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Introduction to behavioural psychology - Alex Chesterfield

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Presentation from ECF Europe 2019: https://europe.ecampaigningforum.com
A chance to find out more about the emerging science of behavioural psychology - the study of why people do what they do. Behavioural scientist Alex will introduce some of the key concepts, studies and methodologies that are used to understand human behaviour, and the implications for campaigners and communicators who seek to influence people and change what they think and do.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Introduction to behavioural psychology - Alex Chesterfield

  1. 1. Introduction to psychology 101 for campaigners Alex Chesterfield – at ECF Europe 2019
  2. 2. Plan for this session WHY do we do what we do? • Understanding behaviour • Changing behaviour HOW do we know this? • Challenges with self- report methods to understand behaviour • Basics of experiments 1 2
  3. 3. Why do people do what they do? Understanding and changing behavior
  4. 4. System 1 Automatic Fast Logical Deliberative Slow System 2 Emotional Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Two systems
  5. 5. Freedom fighter or terrorist? Guard or interrogator?
  6. 6. Video
  7. 7. How do we err? Preferences Present bias Reference dependence and loss aversion Regret and other emotions Beliefs Overconfidence Over-extrapolation Projection bias Decision making Framing, salience and limited attention Mental accounting and narrow framing Inappropriate rules of thumb Persuasion and social influence Erta, K., Hunt, S., Iscenko, Z. & Brambley, W. (2013). Applying behavioural economics at the Financial Conduct Authority. FCA Occasional Paper 1.
  8. 8. How do we err? Preferences Present bias Reference dependence and loss aversion Regret and other emotions Beliefs Overconfidence Over-extrapolation Projection bias Decision making Framing, salience and limited attention Mental accounting and narrow framing Inappropriate rules of thumb Persuasion and social influence Erta, K., Hunt, S., Iscenko, Z. & Brambley, W. (2013). Applying behavioural economics at the Financial Conduct Authority. FCA Occasional Paper 1.
  9. 9. 11 Was Ghandi older than 90 when he died? How old was Ghandi when he died?
  10. 10. 12 Was Ghandi younger than 65 when he died? How old was Ghandi when he died? They said: 58 The real answer is: 78 Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1130.
  11. 11. How do we err? Preferences Present bias Reference dependence and loss aversion Regret and other emotions Beliefs Overconfidence Over-extrapolation Projection bias Decision making Framing, salience and limited attention Mental accounting and narrow framing Inappropriate rules of thumb Persuasion and social influence Erta, K., Hunt, S., Iscenko, Z. & Brambley, W. (2013). Applying behavioural economics at the Financial Conduct Authority. FCA Occasional Paper 1.
  12. 12. A.Do you think the US should let communist newspaper reporters from other countries come here and send back to their papers the news as they see it? • YES = 36% B. Do you think a communist country like Russia should let American newspaper reporters come in and send back to America the news as they see it? • YES = 66% A. Do you think the US should let communist newspaper reporters from other countries come here and send back to their papers the news as they see it? • YES = 90% B.Do you think a communist country like Russia should let American newspaper reporters come in and send back to America the news as they see it? • YES = 73% 1 2
  13. 13. ”No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is piece of the continent, a part of the main." John Donne
  14. 14. "The tendency to conformity in our society is so strong that reasonably intelligent and well- meaning young people are willing to call white black. This is a matter of concern." Solomon Asch, 1951
  15. 15. In-out groups
  16. 16. Intergroup bias – 3 theories why Economic perspective Groups develop prejudices about one another and discriminate when they compete for material resources Predicts prejudice + discrimination should increase under difficult economic conditions Motivational perspective Social identity theory – a person’s self-concept and self-esteem derive not only from personal identity and accomplishments, but from the status and accomplishments from the various groups we belong. In-group favouritism – boosting the group’s status benefits us. Cognitive perspective Stereotyping inevitable from the cognitive perspective because we automatically categorize nearly everything (helps us to simplify the world). It’s cognitively efficient, but can lead to inaccurate and unfair judgements and biased processing
  17. 17. The Robbers Cave experiment…
  18. 18. Why do people do what they do? Understanding and changing behavior
  19. 19. Behavioural lever Penalties & incentives Education & Information A third lever: behavioural science
  20. 20. “People generally see what they look for and hear what they listen for." Harper Lee
  21. 21. Seeing is believing Homeostasis – maintaining stability A consistent sense of self Social dimension Energy saving shortcuts
  22. 22. How do we know this? Brief introduction to experimental methods
  23. 23. Even well-designed, well-intentioned ideas can fail. It’s hard to predict this in advance. Always experiment.

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