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Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures by Roll Form Group

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A brief presentation regarding causes, prevention, & designing for corrosion resistance on sheet pile structures brought to you by Roll Form Group, a division of Samuel, Son & Co., Limited.

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Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures by Roll Form Group

  1. 1. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Compiled By: Ryne Allen, B.S.CE, P. E.
  2. 2. Objectives Causes Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures • What variables make steel corrode & deteriorate? Prevention Objectives • What options and processes are available on the market to help extend the steel life? Designing for Corrosion Resistance • After choosing a prevention process, what should the expected life be?
  3. 3. Causes Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Objectives • Soil Conditions/Properties • Water level, water type, & splash zone • Pollution/Contamination • Exposure to Air • Time Corroded Spud Pile
  4. 4. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Corrosion is the destructive attack of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment (Revie & Uhlig, 2008 p. 1) Causes • Soil Conditions/Properties • Water level and water type • Pollution/Contamination • Exposure to Air • Time Corroded Spud Pile
  5. 5. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Soil Conditions & Properties •Soil Grain size: bigger grain size allows for more air exposure at face of structure, therefore exposing to corrosion. aka porosity •pH of soil: more acidic soils will be more corrosive (pH < 7) •Disturbed Soil: Clean backfill contains more usable oxygen. Oxygen promotes corrosion. Therefore disturbed/backfill material can promote corrosion along face of wall Porosity Visualization http://www.renewedlivinginc.com/how-your-ph-determines-your-overall-state- of-health/#
  6. 6. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Water level & Water Type: •Sea water is more corrosive than fresh water due to the salt content. •Tidal bodies of water are more corrosive than stationary bodies •Groundwater flow has an effect on corrosion Corroded walls in Okinawa, Japan http://www.acotec.be/ProjectDetail.aspx?id=738c2290-be56-4700-8365- 02eed905bdc0
  7. 7. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Pollution & Contamination: •Pollution can break down and make soil more acidic, increasing corrosion probability. •Contaminated soil with different concentrations of chemicals can have negative effects on chemical interaction between soil and steel wall •Vegetation built up on steel influences corrosion Replacing Contaminated soil in Florida
  8. 8. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Exposure to Air: •Oxygen is needed in order to make the chemical reactions to yield corrosion. (oxidation) •The salt in Salt Air by a coastal region allows for accelerated corrosion.
  9. 9. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Causes Time: •The longer there is exposure, the more damage
  10. 10. Prevention Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures • ASTM A572 Bare/Black Steel Properties • Sacrificial Thickness • Coating Systems • ASTM A690 Mariner Grade Steel • ASTM A123 Hot Dip Galvanizing • Cathodic Protection Objectives
  11. 11. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures ASTM A572 Bare Black Steel Prevention Bare/Black Steel Properties include: •Carbon-Manganese for strength and ductility •Only corrosion resistance is trace Columbium (0.05%)
  12. 12. Coating Systems • Coal Tar Epoxy Coating with/without zinc primer coats • Most common corrosion prevention system • Specified on majority of marine applications Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures • Generally placed to ~5ft below mud line to assure high corrosive area is covered • Accepted by many US DOT and Waterway agencies • Cost effective, ~$1.50 – $2.95/SF of covered area • Easily damaged & Compromised • Proper maintenance/touch-up will greatly extend life Causes, Prevention, & Designing for South Florida Water Management Bulkhead in Palm Beach County, FL Prevention
  13. 13. Galvanizing • Hot-Dipped (Zinc) Galvanizing • Meets ASTM A123 • Aesthetically Pleasing • Recommended for non-tidal, freshwater applications • Salt in Seawater has negative chemical reactions with Zinc and negates corrosion prevention • Galvanizing sheet pile generally full length Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures • Generally, lengths greater than 40’ require “double dipping”, and increase costs. • Not cost effective for longer/heavy sheets due to cost based on weight vs. coating area Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Prevention Hot Dipped Galvanized Steel Sheet Pile
  14. 14. Cathodic Protection Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures • Works when a sacrificial anode is attached to sheet pile wall that “absorbs” the electrochemical cell from the environment • Though cathodic protection works, “burned out” anodes must be replaced in order to maintain working condition; else corrosion will start • Labor intensive installation • Expensive Installation, Maintenance, & Operations • Requires annual to bi-annual inspection/maintenance/replacing Prevention
  15. 15. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Prevention Increased Thickness • No extra handling/secondary applications; no additional maintenance • Life span is affected by multiple environmental conditions • Life can be somewhat determined vs. other applications when applying the Eurocode3 • Using the Eurocode3, weight increases as a result of thicker steel, thus increasing total cost (typically 50-80% for weight and costs) • Typical product lines of sheet pile producers do NOT carry thicknesses exceeding 0.500” • In situations where greater than 0.500” required, secondary fabrication (cover-plating) or special rolling may be needed, dramatically increasing costs.
  16. 16. • Using Engineering principals, Allowable Moment Capacity is a function of Section Modulus and yield strength (Grade) • Increasing Grade (Carbon content) may reduce section size/thickness while maintaining structural integrity • Increasing Grade of sheet pile will keep thickness the same; counteracts corrosion over time by starting with an initial higher strength • Deflection must still be considered & checked Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Prevention Increased Grade
  17. 17. • Meets ASTM A690 • Adding Copper & Nickel increase corrosion prevention properties. • ASTM: “Substantially greater resistance to seawater ‘Splash Zone’ corrosion than ordinary steel” • Grade extra charge; longer lead time. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Prevention Mariner Grade Steel
  18. 18. Design Life and Cost Comparisons: Given a jobs specific condition, environment, and budget, the following table represents our general thoughts and recommendations: Corrosion Protection Approach Costs Durability/Life Availability/ Installation Time Cathodic $$$$$$ Coatings $$$ Galvanizing $$$$$ Sacrificial Thickness $$$$ Increase Grade/Yield Strength $ A690 Mariners Steel $$ Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures Designing for Corrosion Resistance
  19. 19. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures References References: Revie, R. Winston & Uhlig, Herbert H. (2008). Corrosion and Corrosion Control (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated Elaine & Nevin. (2012). pH Chart. http://www.renewedlivinginc.com/how-your- ph-determines-your-overall-state-of-health/#. Acotec. Corroding Sheet Pile Wall. http://www.acotec.be/ProjectDetail.aspx? id=738c2290-be56-4700-8365-02eed905bdc0. ASTM Standard A690/A690M-07, 2007, “Standard Specification for High Strength Low-Alloy Nickel, Copper, Phosphorus Steel H-Piles and Sheet Piling with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance for use in Marine Environments” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007, DOI: 10.1520/A0690_A0690M-07, www.astm.org.
  20. 20. Causes, Prevention, & Designing for Corrosion Resistance on Sheet Pile Structures For more information, please contact: ROLL FORM GROUP Heavy Construction / Road Transportation heavyconstruction@rollformgroup.com Canada: (800) 233-6228 North Eastern USA: (570) 504-5880 South Eastern USA: (904) 287-8000 Mid-West USA: (800) 762-7631 Western USA: (916) 989-6720

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