Information Architecture Workshop


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Slides for Peter Morville's information architecture workshop at Internet Librarian 2013.

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Information Architecture Workshop

  1. Peter Morville, Internet Librarian 2013 1
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  4. Design for Discovery Search Patterns Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender 4
  5. Agenda Intro to IA Governance & Culture Search & Libraries Cross-Channel (Mobile) Concepts, Cases, Conversations 5
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  7. What architects do for buildings, information architects do for…
  8. in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n The structural design of information systems, interactive services, and user experiences. The organization, search, and navigation systems that help people to complete tasks, find what they need, and understand what they’ve found.
  9. The fast parts learn, propose, and absorb shocks; the slow parts remember, integrate, and constrain. The fast parts get all the attention. The slow parts have all the power. Steward Brand on “Pace Layering”
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  11. “Categorization is not a matter to be taken lightly. There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.” 12
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  14. There is one timeless way of building. It is thousands of years old, and the same today as it has always been. The great traditional buildings of the past, the villages and tents and temples in which man feels at home, have always been made by people who were very close to the center of this way. It is not possible to make great buildings, or great towns, beautiful places, places where you feel yourself, places where you feel alive, except by following this way. And, as you will see, this way will lead anyone who looks for it to buildings which are themselves as ancient in their form, as the trees and hills, and as our faces are. The Timeless Way of Building Christopher Alexander 15
  15. Window Place (180) Everybody loves window seats, bay windows, and big windows with low sills and comfortable chairs drawn up to them. May be part of: • Entrance Room (130) • Zen View (134) • Light on Two Sides (159) • Street Windows (164) May contain: • Alcoves (179) • Low Sill (222) • Built-In Seats (202) • Deep Reveals (223) A Pattern Language Christopher Alexander et al. 16
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  25. Bill Verplank, IxD11 Opening Keynote, (00:19:30) 26
  26. Process 1.  Background research and planning. 2.  Audience analysis (user roles and goals). 3.  Site evaluation. 4.  Site and search analytics. 5.  Content and metadata analysis. 6.  Competitive and comparative analysis. 7.  Internal meetings (and presentations). 8.  Stakeholder interviews. 9.  User research sessions. 10. Information architecture design. 27
  27. goals, strategy, brand, process, technology, resources, politics, culture… objects, types, metadata, structure, relationships, source, volume, growth audiences, user needs, use cases, mental models, vocabulary, behavior 28
  28. “Desire Lines” Photo: Berkeley Path Gallery by Kevin Fox 29
  29. User Research (Outside-In) •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Surveys Focus Groups Personas Usability Testing Interviews Card Sorting Ethnography Mental Models •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Usage Logs Search Analytics A/B Testing Prototyping Alpha / Beta Customer Support Eyetracking Participatory Design 30
  30. IA is the Art of Synthesis Goals and Scope (RFP, Functional Specifications) Constraints (Schedule, Budget, Technology, Politics) Project-Specific Research (Users, Content, Context) Competitive Analysis (Legalized Cheating) What We Know (Education, Expertise, Experience) Guidelines (Three Click Rule, Users Don’t Scroll) Design Research (HCI, LIS, IR, Academic, Corporate) Project-Specific Testing (Usability) 31
  31. Deliverables •  Strategy brief that presents findings and analysis of the research process and recommends a user experience strategy focused on user roles and goals. •  Suite of information architecture wireframes specifying page-level structure and navigation for major interfaces and page types. •  Final report that integrates results and analysis, strategy and recommendations, user experience flows, wireframes, and requirements. 33
  32. Blueprints 34
  33. Task Flows 35
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  35. Visual Thinking Unwritten Rule #1 “Whoever best describes a problem is the person most likely to solve the problem. …or, whoever draws the best picture gets the funding.” 37
  36. Wireframes 38
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  39. The Right Way to Wireframe 41 Shades of Gray The Right Way to Wireframe
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  42. Redesign Goals •  Improve overall ease of use. •  Improve image and identity. •  Target content to key audiences. •  Remove non-clickable bullets. •  Reduce number of clicks. Melanoma Home Page 1 NCI Home 3 2 Cancer Information Types of Cancer 44
  43. Findability Facts •  For every search on, there are over 100 cancer-related searches on public search engines. •  Of these searches, 70% are on specific types of cancer.45
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  45. 600,000 visitors 2.5 million page views 12.5% mobile, 50% annual growth rate
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  47. Project Overview Goals Develop a user-centered web strategy and an information architecture framework for Kresge. Process •  Analytics •  Expert Review •  User Research (6) •  Stakeholder Interviews (28) •  Comparative Analysis Deliverables •  Strategy Report •  Wireframes 52
  48. Report & Presentation Project Overview Research Highlights •  •  •  Users Stakeholders Expert Review Strategy Brief •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Web Strategy Information Architecture Content Strategy Social Media Multimedia Grants Database Online Application (Public) Search Engine Optimization Wireframes 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Home Program Focus Area About Us Search Next Steps Questions / Discussion 53
  49. Site Map Home Browse by Task & Topic Apply for a Grant Detroit Education Environment Blog Contact Us Community Development Our Funding Strategies News & Media Arts & Culture About Us Browse by Program Search Grants Database Library Health 54 Human Services
  50. Wireframes Search Arts & Culture Programs About Us Grants Library News & Media Community Development Detroit Education Search Search Search Term(s) arts Environment Pages •  Home •  Program •  Focus Area •  About Us •  Search Health Recommended Results Home > About Us Human Services About Us Quick Links Arts & Culture Program We seek to build vibrant communities enlivened by the presence of healthy arts and culture organizations and creative artists that together encourage participation in and support for all forms of cultural expression. About Us Programs Who We Are Mission & Values Our History Grants Library News & Media The Kresge Foundation is a $3.1 billion private, national Print | Share | Subscribe Apply for a Grant President's Corner Grants Database Rip Rapson A message from the president of The Kresge Foundation. foundation that seeks to influence the quality of life for future generations through its support of nonprofit organizations in six President's Corner fields of interest: health, the environment, community Our Headquarters Our Funding Methods Employment (Jobs) development, arts and culture, education and human services. 3215 West Big Beaver Road Troy, Michigan 48084 Employment (Jobs) Grants Library News & Media Print | Share | Subscribe Education Results 1-10 of 215 Board of Trustees Programs Home > Programs > Education Annual Report Kresge Staff Arts and Community Building | Arts & Culture Program | The Kresge Foundation Across the country, communities of all sizes are using the unique power of arts and culture to re-charge and re-build. But these efforts are not systematic, ... Maps & Directions What We Do Annual Report Programs Governance Our Green HQ Kresge Staff Grantee Spotlight Maps & Directions We are headquartered in metropolitan Detroit, in the suburb community of Troy, Michigan. In 2009, the Board of Trustees Board of Trustees approved 404 awards totaling $197 million; $167 million was Blog paid out to grantees over the course of the year. Facebook Committee Charters Code of Conduct (Staff) Code of Ethics (Trustees) Quick Facts Established in 1924 by Sebastian Spering Kresge. Recently expanded beyond signature challenge grant. Distributed $167 million to grantees in 2009. Fiscal year 2009 assets valued at $3.1 billion. News & Commentary Recent News | Blog Posts | Tweets Twitter High School-level Programs Raise Awareness of Occupational Health and Safety Risks for Young People YouTube Kresge Announces Strategy To Increase College Graduates in the U.S. Program Overview access and success in the following three focus areas: • Eligibility Calendar & Deadlines underrepresented students – especially low-income, first Recent Grants generation and African American, Latino and Native American Search 1 2 3 Blog Post: Positive Trends in Postsecondary Education More: News | Blog students – into two- and four-year institutions, and increase the Quick Links number of students who ultimately graduate. We are interested Apply for a Grant Stay Connected primarily in national, regional, or state- or consortium-based Education Blog efforts that serve large numbers of students. We make few, if Contact Us Blog any, grants to individual institutions or organizations for small- Facebook scale programs serving limited numbers of students. Library > Education Resources • Changing the Odds: Lessons Learned from the Kresge HBCU Initiative (PDF) Flickr Strengthening Institutions – To help increase the number of RSS college graduates in the United States, the Education Team Twitter works to build the capacity of postsecondary institutions that KnowHow2Go YouTube predominately serve low-income, underrepresented and first generation college students, particularly community colleges Search and minority-serving institutions, such as Historically Black Library Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-serving institutions and News & Media Tribal colleges and universities, Title III and Title V institutions, Community Development << Previous Detroit Grantee Spotlight: Oregon College of Art & Craft Pathways for Students – We seek to propel more Campus Green Builder Institutional Capitalization > What We Do > The Kresge Foundation The vitality of arts and cultural institutions and their capacity to serve the public are often threatened by weak finances. In assessing financial health, ... Programs Arts & Culture About Us Grants - Cached In 1924, Sebastian Spering Kresge established the foundation... New Strategy to Increase the Number of College Graduates The Education Program focuses its work on supporting postsecondary Application Process Area Arts and Culture Organizations To Benefit from $6 Million in ... “Arts and cultural organizations enrich the fabric of daily life, nurture individual development, strengthen communities and contribute to the regional ... More >> Program Overview Page Sections Human Services, Health, and Arts and Culture Organizations, Among ... Aug 25, 2009 ... Grants were made in Kresge's six fields of interest – human services, health, arts and culture, education, community development and the ... Kresge Awards $3 Million for the Health Clinic Opportunity Fund productivity and foster innovation in higher education. News & Commentary Kresge Community Arts Program Calls for Applications; $100000 in ... Jan 26, 2010 ... The Kresge Foundation is calling for applications for year-two of Kresge Community Arts, a national community arts and engagement project ... RSS Julian A. Haynes Program Associate students, and promoting systems and technology that increase South Africa New Program Promotes Art and Cultural Projects in Economically ... Jul 30, 2009 ... $600000 in grant funding from The Kresge Foundation will encourage city residents and organizations to use art and culture as a tool for ... Flickr Caroline Altman Smith Program Officer whose primary mission is to educate low-income and underrepresented Initiatives Arts and Culture Program Seeks Preliminary Applications for the ... Jul 30, 2010 ... The Kresge Foundation's Arts and Culture Program is inviting preliminary applications for its Facility Investments and Building Reserves ... Stay Connected Bylaws success. This is being accomplished by supporting pathways to and through college, building the capacity of postsecondary institutions Kresge Arts Support > What We Do > The Kresge Foundation Call for applications: Small and mid-size arts and cultural organizations in Wayne, Oakland and Macomb counties are invited to apply now for operating ... Our Funding Methods William F.L. Moses Program Director student access to higher education and avenues for their academic Productivity Kresge Announces New National Strategy for Arts and Culture ... Apr 19, 2010 ... The Kresge Foundation announces today a new national strategy for its Arts and Culture Program that fosters the long-term financial ... Financial Statements Education Program Team The Kresge Foundation focuses its Education Program on expanding Pathways for Students “A Different View of Detroit” > President's Corner > The Kresge ... ... of work within this category – strategies to improve the opportunities in Detroit's neighborhoods and to promote a robust arts and culture environment. ... Contact Us Glossary of Kresge Terms Focus Areas Strengthening Institutions Contact Us and special mission institutions. 4 5 Next >> ... Education Application Process About Us Programs Grants Library News & Media Environment Print | Share | Subscribe This section explains whether or not unsolicited applications are About Us Education: Pathways for Students Programs Grants Library Stay Connected Kresge Staff Arts & Culture Apply for a Grant Explore Our Library Blog Board of Trustees Home > Programs > Education > Pathways for Students Caveats •  Visual Design •  Starting Point Search About Us Kresge Arts in Detroit A three-part effort designed to support and develop individual artists, arts and cultural organizations and arts-infrastructure groups in metropolitan Detroit’s Wayne, Oakland and Macomb counties. Community Development Grants Database Annual Report Detroit The Kresge Glossary Health Human Services Focus Area Overview Application Process Eligibility Calendar & Deadlines propelling more students – especially low-income, first generation and President's Corner Education Recent News Twitter Media Contacts YouTube Maps & Directions Human Services Education Program Team William F.L. Moses Program Director African American, Latino and Native American students – into two- and four-year institutions, and increasing the number of students who Caroline Altman Smith Program Officer Apply for a Grant High School-level Programs Raise Awareness of Occupational Home | About Us | Programs | Grants | Library Health & Media | Site Map for Young People | News and Safety Risks | Contact Us Annual Report Kresge Awards $3 Million for the Health Clinic Opportunity Fund Apply for a Grant Education Blog Contact Us Employment (Jobs) • Kresge Grantees Launch Site on Climate-Change Adaptation Maps & Directions Call for Applications: $4.5 Million Available to Detroit-Area Arts and Cultural Organizations Many of our target students are the first in their families to attend Contact Us college, and their families are often intimidated by the potential costs of Who may apply? Kresge Announces Strategy To Increase College Graduates in the U.S. Focus Area Overview Quick Links Facebook More >> RSS & Email Twitter YouTube a college education and bewildered by the complexities of navigating the Focus Area Link (Optional) Focus Area Link (Optional) Focus Area Link (Optional) 501(c)(3) organizations based in the United States that are not classified as private foundations • Flickr International organizations that are the equivalent of a 501(c) ... Calendar & Deadlines This section presents dates and deadlines that apply to the whole program and/or links to dates and deadlines at the focus area or initiative level. financial aid and admissions process. Once accepted to college, and Library > Education Resources Eligibility Blog 3215 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084 President's Corner © The Kresge Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Julian A. Haynes Program Associate ... Stay Connected Recent News Grants Database Our Funding Methods ultimately graduate. Recent Grants links to the eligibility and deadline sections and the online application. RSS & Email Environment Quick Links Health Foundation Blog Employment (Jobs) The primary goal of improving postsecondary access and success is identify the focus area or initiative that fits their mission, and provides Flickr Our Funding Strategies Page Sections encouraged (by this program), recommends that prospective applicants Facebook News & Media ... despite often good high-school records, many students lack the skills to compete successfully in college-level courses. Recent Grants Studies show that nearly half of all community college students enroll in at least one developmental education course, typically in remedial math, View All Education Grants | Search Grants Database Focus Area Approved Pathways for Students $2,125,000 17 $125,000 Strengthening Institutions $2,750,000 20 $135,000 Productivity $475,050 5 $95,000 South Africa $465,075 3 $155,000 Number of Grants Average Grant reading or writing. Many students also juggle significant work and family responsibilities that complicate their ability to complete degrees. We seek to support networks of colleges, research organizations, community-based organizations, and two- and four-year colleges that are engaged primarily in increasing the numbers of underrepresented students entering and graduating from college by removing the barriers described above. Home | About Us | Programs | Grants | Library | News & Media | Site Map | Contact Us 3215 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084 © The Kresge Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Our goal is to fund programs that foster the following: • College readiness and/or increase awareness of and access to financial aid • About Us Programs Grants Library Stay Connected Kresge Staff Research and models on how to remove barriers to student Arts & Culture Apply for a Grant Explore Our Library Blog News & Media Flickr Recent News RSS & Email Board of Trustees Grants Database Detroit The Kresge Glossary President's Corner Education Our Funding Methods Environment Foundation Blog Twitter Employment (Jobs) Health Media Contacts YouTube Maps & Directions 55 Community Development Annual Report success ... Human Services Facebook Home | About Us | Programs | Grants | Library | News & Media | Site Map | Contact Us 3215 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084 © The Kresge Foundation. All Rights Reserved.
  51. Home Search Arts & Culture Programs About Us Grants Library News & Media •  Program Areas (7) •  Global Navigation •  Quick Links •  News •  Community Development Social Media •  Search •  Images + Interaction Detroit Education Environment Health Human Services Quick Links Apply for a Grant Grants Database Recent News Annual Report High School-level Programs Raise Awareness of Occupational Health and Safety Risks for Young People President's Corner Kresge Awards $3 Million for the Health Clinic Opportunity Fund Our Funding Methods Kresge Announces Strategy To Increase College Graduates in the U.S. Employment (Jobs) Kresge Grantees Launch Site on Climate-Change Adaptation Maps & Directions Call for Applications: $4.5 Million Available to Detroit-Area Arts and Cultural Organizations Stay Connected Contact Us Blog Facebook Flickr More >> RSS & Email Twitter YouTube Home | About Us | Programs | Grants | Library | News & Media | Site Map | Contact Us 3215 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084 © The Kresge Foundation. All Rights Reserved. 56
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  56. THINGS ON THE FRONT PAGE OF A UNIVERSITY WEBSITE Campus Photo Slideshow Press Releases Statement of the School's Philosophy Letter from the President Virtual Tour Faculty Phone Numbers & Emails Name of School Alumni in the News THINGS PEOPLE GO TO THE SITE LOOKING FOR Application Forms Faculty Profiles Department & Course Lists Course Registration Academic Calendar Parking Information Usable Campus Map Adapted from Campus Address
  57. Artifacts Visible organizational structures and processes (hard to decipher) Espoused Values Strategies, goals, philosophies, justifications Underlying Assumptions Unconscious, taken for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, feelings (source of values, action) Three Levels of Culture 62
  58. It is difficult to overstate the extent to which most managers and the people who advise them believe in the redemptive power of rewards. Rewards undermine the processes they are intended to enhance. Extrinsic motivators do not alter the attitudes underlying behaviors. People who do exceptional work may be glad to be paid and even more glad to be well paid, but they do not work to collect a paycheck. They work because they love what they do. Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work by Alfie Kohn (1993) 63
  59. The building of the railroads (and the telegraph system) made possible this growth of the great industrial enterprise (from about 1850 to 1950). “The need (for divisionalization and decentralization) did not result from the larger size of the enterprise per se. It came rather from the increasing diversity and complexity of decisions that senior managers had to make.” Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (1962) 64
  60. BIG GOVERNANCE little local governance 65
  61. “Customers are adopting disruptive technologies faster than companies can adapt.” “The individuals who make up the company must be fully conscious of the job that they are doing for customers… (and of) the jobs customers are trying to do.” 66
  62. Pods Small, agile, autonomous teams that are “authorized to represent the company and deliver results to customers.” Pods are flexible, fast, scalable, and resilient. Pods are designed so that decisions and changes can be made as quickly and as close to customers as possible. 67
  63. “A platform is a government.” “When it comes to language, protocols, culture, and values, you don’t want variability, you want consistency.” “Backbone activities are about coordination and consistency. Backbones should be as lightweight as possible.” 68
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  66. Systems thinking looks at relationships (rather than unrelated objects), connectedness, process (rather than structure), the whole (rather than just its parts), the patterns (rather than the contents) of a system, and context. Thinking systematically also requires several shifts in perception, which lead in turn to different ways to teach, and different ways to organize society 71
  67. “There is a problem in discussing systems only with words. Words and sentences must, by necessity, come only one a time in linear, logical order. Systems happen all at once. They are connected not just in one direction, but in many directions simultaneously. To discuss them properly, it is necessary to use a language that shares some of the same properties as the phenomena under discussion.”
  68. “If a factory is torn down but the rationality which produced it is left standing, then that rationality will simply produce another factory. If a revolution destroys a government, but the systematic patterns of thought that produced that government are left intact, then those patterns will repeat themselves… There’s so much talk about the system. And so little understanding.” 73
  69. “The system always kicks back.” 74
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  73. Fragmentation Fragmentation into multiple sites, domains, and identities is clearly a major problem. Users don’t know which site to visit for which purpose. Findability Users can’t find what they need from the home page, but most users don’t come through the front door. They enter via a web search or a deep link, and are confused by what they find. Even worse, most never use the Library, because its resources aren’t easily findable.
  74. Web Strategy Web 1.  One Library 2.  Core Areas Online Onsite Library Congress (about/for) National Library Copyright Hierarchy 3.  Network Intelligence top-down + Network bottom-up 80
  75. Experience Across Channels Search for Resources Check Reading Room Hours Get Directions Review Resources Read & Synthesize Continue Research Request Assistance Catalog Website Website Reading Room Notes & Copies Catalog Website Researcher Desktop Take Notes Laptop Make Copies Mobile Ask for Help Phone Library Librarian 81 Ask a Librarian
  76. Roadmap 1 2 3 82
  77. Wireframes Library of Congress myLOC | Marti Janes | Sign Out Library of Congress Set by Jen Brown Your Search: Women's Suffrage (Set) Comments (7) Refine Your Search Available Online (625) Search ? GO This Set New Search - Interfaces •  Portal •  Search •  Object •  Set •  Page Caveats •  Visual Design •  Starting Point Print | Save | Share | Subscribe | Add to Set | Rights & Access | Ask a Librarian Search Search GO All Categories Newspapers/Magazines (122) Additional Items/Views - The Gettysburg Address (Web Guide) Online guide to primary documents. Includes selected bibliography and links to external web sites. Format, Online Results page 1 of 78,810 results Images (545) Social Sciences (1) + Source Show All - Subject History, United States (35,724) Lincoln, Abraham (18,545) Bain Collection (41,450) No description available. Relevance The Gettysburg Address 2010, Collection Of the five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address, the Library of Congress has two. President Lincoln gave one of these to ... Collections Suffrage for women 1871, Book (Full Text, Image), by John Stuart Mill + Author / Creator Sort by Video (25) View All (3) Three women attaching "Votes for women" poster to telephone pole; beach in background. Display List | Gallery | Grid | Slide | Map | Timeline Print | Save | Share | Subscribe | Add to Set | Ask a Librarian Audio (27) Suffrage campaign days in New Jersey Between 1914-1920, Photograph Government, Politics & Law (1) The Abraham Lincoln Papers Roughly 20,000 documents including an online collection of 61,000 images and 10,000 transcriptions. Show All sources sent to the White House regarding the use of President ... Subject The Gettysburg Address Multimedia exhibition featuring the key documents linked to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Maps (135) Penn[sylvania] on the picket line 1917, Photograph (Image) A mix of letters, telegrams, and sample advertisements from various American History (1) Search Tips | Advanced Search Recommended Manuscripts (337) Custom Sort Meade School, Gettysburg Format, Online Images (1) Within Results Photographs (664) GO All Categories Format, Original Books (2,632) Search Tips | Advanced Search Library of Map | Timeline Display List | Gallery | Grid | Slide |Congress Results page 1 of 3 results Books (1) - Within Results Search Tips | Advanced | myLOC | Marti Janes | Sign Out Format, Original Photographs (2) - ? New Search Refine Your Search Available Online (1) myLOC | Sign In | Register Your Search: gettysburg Women's Suffrage Gettysburg Address: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual ... 2009, Collection Gettysburg Address: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Services and Programs, Digital Reference Section, Library of Congress) Maps & Geography (2,105) Show All Civil War Soldiers (785) - Related Resources Source Images for gettysburg Online Catalog (2,668) Browse neighboring items (by call number) Check for online group record Abraham Lincoln Papers (1,701) Congress/Legislative (6) Show All Similar Items Print | Save | Share | Subscribe | Add to Set | All Sizes | Obtain Copies | Rights & Access | Ask a Librarian Library of Congress myLOC | Marti Janes | Sign Out Access Collection - About the Collection Introductory Presentation Title: Meade School, Gettysburg Guide to People, Organizations, Author/Creator: Bain News Service publisher and Topics Date Created/Published: [between 1900 and 1906] Bibliography Selected Library Collection Connections Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Show All Spanish / Español (21) of Congress Quick Links Working with the Collection About the Library Search Sets The National Library - of Set #1 (95) the United States of America Set #2 (335) Set #3 (82) Show All - Show All BobMeade says: - Gettysburg--A battlefield tour 1988, Moving Image or Slide/Transparency (Video), produced by Finley ... Hours + LC Classification On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a short speech at the close of ceremonies dedicating the battlefield cemetery ... Ask a Librarian + Rights & Permissions Preservation of Lincoln's Two Drafts - The Gettysburg Address ... Highlights > 2008, Set In order to assure the long-term preservation of the two drafts of Lincoln's - Set Celebrate the Joy of Reading Gettysburg Address (137) Wise Guide to Battlefield Photos (120) Webcasts from the Library Lincoln Manuscripts (95) Gettysburg Address in the Library of Congress collections ... The Gettysburg campaign; a study in command. 1968, Book, by Edwin B. Coddington Show All News > xviii, 866 p. illus., facsim., plans, ports. 24 cm. Look Inside: Page: 1, 2, 5, View All December Film Series - Tag Paulbattle (137) Awarded McCartney Gershwin Prize address (120) The Gettysburg Address battlefield (95) The LOC.GOV Wise Guide : Turning Point of the Civil War ... 2007, Collection The battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) is considered the turning point of the Civil War. Gen. Robert E. Lee's defeat by the Army of the ... Show All Popular > SEARCH SHARE VISIT Related Searches 1. 2. The Constitution 4. Civil War 5. Frieze Patterns 6. gettysburg facts gettysburg ghosts antietam Native Americans 9. Slave Narratives 2 3 4 5 Next Abraham Lincoln 8. 1 Barack Obama 7. Exhibitions > Connect Find us on Exploring the Early Americas Creating the United States 10. John Hanson Subscribe & Comment Download & Play Questions RSS & Email | Blogs Podcasts | Webcasts | iTunes U Ask a Librarian | Contact Us Library of Congress Thanks for your comments. We'll incorporate the date and other info. noticed on the neg. next time we update. About the Library Find Was this reply helpful? us on Yes Subscribe & Comment Report this Download & Play RSS & Email | Blogs No Podcasts | Webcasts | iTunes U Programs & Services Our Collection Browse by Topic The Library's Mission Connect Copyright Search Arts & Culture Congress/Legislative Library Catalogs Business Collections Engineering History of the Library Questions Fascinating Facts Ask a Librarian | Contact Us Pixel Wrangler says: Center for the Book Exhibits Hours Home | About | FAQ | Site Map | Contact | Press | Accessibility | Legal | Meade School was named to honor General George Gordon Meade who directed the Union army in one of its greatest battles, defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg. A Service of the Library of Congress John W. Kluge Center Maps, Directions, Floor Plans Law Library Browse by Format Library Tours Veterans History Project Audio World Digital Library Books Calendar of Events The monument at the left of the photograph (above) is the 26th Pennsylvania Emergency Infantry Monument. A monument to General Meade is located at the nearby battlefield: Shop the Library All Programs & Services A-Z Support the Library Popular Offices & Divisions "Gen. Meade - Gettysburg (LOC)" by William H. Tipton Organization of the Library 1. Civil War 2. Great Depression Press Room Yes No Report this 4. Thomas Jefferson Jobs & Fellowships Was this comment helpful? 3. The Constitution News & Highlights Posted 7 months ago. ( permalink ) gettysburg pictures gettysburg college gettysburg confederate Thomas Jefferson Name (e.g., Famous People) gettysburg address battle of gettysburg gettysburg civil war Great Depression 3. Anne (LOC P&P) says: Posted 7 months ago. ( permalink ) 2010, Collection On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a short speech at the close of ceremonies dedicating the battlefield cemetery ... Geography & Map (109) Library Tours Show All Maps, Directions, Floor Plans Language Collections > Today in History: November 19 Library Location Jefferson or Adams (5,102) Visit the Library > Location (e.g., California) Did view Know? > This building is certainly still there, as this Google maps aerial You shows at the intersection of American Folklife Springs Aveneu and Buford Avenue: hl=en&... Did you know that the The Civil War Pilgrims weren't the first to The Declaration of Independence Yes No Posted 8 months ago. ( permalink ) Was this reply helpful? celebrate Thanksgiving? Report this GO Search Tips | Advanced Search Date Teachers Images in Prosperity and Thrift Subject Please note that the Nicolay and Hay versions of the Gettysburg Address differ somewhat from the generally printed Bliss version.) ... Washington DC, US (21) Author Science Public Selling Mrs. ConsumerThis says "Meade School" at lower left. It's the Meade High School in Gettysburg, which opened in 1897. Social Science Librarians 1929, Manuscript (Full I don't know ifby Christine Frederick Text, Image), it's still in use. Sports & Recreation Publishers Selling Mrs. Consumer analyzes the relationship between women and Yes No Posted 9 author, Christine Frederick,Reply a ... Was this commentResearchers helpful? Report this World Culture the consumer economy. The months ago. ( permalink ) was Transcript of the HayDraft - The Gettysburg Address (Library of ... 2010, Collection myLOC | Sign In | Register Geographic Location New York, US (35) All Show Categories All (76) | Add to Set Calendar of Events How to View Each Format Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Date from similar Detroit How to Order Copies Hours & Locations Tags Publishing Co. negative: LC-D4-16-16583. the Digital Collection Building Jobs & Fellowships Spotlight Copyright and Other Restrictions On negative: Meade Sq., Gettysburg. Library of Congress Library Catalogs Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (LibraryShop the Library of Congress). Gettysburg 1913 General information about the Bain Collection is available at Browse by Support the Library About the Collection Meade Visit the Library Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, Temp. note: Batch three loaded. Subject Index 1921-1929 assembles a Civil War wide array of Library of Congress source materials from the Subjects: document the 1920s that Contact Us Great Reunion Title Index widespread prosperity of the Coolidge years, the nation's transition toGettysburg a mass consumer architecture battlefield economy, and the role of government in this transition. The collection includes... Read more Format, Original: Programs & Services > Topics General George Gordon Meade View All Formats > Glass negatives George Gordon Meade Congress Format, Online: Arts & Culture Audio Your Search: Prosperity and Thrift (Collection) Comments (5) Schools Current and historical Image (2592 x 1936) Business Meade School Books legislative information. Engineering Images Collections: Pennsylvania Refine Your Search This Collection GO Search Geography Detroit Photographic Co. Manuscripts Bain Collection, Civil War Soliders Copyright Available Online (125) ? 26th Pennsylvania Emergency Government Maps Bookmark This Record: Results New Search Within Search Tips | Advanced Search Services and information from Infantry Monument Health Newspapers the U.S. Copyright Office. Monuments - Format, Original History, International Photographs Results page 1 of 455 results Display List | Gallery | Grid | Slide | Map | Timeline Photographs (194) Center for the Book Show machine tags (2) History, United States Poetry View a Comment Relevance Add Add to Set | Rights & this item. Print | Save | Share | Subscribe | the MARC Record for Access | Ask a Librarian Manuscripts (87) John W. Kluge Center Journalism Prints/Posters Add a Tag Maps (35) Law Library Law & Legislation Sheet Music Newspapers/Magazines (22) Veterans History Project Calvin Coolidge Papers. Advertisement Exploitation Literature Video/Films Books (19) World Digital Library 1923-1928, Set Philosophy Show All A mix of letters, telegrams, and sample advertisements from various Psychology Explore By sources sent to the White House regarding the use of President ... Especially For... rjones0856 says: Religion Format, Online 1935, Non-Music Recording (Audio), performed by Raymond Massey Linguaphone 76743/744 (78A). 1 sound disc : 78 rpm, mono ; 10-inch, standard (shellac). Language English (35) Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Video (25) known of the five drafts of what may be the most famous ... Raymond Massey reading Lincoln's Gettysburg Address - Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-13836 (digital file from original negative) Audio (27) First Draft of Gettysburg Address (Nicolay Copy) 1863, Manucript (Image) Top Treasure (First Draft of Gettysburg Address). Seen here is the earliest 1800s (21) Add a Tag Viewed 2,745 times Collection Details Images (85) describes the dedication of the cemetery to the fallen soldiers by ... Date Statistics About - Story of the Gettysburg address 1969, Book, by Kenneth Richards, illustrated by Tom Dunnington Traces the events which led to the Battle of Gettysburg in 1864 and Show All 1900s (35) Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1929 Notes: Author / Creator U.S. Congress (10) Gallagher, Gary W. (11) Show All (35) Online - Image (2592 x 1936) Prints and Photographs Division (Available) -- Map & Directions, Floor Plan Search for This Item at Libraries Near You Call Number: LC-B2- 2789-5 [P&P] - Similar Item #1 Similar Item #2 Similar Item #3 Similar Item #4 Similar Item #5 5. 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  78. “Give me a fulcrum and a place to stand, and I will move the world.” —Archimedes Portal Dis ut o Ab Brand Paths Patterns Incentives co ve ry Users Find Search Ask Objects Federated Faceted Fast Goal Gateway Collection Browse Findable Social 84
  79. 85
  80. Faceted Metadata Drives Search + Browse 86 86
  81. Where architects use forms and spaces to design environments for inhabitation, information architects use nodes and links to create environments for understanding. Jorge Arango, Architectures 87
  82. Process & Deliverables Projects 1.  National Library ( 2.  Legislative ( 3.  Copyright ( Discovery •  •  •  Users Stakeholders Content & Context Deliverables •  •  •  Web Strategy Information Architecture Roadmap Working Groups •  •  •  •  Search Content Metadata Governance Timeline •  •  •  •  Evaluation (3 months, 2009) Web Strategy (3 months, 2010) IA (12 months, 2011) Design/Build (ongoing, 2011-) 88
  83. Web Governance Board 89
  84. 90
  85. Design for Discovery “Search is among the most disruptive innovations of our time. It influences what we buy and where we go. It shapes how we learn and what we believe.” Search Patterns Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender 91
  86. Most of the complaints we get are due to the way users search; they use the wrong keywords. t's ght. I t's Ri Tha rs! Yeah. d Use Stupi e thos 92
  87. Marcia Bates: Berrypicking, Evolving Search (1989) 93
  88. Search is a… Complex, Adaptive System Goals Psychology Behavior Interaction Affordances Language Features Technology Algorithms Indexing Structure Metadata Tools Process Incentives Interface Query Results Engine Content Users Source: Search Patterns (2010) Creators 94
  89. Principles of Design Incremental Construction Progressive Disclosure Immediate Response Predictability Alternate Views Recognition Over Recall Minimal Disruption Direct Manipulation Context of Use User Information Interface 95
  90. Incremental Construction Progressive Disclosure one step at a time… more within reach… 96
  91. Search Pers on aliza ti on Ask Push Pull Browse 97
  92. 98
  93. Realtime Search 99
  94. Mobile Search 100
  95. Kiosk Search 101
  96. 102
  97. Behavior Patterns Quit Query Results Thrashing Query Results Narrow Query Results Results Pearl Growing Document Results Expand Query Results Results 103
  98. Design Patterns Auto-Complete Federated Search Query Results Qu... Results Destination Suggestions Best First Faceted Navigation Query Results Query Advanced Search Results Structured Results AND Results Query Map OR NOT 104 Results
  99. Auto-Complete Qu... Results Destination Suggestions Because typing (and typos) take time. 105
  100. 106
  101. Best First Query Results In search, results must be simple, fast, and relevant. 107
  102. 43% 15% 10% 5% Source: 108 Marti Hearst’s Search User Interfaces (2009)
  103. 109
  104. 110
  105. 111
  106. Federated Search Query Results Because users don’t know where to 112 look.
  107. 113
  108. 114
  109. Faceted Navigation Query Results Results Multiple ways to search (and browse) in combination. 115
  110. "laptop" > $910 - $1070 > Hewlett Packard > At least 1 GB > 14 - 15 Inch > Bluetooth > 4 - 5 lbs 116
  111. 117
  112. 118
  113. 119
  114. Structured Results 120
  115. Actionable Results 121
  116. 122
  117. Redefining Search 123
  118. Question Answering 124
  119. Decision Making 125
  120. Pattern Recognition 126
  121. Understanding 127
  122. What We Search 128
  123. How We Search 129
  124. 130
  125. 131
  126. Library Portal Survey According to a survey of students, faculty, and staff, search and discovery is the #1 problem. “I think it’s better to have everything in one searching system than parceled out into different ones.” “The search is not very smart. You get thousands of seemingly unrelated responses.” “(We need) better discovery tools that integrate electronic articles with books and manuscripts.” “(The Library should) prioritize search over all else.” 132
  127. Regardless of all the time and effort libraries put into providing a variety of research tools and resources on their websites, the literature suggests that students still prefer to start their research using Google or some other form of search engine. It is clear that there is an overwhelming preference for easy to use, familiar search tools that transcend education level, discipline of study, and student demographics. Discovery Layers and the Distance Student Jessica Mussell (2012) 133
  128. Google Scholar Strengths •  Fast, easy, familiar •  Cross-disciplinary searching •  Links to citing and related articles Weaknesses •  No “advanced search” functionality •  Limited, inaccurate metadata •  Inconsistent coverage across disciplines •  No transparency (coverage, algorithms, usage, monetization) •  Not customizable or interoperable 134
  129. Information Literacy Employers claimed that college hires rarely conducted the thorough research required of them in the workplace. At worst, some college hires solved problems with a lightning quick Google search, a scan of the first couple of pages of results, and a linear answer finding approach. “I had new graduate hire who only searched for papers on Google. I said, you’re missing things, you need to use PubMed, and he responded, ‘Well, I did this quick search, and that’s what I got.’ But that's not good enough.” Project Information Literacy: Learning Curve by Alison J. Head (2012) 135
  130. Percent of faculty rating these roles of the library as important. Key Strategic Insights for Libraries, Publishers, and Societies by Roger C. Schonfeld (2010) 136
  131. 137 Federated “Bento Box” NCSU Stanford Dartmouth Virginia Columbia
  132. 138 Aggregated “Faceted” Cornell Duke McGill Northwestern U. Washington
  133. Gross and Sheridan conducted a usability study that examined how Summon (“web-scale discovery”) was used for common library search tasks. Summon was positioned as the primary search box on the library’s home page for the study. They found that the single search box was employed for 80% of the assigned tasks. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013) 139
  134. Use of full-text online content dramatically increased in the year following implementation. Librarians found they could focus instruction less on choosing a database or catalog and more on refining a search, research as an iterative process, and other high level search skills. The Impact of Serial Solutions’ Summon on Information Literacy Instruction Stephanie Buck and Margaret Mellinger (2011) 140
  135. The search box became an obstacle in… questions where it should not have been used. The search box was viewed as an allencompassing search of the entire site. Students searched for administrative information, research guides, and podcasts. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013) 141
  136. 142
  137. 143
  138. Adaptive Facets 144
  139. Home Advanced Search Refine Your Search Help House Senate Government Advanced Search News A-Z Index Interface: Graphic | Command Line - Congress All Title health care OR Full Text "mental health" or therapy AND Representative (Sponsor) Any House Member Abercrombie, Neil [D-HI] (99th, 102nd-111th) Ackerman, Gary L. [D-NY] (98th-112th) Adams, Sandy [R-FL] (112th) NOT House Committees Appropriations AND Subject Term health AND Select [1973-2012] X 112th [2011-2012] X 111th [2009-2010] 110th [2007-2008] Show All - Source All Sources X LIS X Bills / Amendments X Committee Reports X Congressional Record X Executive Communications CRS Reports Library of Congress Show All Show 07 Rows SEARCH Clear Form 145
  140. Origin Google Google Scholar Search as a Service Source Catalog (Owned) Databases (Licensed) Library Portal Apps via API University Website Institutional Repository Individual Library HathiTrust (Shared Repository) Borrow Direct (Ivy League) Subject (LibGuide) Faculty (Profile, Publications) Course (Course Pack, LMS) WorldCat (Libraries Worldwide) Web (Free, Fee) Portal (Library Facilities, Services) * source may be path or destination Resource (Article, Book) 146
  141. 63% didn’t use any Internet resources, other than the Guide, to complete their assignment. Embedding LibGuides into Course Management Systems Stephanie Brown (2012) Search GO History of Science: Nature on Display Embeddable Search Widget 147
  142. Recommendation Develop a universal search and discovery service that improves access to local and remote sources from multiple points of origin. •  User Interface (usability AND information literacy). •  Platform (multi-level, embeddable search widget, API). •  Technology (customize, interoperable, open source). •  Roadmap (search, content, metadata, governance). 148
  143. Big Opportunities Unified Search & Discovery Information Literacy (Research Skills, Embedding) Cross-Channel Design (Physical / Digital) Library as Place (Collaboratory, Knowledge Creation) Library as Platform (Open Access, Open Source, MOOCs) 149
  144. 150
  145. “Information is blurring the lines between products and services to create multi-channel, cross-platform, transmedia, physico-digital user experiences.” Peter Morville 32,000 B.C. Visual Thinking I n t e rt w i n g l e 1976 Information Architecture 1995 User Experience 1982 Service Design 2005 Ubiquitous Computing 1986 Interaction Design “People keep pretending they can make things deeply hierarchical, categorizable, and sequential when they can’t. Everything is deeply intertwingled.” Ted Nelson 151
  146. World’s Best Information Architect Source: Subject to Change (2008) 152
  147. 154
  148. “Collaborative Consumption describes the rapid explosion in traditional sharing, bartering, lending, trading, renting, gifting, and swapping reinvented through network technologies on a scale and in ways never possible before.” 155
  149. 156
  150. My Shelf 157
  151. Sensors •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Location (GPS) Orientation (Compass) Motion (Accelerometer) Orientation/Motion (Gyroscope) Touch (Multi-Touch, Gestural) Light (Ambient) Proximity Device (Bluetooth) Audio (Microphone) Image/Video (Camera) Biometrics (Fingerprint) 158
  152. 159
  153. “After a half-hour, a three-tone alert sounds…If the bottle still has not been opened, the system makes an automated reminder phone call to the patient or a caregiver. The GlowCap system compiles adherence data which anyone can be authorized to track. That way the doctor can make sure Gramps stays on his meds.” 160
  154. 161
  155. find·a·bil·i·ty n The quality of being locatable or navigable. The degree to which an object is easy to discover or locate. The degree to which a system or environment supports wayfinding, navigation, and retrieval. am·bi·ent adj Surrounding; encircling; enveloping (e.g., ambient air) the ability to find anyone or anything from anywhere at anytime 162
  156. David Rose 163
  157. 164
  158. BrainPort Camera in glasses captures video. Image recreated on grid of 400 electrodes. User feels the shape on the tongue. Brain learns to see through the tongue. 165
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  165. Product Packaging Print Catalog Call Center Website Blog Facebook Twitter YouTube Email Direct Mail Radio Television Channel Web Social Media Email Messaging Telephone Print Device Desktop Laptop Mobile Tablet Television Kiosk Media Book Newspaper Magazine Video Audio Poster Billboard Platform Web iOS Android Mac OS X MS Windows Scale Covert Mobile Personal Environmental Architectural Urban Context Home Work Walking Driving Shopping Plane Party Personal Social Location Time Task 172
  166. 173
  168. Multi-Channel Cross-Channel SERVICE SERVICE + + Adapted from Cross-Platform Service User Experience 175
  169. Today’s “service systems” may include interrelated sub-systems (e.g., person-to-person, self-service) across multiple locations, devices, and channels; and customer satisfaction is “influenced by the extent of integration and consistency” across those channels. Bridging the “Front Stage” and “Back Stage” in Service System Design by Robert J. Glushko and Lindsay Tabas 176
  170. Craft beautiful designs that deliver a quality experience to your users no matter how large (or small) their display. 1.  Fluid Grids 2.  Flexible Images 3.  Media Queries 177
  171. 178
  172. Why Separate Mobile & Desktop Web Pages at Bagcheck? With a dual template system, we were able to optimize: 1.  2.  3.  4.  Source Order Media (Speed, Quality, Interaction) URL Structure Application Design Navigation at Top Navigation at Bottom 179
  173. Mobile Source: Mobile First (2011) by Luke Wroblewski 180
  174. Source: Mobile First (2011) by Luke Wroblewski 181
  175. 182
  176. 183
  177. Transmedia Design by Jakob Nielsen “The highest-value use will stay predominantly on desktop.” PC Big Screens Better Input Devices Faster Bandwidth Hardware Oomph Software Maturity Printing Mobile “The best computer is the one you have with you.” “Most companies must support both device classes …with separate UI designs.” 184
  178. To make the right decisions about composition and consistency, you need a cross-channel strategy. 185
  179. Email Web Store Catalog Content Creators 186 Phone
  180. Over 50% of REI online business is picked up in a store. 187
  181. 188
  182. 189
  183. Barcode Identifies a Product (e.g. Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes 14 oz.) QR Code Initiates a Response (e.g., URL, Message, Phone, SMS, Email) 190
  184. Price Check Product Detail Endless Aisle 192
  185. Continuity 193
  186. Conflict 194
  187. Context 195
  188. 196
  189. 197
  190. 198
  191. Source: 199
  192. Mental Models Tasks Features 200
  193. 201
  194. Cross-Channel We must leave our comfort zones, cross-train, and collaborate. Marathon Triathlon 202
  195. What is Information Architecture? 203
  197. 205
  198. Peter Morville Understanding IA (Prezi) Blog Twitter @morville 206