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Enterprise Search
                 An Information Architect’s Perspective




Peter Morville, SLA 2012                      1
2
3
4
6
Marcia Bates: Berrypicking, Evolving Search (1989)
                                          7
Search is a…
       Complex, Adaptive System




Source: Search Patterns (2010)    8
Principles of Design
Incremental Construction
Progressive Disclosure
Immediate Response
Predictability
Alternate Views
Recognition Over Recall
Minimal Disruption
Direct Manipulation
Context of Use

                           9
Incremental Construction   Progressive Disclosure
one step at a time…        more within reach…
                                            10
Immediate Response        Predictability
flow requires feedback…   feed-forward features and results…
                                            11
12
Realtime Search




                  14
Mobile Search




                15
Kiosk Search




               16
There is one timeless way of building.
   It is thousands of years old, and the same
   today as it has always been.
   The great traditional buildings of the past,
   the villages and tents and temples in
   which man feels at home, have always
   been made by people who were very close
   to the center of this way.
   It is not possible to make great buildings,
   or great towns, beautiful places, places
   where you feel yourself, places where you
   feel alive, except by following this way.
   And, as you will see, this way will lead
   anyone who looks for it to buildings
   which are themselves as ancient in
   their form, as the trees and hills,
   and as our faces are.


The Timeless Way of Building
   Christopher Alexander
                                                  17
Window Place (180)

   Everybody loves window seats,
   bay windows, and big windows
   with low sills and comfortable
   chairs drawn up to them.

May be part of:
• Entrance Room(130)
• Zen View(134)
• Light on Two Sides(159)
• Street Windows(164)

May contain:
• Alcoves(179)
• Low Sill(222)
• Built-In Seats(202)
• Deep Reveals(223)

A Pattern Language
   Christopher Alexander et al.     18
19
Behavior Patterns




                    20
22
Because typing (and typos) take time.
23
Auto-Complete   Auto-Suggest




                          24
25
In search, results must be simple, fast, and relevant.
43%

15%

10%

5%




      26 Marti Hearst’s
      Source:
      Search User Interfaces (2009)
27
28
29
30
31
Because users don’t know where to 32
                                  look.
33
34
35
36
37
Multiple ways to search (and browse) in combination.
"laptop" > $910 - $1070 > Hewlett Packard > At least 1 GB >
14 - 15 Inch > Bluetooth > 4 - 5 lbs




                                                          38
39
40
41
42
Structured Results




                     43
Actionable Results




                     44
45
Redefining Search




                    46
Question Answering




                     47
Decision Making




                  48
Pattern Recognition




                      49
Understanding




                50
What We Search




                 51
How We Search




                52
53
find·a·bil·i·tyn
                  The quality of being locatable or
                  navigable.

                  The degree to which an object is
                  easy to discover or locate.

                  The degree to which a system or
                  environment supports wayfinding,
                  navigation, and retrieval.
              am·bi·entadj
                    Surrounding; encircling;
                    enveloping (e.g., ambient air)
the ability to find anyone or anything
     from anywhere at anytime
                                     54
Polar Bear IA

    in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•turen.

    •   The structural design of shared
        information environments.

    •   The combination of organization,
        labeling, search, and navigation
        systems in web sites and intranets.

    •   The art and science of shaping
        information products and experiences
        to support usability and findability.

    •   An emerging discipline and
        community of practice focused on
        bringing principles of design and
        architecture to the digital landscape.

                           55
Fragmentation
  Fragmentation into multiple
  sites, domains, and identities is
  clearly a major problem. Users
  don’t know which site to visit
  for which purpose.


Findability
  Users can’t find what they need
  from the home page, but most
  users don’t come through the
  front door. They enter via a web
  search or a deep link, and are
  confused by what they find.
  Even worse, most never use the
  Library, because its resources
  aren’t easily findable.
Web Strategy


1. One Library




2. Core Areas




3. Network Intelligence


                                59
61
62
Where architects use
forms and spaces to design
environments for inhabitation,
information architects use
nodes and links to create
environments for understanding.
Jorge Arango, Architectures




              63
64
“Desire Lines”                              65
Photo: Berkeley Path Gallery by Kevin Fox
66
67
68
Modes of Information Seeking
                 Marcia Bates, UCLA (2002)




“We absorb perhaps 80 percent of all our knowledge through
simply being aware in our social context and physical
environment.”
                                                    69
Experiences Across Channels
World’s Best
                                   Information Architect




Source: Subject to Change (2008)
                                       72
74
Desktop




                       Mobile



Kiosk
                  75
Sensors

•   Location (GPS)
•   Orientation (Compass)
•   Motion (Accelerometer)
•   Orientation/Motion (Gyroscope)
•   Touch (Multi-Touch, Gestural)
•   Light (Ambient)
•   Proximity
•   Device (Bluetooth)
•   Audio (Microphone)
•   Image/Video (Camera)
•   RFID (Soon)
                                     76
77
“After a half-hour, a three-tone alert sounds…If the
bottle still has not been opened, the system makes an
automated reminder phone call to the patient or a
caregiver. The GlowCap system compiles adherence data
which anyone can be authorized to track. That way the
doctor can make sure Gramps stays on his meds.”
                                           78
79
80
81
BrainPort

  Camera in glasses
  captures video.

  Image recreated on
  grid of 400 electrodes.

  User feels the shape
  on the tongue.

  Brain learns to see
  through the tongue.
     82
Touchpoint Taxonomy                      Media
                                                         Book
                Channel               Platform           Newspaper
                Web                   Web                Magazine
Product         Social Media          iOS                Video
Packaging       Email                 Android            Audio
Print Catalog   Messaging                                Poster
                                      Mac OS X           Billboard
                Telephone
Call Center     Print
                                      MS Windows
Website
Blog                                               Context
Facebook                                           Home
Twitter                                            Work
                                                   Walking
YouTube         Device                             Driving
Email           Desktop                            Shopping
Direct Mail     Laptop
                               Scale
                                                   Plane
Radio           Mobile                             Party
                               Covert
                Tablet                             Personal
Television      Television
                               Mobile
                                                   Social
                               Personal
                Kiosk                              Location
                               Environmental
                                                   Time
                               Architectural
                                                   Task
                               Urban
                                                 83
Design Principles




                    84
Cross-Channel Strategy
                      http://findability.org/archives/000652.php



Composition         multi- or cross-channel; mix of
     platforms, devices, media; coherence

Consistency          brand, features, organization, interaction
                     balanced against value of optimization

Connection           links, tags, signs, maps; call to action

Continuity           bookmark, resume playback, flow
Context              personal, social, location, time, task

Conflict                                           85
                     identify/resolve, org chart, free-riding
Adapted from Cross-Platform Service User Experience
          portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1851637   86
Craft beautiful designs that deliver a quality experience
to your users no matter how large (or small) their display.
    1. Fluid Grids
    2. Flexible Images
    3. Media Queries




                                       87
88
Why Separate Mobile & Desktop Web Pages at Bagcheck?
                With a dual template system, we were able to optimize:
                   1.   Source Order
                   2.   Media (Speed, Quality, Interaction)
                   3.   URL Structure                              Navigation
                   4.   Application Design                         at Top




Navigation at
     Bottom




                                                              89
To make the right decisions about composition and
consistency, you need a cross-channel strategy.


                                      90
Design for Connection




          91
Over 50% of REI
online business is
picked up in a store.


            92
93
94
Barcode
Identifies a Product (e.g. Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes 14 oz.)




QR Code
Initiates a Response (e.g., URL, Message, Phone, SMS, Email)




                                                               95
Price Check
Product Detail
Endless Aisle    97
Continuity




             98
Conflict




           99
Context




          100
Cross-Channel
   We must leave our
               Marathon
comfort zones, cross-train,
    and collaborate.




               Triathlon      101
102
103
Source:delightability.com




                            104
105
morville@semanticstudios.com




                   106
morville@semanticstudios.com
UX Swimlanes




                                  107
108
morville@semanticstudios.com




                   109
110
What architects do for
buildings, information architects do
for…
112
“There is a problem in discussing systems only
with words. Words and sentences must, by
necessity, come only one a time in linear, logical
order. Systems happen all at once. They are
connected not just in one direction, but in many
directions simultaneously. To discuss them
properly, it is necessary to use a language that
shares some of the same properties as the
phenomena under discussion.”
"In an era of cross-channel
experiences and product-service
systems, it makes less and less
sense to design sitemaps and
wireframes without also..."
“…mapping the customer journey, modeling the system dynamics, and
analyzing impacts upon business processes, incentives, and the org chart."
116
117
morville@semanticstudios.com




Richard Saul Wurman’s Sandcastles (1971). Stolen from The Nature of IA by Dan Klyn (2010).
IA Therefore I Am
Peter Morville
morville@semanticstudios.com

Understanding IA (Prezi)
http://is.gd/iaprezi

Blog
http://findability.org/

Twitter
@morville
                           119

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Enterprise Search: An Information Architect's Perspective

  • 1. Enterprise Search An Information Architect’s Perspective Peter Morville, SLA 2012 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5.
  • 6. 6
  • 7. Marcia Bates: Berrypicking, Evolving Search (1989) 7
  • 8. Search is a… Complex, Adaptive System Source: Search Patterns (2010) 8
  • 9. Principles of Design Incremental Construction Progressive Disclosure Immediate Response Predictability Alternate Views Recognition Over Recall Minimal Disruption Direct Manipulation Context of Use 9
  • 10. Incremental Construction Progressive Disclosure one step at a time… more within reach… 10
  • 11. Immediate Response Predictability flow requires feedback… feed-forward features and results… 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13.
  • 17. There is one timeless way of building. It is thousands of years old, and the same today as it has always been. The great traditional buildings of the past, the villages and tents and temples in which man feels at home, have always been made by people who were very close to the center of this way. It is not possible to make great buildings, or great towns, beautiful places, places where you feel yourself, places where you feel alive, except by following this way. And, as you will see, this way will lead anyone who looks for it to buildings which are themselves as ancient in their form, as the trees and hills, and as our faces are. The Timeless Way of Building Christopher Alexander 17
  • 18. Window Place (180) Everybody loves window seats, bay windows, and big windows with low sills and comfortable chairs drawn up to them. May be part of: • Entrance Room(130) • Zen View(134) • Light on Two Sides(159) • Street Windows(164) May contain: • Alcoves(179) • Low Sill(222) • Built-In Seats(202) • Deep Reveals(223) A Pattern Language Christopher Alexander et al. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 21.
  • 22. 22 Because typing (and typos) take time.
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Auto-Complete Auto-Suggest 24
  • 25. 25 In search, results must be simple, fast, and relevant.
  • 26. 43% 15% 10% 5% 26 Marti Hearst’s Source: Search User Interfaces (2009)
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Because users don’t know where to 32 look.
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 37 Multiple ways to search (and browse) in combination.
  • 38. "laptop" > $910 - $1070 > Hewlett Packard > At least 1 GB > 14 - 15 Inch > Bluetooth > 4 - 5 lbs 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. 42
  • 45. 45
  • 53. 53
  • 54. find·a·bil·i·tyn The quality of being locatable or navigable. The degree to which an object is easy to discover or locate. The degree to which a system or environment supports wayfinding, navigation, and retrieval. am·bi·entadj Surrounding; encircling; enveloping (e.g., ambient air) the ability to find anyone or anything from anywhere at anytime 54
  • 55. Polar Bear IA in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•turen. • The structural design of shared information environments. • The combination of organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems in web sites and intranets. • The art and science of shaping information products and experiences to support usability and findability. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. 55
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Fragmentation Fragmentation into multiple sites, domains, and identities is clearly a major problem. Users don’t know which site to visit for which purpose. Findability Users can’t find what they need from the home page, but most users don’t come through the front door. They enter via a web search or a deep link, and are confused by what they find. Even worse, most never use the Library, because its resources aren’t easily findable.
  • 59. Web Strategy 1. One Library 2. Core Areas 3. Network Intelligence 59
  • 60.
  • 61. 61
  • 62. 62
  • 63. Where architects use forms and spaces to design environments for inhabitation, information architects use nodes and links to create environments for understanding. Jorge Arango, Architectures 63
  • 64. 64
  • 65. “Desire Lines” 65 Photo: Berkeley Path Gallery by Kevin Fox
  • 66. 66
  • 67. 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. Modes of Information Seeking Marcia Bates, UCLA (2002) “We absorb perhaps 80 percent of all our knowledge through simply being aware in our social context and physical environment.” 69
  • 71.
  • 72. World’s Best Information Architect Source: Subject to Change (2008) 72
  • 73.
  • 74. 74
  • 75. Desktop Mobile Kiosk 75
  • 76. Sensors • Location (GPS) • Orientation (Compass) • Motion (Accelerometer) • Orientation/Motion (Gyroscope) • Touch (Multi-Touch, Gestural) • Light (Ambient) • Proximity • Device (Bluetooth) • Audio (Microphone) • Image/Video (Camera) • RFID (Soon) 76
  • 77. 77
  • 78. “After a half-hour, a three-tone alert sounds…If the bottle still has not been opened, the system makes an automated reminder phone call to the patient or a caregiver. The GlowCap system compiles adherence data which anyone can be authorized to track. That way the doctor can make sure Gramps stays on his meds.” 78
  • 79. 79
  • 80. 80
  • 81. 81
  • 82. BrainPort Camera in glasses captures video. Image recreated on grid of 400 electrodes. User feels the shape on the tongue. Brain learns to see through the tongue. 82
  • 83. Touchpoint Taxonomy Media Book Channel Platform Newspaper Web Web Magazine Product Social Media iOS Video Packaging Email Android Audio Print Catalog Messaging Poster Mac OS X Billboard Telephone Call Center Print MS Windows Website Blog Context Facebook Home Twitter Work Walking YouTube Device Driving Email Desktop Shopping Direct Mail Laptop Scale Plane Radio Mobile Party Covert Tablet Personal Television Television Mobile Social Personal Kiosk Location Environmental Time Architectural Task Urban 83
  • 85. Cross-Channel Strategy http://findability.org/archives/000652.php Composition multi- or cross-channel; mix of platforms, devices, media; coherence Consistency brand, features, organization, interaction balanced against value of optimization Connection links, tags, signs, maps; call to action Continuity bookmark, resume playback, flow Context personal, social, location, time, task Conflict 85 identify/resolve, org chart, free-riding
  • 86. Adapted from Cross-Platform Service User Experience portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1851637 86
  • 87. Craft beautiful designs that deliver a quality experience to your users no matter how large (or small) their display. 1. Fluid Grids 2. Flexible Images 3. Media Queries 87
  • 88. 88
  • 89. Why Separate Mobile & Desktop Web Pages at Bagcheck? With a dual template system, we were able to optimize: 1. Source Order 2. Media (Speed, Quality, Interaction) 3. URL Structure Navigation 4. Application Design at Top Navigation at Bottom 89
  • 90. To make the right decisions about composition and consistency, you need a cross-channel strategy. 90
  • 92. Over 50% of REI online business is picked up in a store. 92
  • 93. 93
  • 94. 94
  • 95. Barcode Identifies a Product (e.g. Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes 14 oz.) QR Code Initiates a Response (e.g., URL, Message, Phone, SMS, Email) 95
  • 96.
  • 99. Conflict 99
  • 100. Context 100
  • 101. Cross-Channel We must leave our Marathon comfort zones, cross-train, and collaborate. Triathlon 101
  • 102. 102
  • 103. 103
  • 105. 105
  • 108. 108
  • 110. 110
  • 111. What architects do for buildings, information architects do for…
  • 112. 112
  • 113. “There is a problem in discussing systems only with words. Words and sentences must, by necessity, come only one a time in linear, logical order. Systems happen all at once. They are connected not just in one direction, but in many directions simultaneously. To discuss them properly, it is necessary to use a language that shares some of the same properties as the phenomena under discussion.”
  • 114. "In an era of cross-channel experiences and product-service systems, it makes less and less sense to design sitemaps and wireframes without also..."
  • 115. “…mapping the customer journey, modeling the system dynamics, and analyzing impacts upon business processes, incentives, and the org chart."
  • 116. 116
  • 117. 117
  • 118. morville@semanticstudios.com Richard Saul Wurman’s Sandcastles (1971). Stolen from The Nature of IA by Dan Klyn (2010).
  • 119. IA Therefore I Am Peter Morville morville@semanticstudios.com Understanding IA (Prezi) http://is.gd/iaprezi Blog http://findability.org/ Twitter @morville 119