Anatomy and Physiology

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Advanced Biology Final Review

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Anatomy and Physiology

  1. 1. H U MA N A N A T O MY ANDP HY S I OL OG Y F I NAL
  2. 2. Anatomy: The study of the shape and structure of body parts.Physiology: The branch of biological science that studies and describeshow body parts work or function. Levels of Structural Organization
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL ORGANISMS *The four elements that make up the bulk of living matter: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen Made of Cells- A l l l i v i n g t h i n g s a r e ma d e o f o n e o r mo r e c e l l s . Growth and Development- G r o wt h r e q u i r e s a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s t o t a k e i n ma t e r i a l f r o m t h e e n v i r o n me n t a n d o r g a n i z e t h e ma t e r i a l i n t o i t s o wn s t r u c t u r e s . To a c c o mp l i s h g r o wt h , a n o r g a n i s m e x p e n d s s o me o f t h e e n e r g y i t a c q u i r e s d u r i n g me t a b o l i s m. Obtain and use energy (metabolism)- A l l L i v i n g t h i n g s e x h i b i t a r a p i d t u r n o v e r o f c h e mi c a l ma t e r i a l s . Me t a b o l i s m i n v o l v e s e x c h a n g e s o f c h e mi c a l ma t t e r wi t h t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n me n t a n d e x t e n s i v e t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s o f o r g a n i c ma t t e r wi t h i n t h e c e l l s o f a l i v i n g o r g a n i s m.
  4. 4. Coronal/frontal: Separates thebody into Anterior and PosteriorpartsMedian: Separates body intoright and left partsTransverse/horizontal: Separatesthe body into superior andinferior partsSaggital: Any plane parallel tothe median plane
  5. 5. Medial: Towardthe midline of the Palmar: Interiorbody Surface of the handLateral:Pertaining to the Plantar: Sole ofside the footSuperior: Above Proximal: Toward theInferior: Below attached base of an organ orSuperficial: Near structure.the surface Distal: AwayDeep: Further from the point offrom the surface attachment
  6. 6. The Cell
  7. 7. Nucleus: Stores genetic information and controls thecell.Nucleolus: Makes RibosomesMitochondria: Controls release of energy and formsATP. Lysosome: Digests bacteria in the cell Peroxisomes: Detoxify toxins Golgi apparatus: Packages proteins
  8. 8. Centriole: “Spin” the mitotic spindle Smooth E.R.: Steroid synthesis Rough E.R.: Attachment site forribosomes and transports proteins Microvilli: Increases the cell membrane surface area Cell Membrane: Confines cell contents and regulates entry and exit of materials
  9. 9. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT Isotonic Solution: Water is continuously moving in and out of the cellHypotonic Solution: Water ismoving into the cell, causing thecell to expand and rupture. Hypertonic Solution: Water is moving out of the cell, causing the cell to deflate.
  10. 10. MITOSISProphase:•Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers.•Chromosomes first appear to be duplex structures.•Chromatin coils and condenses to form deeplystaining bodies•The nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear•The spindle forms through the migration of thecentrioles Metaphase: •Chromosomes align on the equator of the spindle
  11. 11. MITOSISAnaphase:•Centromeres break•Chromosomes begin to migrate toward opposite poles ofthe cell Telophase: •When chromosomes cease poleward movement, this phase begins •Cleavage furrow forms •Nuclear membrane and nucleus reappear Interphase •Mitosis process will begin again
  12. 12. SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES Membrane Tissue type Location Function Mucous Top layer: Respiratory, Protect, lubricate, Epithelial Digestive, Urinary, secrete, and Bottom layer: and Reproductive absorb Connective tract Serous Top layer: Ventral body Lubricate Epithelial cavities and organ Bottom layer: linings Connective Cutaneous Top layer: Body’s exterior Protects deeper Epithelial body tissue from Bottom layer: external hazards Connective Synovial Connective tissue Joint cavity linings Lubricates to and bone ends reduce friction
  13. 13. SKIN STRUCTURE Basic Skin Functions: •Protects deeper tissue from: -Mechanical Damage - Chemical Damage - Bacterial Damage - Ultraviolet
  14. 14. PROTEINS FOUND IN SKIN A. Yellow, reddish-brown, and black color. Produced when skin Keratin is exposed to sun. A localized concentration of this is a freckle. Carotene B. Provides stretchiness to the skin. Melanin C. Waterproofing protein, found in epidermal cells. Found in large amounts in hair and nails. Elastin D. Factor in skin color, that comes from food. Orange-ish color.
  15. 15. Types Burns Rule of NinesFirst Degree: Damage to epidermis. Redness,peeling skin, and slight pain and swelling.Example is sunburn.Second Degree: Damage to epidermis and A "Rule of Nines" chart is used toslight damage to dermis. Blisters, swelling, determine the total body surface areapain and charred skin. Example is touching a that has been burned. The chart divideshot stove the body into sections that represent 9 percent of the body surface area. 9% Head 9% each ArmThird Degree: destroys epidermis and 18% each Legdermis. Numbness, loss of skin and 36% Torsotissue. Example is burning in a fire. 1% Pubic Area
  16. 16. RESPONSE TO INJURY1. Bleeding Inflammatory response2. Scab Formation Phagocytic cells and Fibrin clot3. New Epidermal cells formed Form Germinativum layer – building outward Fibrin disintegrates4. Scab is shed, Epidermis complete, presence of shallow depression Fibroblasts producing scar tissue
  17. 17. AGINGEpidermis ThinsVitamin D production decreases 75%Melanocyte activity decreasesGlandular activity decresesBlood supply to Dermis decreasesHair follicles stop functioningDermis thins – elastin decreases
  18. 18. CONNECTIVE TISSUE Functions: •Supports body organs •Packages and protects body organs •Supports and binds other tissues Characteristics: •Has large amounts of nonliving matrixDense Fiberous Bone Skeletal Hyaline Cartilage Adipose (fat) Areolar
  19. 19. EPITHELIAL TISSUE Functions: •Forms mucous, serous, and epidermal membranes •Absorb and secrete substances •Forms hormones Characteristics: •Most widely distributed tissue type in body •Covers external surfaces •Lines internal surfaces Simple Squamous Simple Cubial Stratified Squamous
  20. 20. NERVOUS TISSUE Functions: •Transmits electrochemical impulses Characteristics: •Basis of the major controlling system of the body •Forms the brain and spinal cord
  21. 21. MUSCLE TISSUE Functions: •Allows for organ movements within the body •Shortens Characteristics: •Allows you to smile, grasp, swim, ski, and shoot an arrow Cardiac Smooth Skeletal
  22. 22. Characteristics of Muscle tissue types Skeletal Cardiac SmoothVoluntarily controlled XInvoluntarily controlled X XBanded appearance X XSingle nucleus X XMultinucleate XFound attached to bones XDirect eyeballs XFound in walls of stomach, uterus, and arteries XContains spindle shaped cells XContains cylindrical cells XContains long, non branching, cylindrical cells XDisplays intercalated discs XConcerned with body locomotion XChanges internal volume of a contracting XorganTissue of the Circulatory pump X
  23. 23. SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS  Fast  Slow•Contract quickly and strongly•Large Diameter •Resistant to fatigue•Low resistance to fatigue(fatigue quickly) •Slow to contract•Have twitches with a very brief contraction •Small Diameterphase •High oxygen supply•Few mitochondria Example: A distance runner•Can adapt to aerobicmetabolism by generatingmore mitochondria Example: A sprinter
  24. 24. SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUEFunctions of Skeletal Muscles:•Produce skeletal movement•Maintain body position•Support soft tissue Epimysium: Surrounds entire muscle•Guard openings Perimysium: Surrounds muscle fascicles•Maintain body temperature Endomysium: Surrounds individual muscle cells•Store nutrient reserves Tendon(aponuerosis): Connects muscle to bone
  25. 25. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF A MUSCLE FIBER (CELL) 1. The plasma membrane is call the Sarcolemma and the cytoplasm is called the sarcoplasm a. The sarcoplasm is occupied mainly by long protien bundles, called myofibrils >myofibrils – subdivisions of muscle fibers made up of myofilament > myofilaments – responsible for muscle contractions and banded appearance of muscle thin filaments are made up of protein actin thick filaments are made up protein myosin 2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is found around myofibrils. It releases calcium in the beginning of a muscle contraction 3. Sarcomeres are the contractile part of the muscle
  26. 26. MUSCLE CONTRACTIONContraction depends on threethings:1. Duration of neurostimulus2. Number of Calcium ions present3. Availability of ATP1. Nuerotransmitter ACH is released by a motor neuron and binds to sarcolema2. Sodium ions rush into a cell causing3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca+ causing4. Myosin to be activiatedSliding Filament Theory: Thin and thick filaments slide along each other, shortening the muscle
  27. 27. TENSION PRODUCTION Muscle Tone- •Normal tension and muscle firmness of a muscle at rest • Increased muscle tone increases metabolic energy usedTension Types: Isotonic Contraction- Results in motion Ex: lifting weights Isometric Contraction- Muscle develops tension, but doesn’t moveRelaxation: Ex: pushing against a doorMuscle returns to resting length because of:1. Elastic forces (pull of ligaments)2. Opposing muscle contractions3. Gravity
  28. 28. ATP AND CREATINE PHOSPHATE ATP – energy molecule used by cells  Creatine Phosphate-Two ways to generate ATP: Acts as an energy1. Aerobic Metabolism reserve in muscle tissue/stores ATP  Produces 34 ATP  Primary Source when resting2. Anaerobic Glycolysis  Produces 2 ATP  Primary source when working muscles
  29. 29. MUSCLE FATIGUE AND RECOVERYMuscle Fatigue occurs when muscles can no longer preform therequired activity. This happens because they run out of ATP,Calcium, ions, or nervous signals. >Results in: -Depletion of metabolic reserves -Low ph (acidic) -Muscle exhaustion and pain -Damage to sarcolema and sarcoplasmic reticulumRecovery period- time required after exertion for muscles to return to normal1. Oxygen becomes available2. Mitochondrial activity resumesThe Cori Cycle removes and recycles lactic acid.1. Blood takes lactic acid to the liver.2. The liver turns in into glycogen3. Muscles use glycogen at peak exertion
  30. 30. HORMONES AND MUSCLE CHANGESHormones increased during physical activity:1. Growth2. Testosterone3. Thyroid4. Epinephrine5. EndorphinesHypertrophy – muscle growthAtrophy – muscle shrinkageBreakdown begins in weeks or days
  31. 31. CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE Found: Only in the heart Functions: Produces heart contractions Characteristics: 1. Single nucleus 2. Involuntary 3. Intercalated disks > Intercalated disks – special contact points for cells 4. Striated (branched)
  32. 32. SMOOTH MUSCLEFound:1. Around other tissues2. In blood vessels and arteries3. In reproductive, glandular, digestive, and urinary systems4. In integumentary (skin) system5. Hair folliclesCharacteristics:1. Single nucleus2. No sarcomeres, tendons, or aponeurosis3. Scattered myosin filaments4. Involuntarily controlled5. Long and slenderFunctions:1. Open and close respiratory passageways2. Raising arm hairs3. Moves food in digestive tract4. Forces urine out of urinary tract
  33. 33. Classification (by shape)Short- somewhat cube-shaped and include the carpals and tarsals.Long- More long than wide, have a definite shaft and two ends, and consist of all limb bones exceptpatellas, carpals, and tarsals.Flat- thin, flattened, often curved bones that include most skull bones, the sternum, and ribs.Irregular- include vertebrae and coxae. Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Blood Cell Formation
  34. 34. BONES- BASIC STRUCTURE Articular cartilage (site of red marrow) -spongey bone -red blood cell production Epiphyseal plate (site of yellow marrow) -compact bone -fat storage
  35. 35. BONE FORMATION1. Hyaline Cartilage “models” are completely covered with bone matrix by bone-forming cells (osteoblasts).2. Hyaline Cartilage is digested away leaving a hollow cavity (yellow marrow).3. After birth, most hyaline cartilage models have been converted to bone- except articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates. Cells in Bones: 1. Osteocytes- mature bone cells 2. Osteoclasts- bone-eating cells 3. Osteoblasts – matrix depositing bone cells
  36. 36. BONE REMODELING•Bone is dynamic and changing•Bone remodeling is continuously happening due to changes in:1. Calcium levels in the bone matrix 1. Too much calcium - hypercalcemia 2. Too little calcium - Parathyroid Hormone from parathyroid gland alerts osteoclasts to breakdown bone matrix and release calcium into blood2. Pull of gravity and pull of muscles 1. Breaking of bones 2. Stress on bones makes them thicker
  37. 37. FRACTURES Simple – clean break Greenstick – incomplete that stays in skin break; bone splintering Compound – bone Spiral – twistng forces ends break skin break bone Reductions: Compression- bone crushed 1. Closed – nonsurgical realignment and splinting 2. Open – surgical realignment
  38. 38. SYNOVIAL JOINTS Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones, which allows for greater mobilitySynovial Membrane: Lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces.Articular Cartilage: Substance that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed.
  39. 39. FIBROUS AND CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS Fibrous joints – sutured joints,  Cartilaginous joints – protecting the connected by cartilage underlying structures greatly
  40. 40. THE HEAD AND NECK - MUSCLES trapezius
  41. 41. THE HEAD AND NECK - BONES Parietal Coronal Suture Temporal Frontal Lambdoidal suture Sphenoid Occipital Ethmoid Nasal External auditory meatus Lacrimal Mastoid process Zygomatic Maxilla Mandible Temporal Styloid process Mandibular condyle
  42. 42. THE HEAD AND NECK- THE BRAIN Pons Medulla (Spinal Cord)
  43. 43. THE HEAD AND NECK- BRAIN DYSFUNCTIONSAlzheimer’s disease- Progressive degeneration of the brain with abnormal proteindepositsComa- Total nonresponsiveness to stimulationConcussion- Slight and transient brain injuryContusion- Traumatic injury that destroys brain tissueIntracranial hemorrhage- May cause medulla oblongata to be wedged into a foramenmagnum by pressure of bloodMultiple sclerosis- Autoimmune disorder with extensive demyelination
  44. 44. THE HEAD AND NECK – EYE
  45. 45. HEAD AND NECK - EAR Semicircular canal Pinna Incus Malleous StapiusAuditory tube Vestibule
  46. 46. HEAD AND NECK – SINUSESSinuses are mucus-lined, air-filled cavities in bones.Their purpose is to lighten the skull and serve as residence chambers for speech.They are very susceptible to infection because they are directly linked to nasalpassages (outside world and germs).
  47. 47. HEAD AND NECK – NERVOUS SYSTEMFunctions:•Monitors changes inside and outside the body•Processes and interprets info received and makesdecisions•Commands responds to muscles and glandsCentral Nervous System: brain and spinal cord- Control center of the nervous system Peripheral Nervous System : Composed of cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia. Divided into Sensory and Motor divisions. Motor: Autonomic nervous system: Controls involuntary movements and regulates activity of the heart, smooth muscle, and glands. >Sympathetic- Fight or Flight System - Activities that expand energy >Parasympathetic- Normally in control - Conserves and stores energy Somatic nervous system: Controls voluntary activities- such as activation of skeletal muscles
  48. 48. HEAD AND NECK – NERVOUS SYSTEMNeuroglia•Support, insulate, and protect cells and are able to divideNeurons•Transmit electrical messages from one area of the body to another area•Release neurotransmitters•Are unable to divide1. Motor neurons (Efferent) –Sends out 2.Sensory neurons (Afferent) –signals from CNS to the body Brings signals to CNS from elsewhere in body Cell body Axonal terminal Schwann cell Direction nucleus Myelin of impulseDendrites Nodes of RanvierAxonal terminal: Releases neurotransmitters Myelin Sheath: Increases speed of impulseDendrite: Conducts electrical currents toward cell body Cell body: Location of nucleusAxon: Conducts impulses away from cell body
  49. 49. HEAD AND NECK – NERVOUS SYSTEMTypes of Sensory receptors:1. Naked Nerve Endings – pain and temperature2. Meissener’s Corpuscle – touch and caress3. Pacinian Corpuscle – deep pressure4. Proprioceptors –degree of stretchNerve Impulses1. Resting neuron- negatively charged inside the cell membrane and positively charged outside the cell membrane2. Stimulated neuron- the permeability of a patch on the cell membrane alters. Positively charged sodium ions begin to enter the cell, making the inside locally permeable (depolarization).3. The nerve impulse- depolarization spreads along the cell membrane and eventually the charge on either side of the cell membrane is temporarily reversed.4. Repolarization- cell membrane again alters its permeability. + charged sodium ions begin to pass out of the cell. Finally, outside of the cell is positively charged and inside in negatively charged.
  50. 50. HEAD AND NECK – NERVOUS SYSTEM
  51. 51. HEAD AND NECK – ENDOCRINE SYSTEMFunctions:•Produce hormones >hormones –Chemical messengers that interact with specific receptors to regulate cell activity.Composed of:•Adrenal glands•Pancreas•Pituitary glands•Ovaries/Testes•Parathyroid gland•Thyroid gland
  52. 52. HEAD AND NECK – ENDOCRINE SYSTEM GlandsGland Location FunctionPituitary Brain •MASTER GLAND •Controls other glands •Regulates: growth metabolism, secretion of other glands, reproductive functionsParathyroid Vocal chords, •Regulates calcium absorption and deposition beside Pituitary glandThyroid Vocal chords •Stimulates growth and metabolism •Produce parathyroid hormoneAdrenal Kidneys •“fight or flight” response •Regulate mineral/water balance in body •Inhibit inflammation •Regulate reproductive organ activity
  53. 53. HEAD AND NECK–ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-HORMONES Hormone Location Function Growth Anterior Pituitary Stimulates growth Gland Follicle- Anterior Pituitary Stimulates production of ova and sperm stimulating Gland Prolactin Anterior Pituitary Stimulates milk production in women’s breasts Gland PTH Parathyroid Gland Regulate calcium absorption and deposition Calcitonin Thyroid Glands Causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts Adrenaline Adrenal Gland “fight or flight” response Cortisol Adrenal Gland Stress resistance Estrogens Adrenal Gland Stimulate female reproductive organs Glucagon Pancreas Stimulates release of glucose into the blood Insulin Pancreas Stimulates storage and use of glucose Testosterone Testes Stimulates development of reproductive characteristics Melatonin Pineal Gland Signals duration of darkness to the body, may help with biorythms
  54. 54. THE BACK- SPINAL CORD 3. 1. Body 5. 2. 5. 2. Vertebral 4. 1. 4. foramen 3. 4. 4. 3. Spinous 2. process 1. 4. Transverse process 3. 4. 5. 5. 4. 5. Superior 2. articular process 1.
  55. 55. THE BACK- MUSCLES DeltoidTrapezius Erector spinalLatissimus dorsi External obliqueGluteous mediasGluteus maximus
  56. 56. THE THORACIC CAVITY- BONES Manubrium Body Sternum Xiphoid process 12 Pairs of Ribs: 1-7: True Ribs 8-12: False Ribs 11&12: Floating Ribs
  57. 57. THE THORACIC CAVITY- SCAPULA Axillary
  58. 58. MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR TRUNK Latissimus External intercostal dorsi Pectoralis major
  59. 59. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMFunctions:1. Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues2. Protects body; destroys bacteria and tumor cellsMade up of:1. The Heart2. Blood vessels
  60. 60. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM- BLOOD •Carries Oxygen, CO2, Nutrients, and Waste products. •Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets1. Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) 2. White blood cells (Leukocytes) -A red blood cell’s primary function is to -The main function of a white blood cell is to deliver oxygen to tissues. They also help in fight infections and viruses in the body. There ridding the body of carbon dioxide. These are 5 types of white blood cells: cells have a biconcave lens shape, which provides more surface area so O2 and CO2 1. Neutrophils- Most abundant white blood molecules can attach to the hemoglobin on cell. Crucial in fighting infections. the blood cells. 2. Eosinophils- act against parasites and are responsible for allergic reactions 3. Basophils- Help with the inflammatory response when tissue is damage 4. Monocytes- Act against the multiplication of germs 5. Phagocytes- Engulfs and absorbs waste3. Platelets material-The function of plateletsis to stop blood fromleaving wounds
  61. 61. BLOOD TYPINGThere are 4 types of blood:A: -Produces B antibodies -Can donate to A and AB -Can receive from O and AB: -Produces A antibodies -Can donate to B and AB -Can receive from O and BAB: -Produces neither A nor B antibodies In addition to the A and B antigens, there is -Can donate to AB a third antigen called the Rh factor, which -Can receive from O, A, B, and AB can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-O: -Produces A and B antibodies negative patients, and Rh positive blood or -Can donate to O, A, B, and AB Rh negative blood may be given to Rh -Can receive from O positive patients.
  62. 62. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: HEARTPath of a red blood cell: Aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, vein, inferiorvena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, arterioles, capillaries, venules,pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aortaPulmonary Circuit Systemic Circuit•The right side of the •Left side of theheart heart•Pumps blood to the •Pumps blood tolungs the entire body Arteries: Carry blood away from heart Veins: Carry blood to heart Capillaries: Between arteries and veins
  63. 63. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMThree influences of blood pressure:1. Cardiac output2. Peripheral resistance3. Blood volume
  64. 64. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMFunctions:•Provides an extensive surface area for gas exchange between air and blood.•Moves air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratorypassageways.•Protects respiratory surfaces from dehydration and environmental variations, anddefends the respiratory system and other tissues from invasion of pathogens.•Produces sounds involved in speaking, singing, and other forms of communication.•Facilitates the detection of olefactory stimuli by olefactory receptors in the superiorportions of the nasal cavity.Organization:•The Respiratory is divided into:1. The upper respiratory system -nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx1. The lower respiratory system larynx, trachea, bronchi, branchioles, and alveoli
  65. 65. UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Opening to auditory tube Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Sphenoid sinus Conchae Pharyngeal tonsil Hard pallet Nasopharynx Oral cavity oropharynx Soft pallet Palantine tonsil Lingual tonsils Epiglottis Hyoid bone Laryngopharynx Vocal folds (chords) Esophagus Trachea
  66. 66. LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Larynx Trachea Brochi Superior Lobe MediastinumInferior Lobe Visceral pleuraPleural space Parietal pleura
  67. 67. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM- HOW IT WORKS
  68. 68. THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA- PELVISTrue pelvisFalse pelvis Acetabulum Obturator foramen ischium
  69. 69. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMFunctions:•Breaks down foodstuffs into smaller particles that can be absorbed and usedas fuel for the body.Composed of:•Mouth•Esophagus•Stomach•Small intestine•Large intestine•Rectum•Anus
  70. 70. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMThe Mouth- A cavity lined with a mucous membrane. In the mouth, the teeth chop and grind food intosmaller pieces and mix it with salivaThe Esophagus- A muscular tube that’s about 10 inches long. This is where your tongue pushes food,when you swallow. The wall of the esophagus contains smooth muscle, which involuntarily squeezes tocarry food from the mouth to the stomach.The Stomach- An elastic, muscular organ. This is where the esophagus empties. The stomach contractsand expands, churning food and mixing it with digestive juices. The stomach then empties into the smallintestine.The Small Intestine- The small intestine is divided into three sections: the duodenum, the first foot, thejejunum, the next 8 feet, and the ileum, the last 12 feet. The walls of the small intestine have millions ofglands that produce additional digestive juices. These walls also have millions of tiny finger-likeprojections, called villi, that absorb nutrients and deliver them to the bloodstream. Bile, a digestive juice, isreleased from the gallbladder into the small intestine to help break down food. Bile is produced in the liverand stored in the gallbladder.The Large Intestine- Food that was not digested in the small intestine moves on to the large intestine.This part of the digestive tract absorbs water, essential salts, and certain vitamins and drugs.Rectum and Anus-The remaining waste travels to the last section of the digestive tract, the rectum.Waste is eliminated through the Anus, which has a voluntarily controlled sphincter muscle, in adults. Thewaste leaves the body as feces.
  71. 71. THE URINARY SYSTEMFunctions:•Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes•Conserves body water or eliminates excessMade up of:1. Kidneys2. Ureters3. Urinary Bladder4. Urethra
  72. 72. THE URINARY SYSTEMKidneys-• Blood filtration and urine production•Regulation of volume, chemical composition, and pH of blood•Regulation of blood pressure•Stimulation of RBC productionUreters- The body has two ureters, one for each kidney. The ureters extend from thekidney to the bladder. In the Ureters, urine is moved from the kidneys to the bladder.Bladder- A hollow, elastic, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity. When thebladder is filled with urine, the stretching stimulates nerve endings, which send amessage to the brain that the bladder is full. A sphincter muscle clamps shut the exitof the bladder. When this muscle is relaxed, urine flows out of the body, through theurethra.Urethra- a small tube that leads from the bladder to the exterior of the body. Infemales, the urethra is embedded in the front wall of the vagina. In males, the urethrapasses through the prostate gland and the penis.
  73. 73. THE LEGS- MUSCLES Gluteus Medius Tensorfacialata Gluteus Maximus Sartoreus Rectus Femoris Semitendinosis Gracilis Vastus lateralis Biceps Femoris Vastus medialis SemimembrinosisPeroneus Gastrucnemius Tibialis anterior Soleus Achilles tendon
  74. 74. THE LEGS- BONES Femur Intercondular emminence Tibial tuberosity
  75. 75. THE FOOT Talus Tarsals Calcaneous
  76. 76. THE ARMS-MUSCLES
  77. 77. THE ARM- BONES Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa
  78. 78. THE HAND

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