
  39. 39. Origin Google Google Scholar Search as a Service Source Catalog (Owned) Databases (Licensed) Library Portal Apps via API University Website Institutional Repository Individual Library HathiTrust (Shared Repository) Borrow Direct (Ivy League) Subject (LibGuide) Faculty (Profile, Publications) Course (Course Pack, LMS) WorldCat (Libraries Worldwide) Web (Free, Fee) Portal (Library Facilities, Services) * source may be path or destination Resource (Article, Book) 40
  40. 40. 63% didn’t use any Internet resources, other than the Guide, to complete their assignment. Embedding LibGuides into Course Management Systems Stephanie Brown (2012) Search GO History of Science: Nature on Display Embeddable Search Widget 41
  41. 41. Artifacts Visible organizational structures and processes (hard to decipher) Espoused Values Strategies, goals, philosophies, justifications Underlying Assumptions Unconscious, taken for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, feelings (source of values, action) Three Levels of Culture 42
  42. 42. Inquiry Learning 43
  43. 43. Information Literacy The ability the find, evaluate, create, organize, and use information from myriad sources and media. 44
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  46. 46. “70 percent of humans experience severe back pain…and in the U.S. this results in tens of thousands of surgeries each year.” “There’s a secret about MRIs and back pain: the most common problems physicians see on MRI and attribute to back pain – herniated, ruptured, and bulging discs – are seen almost as commonly on MRIs of healthy people without back pain.” 47
  47. 47. Why is Medicine a Mess? •  Our minds/bodies are complex. •  Patients want a quick fix. •  Doctors hate saying: “I don’t know.” •  The AMA is an advocacy group. •  Relentless and insidious advertising. •  Industry-funded research. •  $2.7 trillion per year. 48
  48. 48. “Our government is corrupt. Not corrupt in any criminal sense. But corrupt in a perfectly legal sense: special interests bend the levers of power to benefit them at the expense of the rest of us.” “There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root.” Henry David Thoreau 49
  49. 49. The relationship between information and 50 culture
  50. 50. “It is now my suggestion that many people may not want information, and that they will avoid using a system precisely because it gives them information…If you have information, you must first read it… You must then try to understand it…Understanding the information may show that your work was wrong, or may show that your work was needless…Thus not having and Calvin Mooers (1959) not using information can often lead to less trouble and pain than having and using it.” The limits of information 51
  51. 51. “We shape our buildings. Thereafter, they shape us.” 52
  52. 52. The order of food influences choice by as much as 25 percent. 53
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  54. 54. Some habits have the power to start a chain reaction. “Success doesn’t depend on getting every single thing right, but instead relies on identifying a few key priorities and fashioning them into powerful levers.” 55
  55. 55. “Willpower is the single most important keystone habit for individual success.” 56
  56. 56. Paul O’Neil as CEO of Alcoa “I want to talk to you about worker safety…I intend to make Alcoa the safest company in America. I intend to go for zero injuries.” “We killed this man. It’s my failure of leadership. I caused his death. And it’s the failure of all of you in the chain of command.” 57
  57. 57. “A culture of generosity.” Josie Parker, Ann Arbor District Library 58
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  59. 59. “A library, like a national park, teaches us that we all benefit when our most valuable treasures are held in common.” Peter Morville, Inspiration Architecture 60
  60. 60. Keystone A central stone at the summit of an arch locking the whole together. 61
  61. 61. Polar bears are a keystone species in the Arctic ecosystem. 62
  62. 62. The library is a keystone of culture.
  63. 63. “A library outranks any other one thing a community can do to benefit its people. It is a never failing spring in the desert.” Andrew Carnegie (1889) 64
  64. 64. “Too many people think that we don’t need libraries when we have the Internet.” John Palfrey, DPLA (2012) 65
  65. 65. The library is an act of inspiration architecture. 66
  66. 66. “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” John Muir IA Therefore I Am Inspiration Architecture by Peter Morville 67