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  1. 1. Long Term Effects of Exercise March 8 th , 2011 BTEC Sport
  2. 2. Learning Outcome <ul><li>Ability to understand and explain the long-term effects of exercise. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>-The more general long-term effects of exercise include a fitter, healthier body. </li></ul><ul><li>-This is often accompanied by an improved sense of well-being or we feel better able to cope with the demands of life generally. </li></ul><ul><li>- Our bones become stronger due to a higher level of calcium production and our tendons and muscles become more elastic due to repetitive stretching through an increase range of movement </li></ul>
  4. 4. More Training Effects <ul><li>- Usually, exercise produces a better, healthier appetite and improved sleep patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>- There are also benefits to be gained in terms of our general lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>- As fitness improves, we might expect to feel better about life in general and far more capable of coping with the stresses and strains of everyday living. </li></ul><ul><li>- General well-being is usually improved by exercise, providing that the level of activity undertaken is reasonable to begin with and progresses at a rate, which is sensible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Down-side <ul><li>Over-training can cause injuries, tiredness and tissue damage, which in the long-term is counter-productive. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The effects of exercise
  7. 7. Effects on the Heart <ul><li>- The long-term effects of training and exercise on the heart include the enlargement of the heart chambers and a thickening and strengthening of its muscular walls. </li></ul><ul><li>- This means that the heart itself beats much more strongly and delivers blood to the circulation system far more efficiently. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Heart Rate <ul><li>- The resting heart rate is much lower in trained athletes than in others. </li></ul><ul><li>- This enables the heart to do the same amount of work as before but with much less effort. </li></ul><ul><li>- Its capacity to work at higher levels and for much longer periods is also increased. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Stroke volume </li></ul><ul><li>- As a result of regular training, the stroke volume (which is, the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one beat) can, in some cases, increase to more than double that of an untrained person. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>The increased efficiency of the heart produced by regular training means that the total amount of blood it can process in one minute is much increased. </li></ul><ul><li>- This is the result of the combined effect of a larger stroke volume and a lower resting heart rate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Circulatory System <ul><li>Arteries become larger and more elastic as a result of regular training, and this reduces blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also more haemoglobin in our blood because we are producing more red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>There are much lower levels of fat in the blood because our body has picked up its ability to use fat as fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>- Regular training also means we have a greater capacity to process lactic acid during exercise. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Your Breathing <ul><li>- Regular exercise has the long-term effect of increasing the number of alveoli in the lungs and this, in turn, has the effect of enlarging lung capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>- This allows a greater volume of air (containing oxygen) to pass through the lungs and into the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>- This means that we are able to maintain higher levels of activity for a much longer period of time. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>- That more oxygen is being passed into the bloodstream which means we can keep up the supply of oxygen to the muscles for a longer period. </li></ul><ul><li>- There is an improvement in the capacity for anaerobic work because there is a greater amount of energy stored in the muscles before exercise begins. </li></ul><ul><li>- The increased efficiency of the respiratory system means that gaseous exchange is improved, so that greater levels of carbon dioxide and other waste products can be removed from the body both during and after exercise. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Breath Easy <ul><li>Generally, breathing becomes much easier and we are less likely to get out of breath when performing normal daily tasks that involve a moderate amount of physical activity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What happens to Muscles? <ul><li>Muscles respond to increased activity over a long period in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>- Initially they respond by becoming larger ( hypertrophy ) until they are big enough to cope easily with the work they are being asked to do. </li></ul><ul><li>- This growth in muscle size depends on the type of training and competitive activity. </li></ul><ul><li>- If very heavy weights are lifted muscle size will increase by large amounts (adaptability) until the muscles become large enough and strong enough for this new level of work to be accomplished. </li></ul>
  15. 15. More Muscles <ul><li>- If medium or lightweights are lifted muscle size will increase only sufficiently to allow the exercise or activity to be performed comfortably. </li></ul><ul><li>- Any further improvements will be in the area of muscular endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>- Fast-twitch muscle fibres also increase in size, particularly when either training or competitive activity contain some element of speed or movement. </li></ul><ul><li>- However, periods of inactivity due to illness or injury would result in a decrease in muscle size. ( atrophy ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Muscles (cont) <ul><li>Another long-term effect of exercise is that larger amounts of oxygen will be stored in muscle cells. </li></ul><ul><li>This is particularly beneficial to those involved in anaerobic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>- Muscle tendons and the ligaments surrounding joints also become stronger and more flexible. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Body Composition (Skeleton) <ul><li>- Although we are probably not aware of it, our bones become stronger as a result of increased levels of calcium production. </li></ul><ul><li>- The increase in bone density is specific to the activity – walking will strengthen your leg bones, but not your arm bones. </li></ul><ul><li>- Both aerobic exercise and weight training are effective in increasing bone strength, but the activity must be weight-bearing. </li></ul>