Acute poisoning

839 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
839
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Acute poisoning

  1. 1. ACUTE POISONING IN ADULTS PROF .Dr. Abdel-aziz Ghanem
  2. 2. Acute Poisoning in the Emergency Department • Common - 3-5% of ED attendances • 900 Deaths per year • Some of the highest rates of deliberate poisoning in in Egypt than Europe • Often multiple drugs • DON’T FORGET ALCOHOL !!
  3. 3. Summary of Lecture • General Principles in the Management of ANY Poisoning • Specific management options with certain substances – – – – Paracetamol Opiates (Heroin, Methadone, Morphine) Salicylates (Aspirin) Tricyclic Antidepressants (e.g Dothiepin)
  4. 4. General Management -History • • • • • • • Applies to ANY episode of Poisoning WHAT HOW MUCH (Ideally mg/Kg) WHEN WHAT ELSE (Including Alcohol) WHY Use Paramedics, friends, relatives, anyone!!
  5. 5. General Management -1 • • • • • • A (Airway) B (Breathing) C (Circulation) D (Disability-AVPU/ Glasgow Coma Scale) DEFG ( Don’t ever forget the Glucose) GET A SET OF BASIC OBSERVATIONS
  6. 6. General Management -2 • Use all your senses, search for the clues • LOOK – Track Marks – Pupil Size • FEEL – Temperature, Sweating • SMELL – Alcohol
  7. 7. Specific Management Options-1 • DECREASING DRUG ABSORPTION – Gastric Lavage ( Unpopular - need to protect the airway, may push drug through pylorus into small bowel.) – Adsorbants ( Activated Charcoal , usually within 1 hour of ingestion, longer repeated doses in drugs that delay gastric emptying e.g. Aspirin)
  8. 8. Specific Management Options -2 • INCREASING DRUG ELIMINATION – Alkaline Diuresis (Aspirin) – Haemodialysis (Aspirin)
  9. 9. Specific Management Options - 3 • ANTAGONISING THE EFFECTS OF THE POISON – Desferrioxamine (IRON) – Naloxone (OPIATES) – N Acetylcysteine (PARACETAMOL)
  10. 10. Specific Poisons- Paracetamol • Commonest drug used • 50% of all Self Poisoning Episodes • 100- 200 deaths per year • DANGEROUS AND PEOPLE DON’T KNOW IT. YOU FEEL WELL AND THEN THE LIVER FAILURE SETS IN..
  11. 11. Paracetamol-Normal Metabolism • • • • • Paracetamol converted to: N-Acetyl-p-benzoquinonamine (TOXIC) This is conjugated with Glutathione Glutathione stored in the body Produces a NON TOXIC metabolite
  12. 12. Paracetamol Metabolism in Overdose • Glutathione stores are used up by the excess Paracetamol • Toxic Metabolite build up • Binds IRREVERSIBLY to Hepatic Cell membranes • Resulting in LIVER NECROSIS
  13. 13. Paracetamol Overdosemanagement • Initial ABC ( usually well systemically) • Get a good history – TIME TAKEN, AMOUNT – Any other medication – History of Liver disease • N-Acetylcysteine. Shown to be advantageous if given in the first 10 hours
  14. 14. N - Acetylcysteine • Specific antidote used for Paracetamol • Provides the Sulphydryl groups needed to increase the availability of Glutathione • So that Body can turn the TOXIC metabolite into the non toxic form and prevent Liver Cell Damage and NECROSIS • Problem: Not shown to be effective after 15 hours
  15. 15. Paracetamol Management • Able to measure levels of Paracetamol in the blood. • Helps to guide whether amount taken is enough to be Hepatotoxic • IF IN DOUBT start treatment before the Paracetamol levels get back to save time
  16. 16. Paracetamol ManagementPitfalls • Patients with Liver Disease/ Alcoholics – Depleted stores of Glutathione will start to get toxic build up sooner than healthy people • Staggered Overdoses – Levels unreliable • After 15 hours- what do you do??
  17. 17. Paracetamol Management • TIMEBOMB WAITING TO HAPPEN • IF HAVE LATE PRESENTATION HAVE TO MONITOR FOR IMPENDING LIVER FAILURE • REFER TO SPECIALIST LIVER UNIT • PEOPLE DIE FROM THIS
  18. 18. Opiate Poisoning- Features • Common (particularly in BRI) • Heroin, Methadone, Analgaesics in Elderly • Action on the mu receptors giving the effects in overdose. – 1. PINPOINT PUPILS – 2. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION – 3.COMA
  19. 19. Opiate Overdose-Management • • • • • INITIAL MANAGEMENT A B C D
  20. 20. Opiate Overdose-Management 2 • NALOXONE – – – – – – Opioid antagonist High Affinity for the opiate receptors Little other effects Rapid onset Effects last 2-4 hrs, may need repeated doses Give I-M or I-V
  21. 21. Salicylate (Aspirin) Poisoning • Toxicity occurs due to disturbance in AcidBase Balance • 1. Respiratory Alkalosis • 2. Metabolic Acidosis
  22. 22. Aspirin Poisoning- mechanism 1 • 1.Direct stimulation of the respiratory centre makes you overbreathe. Hyperventilation and Respiratory Alkalosis. • 2. Kidney attempts to compensate for the alkalosis by excreting alkali to give you a metabolic Acidosis • 3. Aspirin inhibits the normal metabolic pathways
  23. 23. Aspirin poisoning- mechanism 2 • 3. Aspirin inhibits the normal metabolic pathways, so you get failure of the normal metabolism of CHO, Fats and Protein. – Build up of Organic Acids – KETONES, LACTATE AND PYRUVATE – CAUSES MORE METABOLIC ACIDOSIS • METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, BAD NEWS
  24. 24. Aspirin Poisoning Clinical Features • COMMON FEATURES: – Vomiting, Dehydration, Tinnitus, Vertigo – Sweating, Bounding pulses, Hyperventilation • UNCOMMON FEATURES: – Confusion, Disorientation, Coma, Convulsions – Haematemesis, Hyperpyrexia, clotting abnormalities, renal failure
  25. 25. Aspirin Overdose-Management • Initial Supportive therapy. If small amounts and asymptomatic may need no treatment • Management tailored according to the amount taken • Able to take Salicylate levels to help guide treatment options
  26. 26. Aspirin Management - General • • • • A B C D
  27. 27. Aspirin Management - Specific • When extremely high levels of Aspirin have been ingested and the patients are symptomatic steps may be taken to• 1. DECREASE ABSORPTION • 2. INCREASE DRUG ELIMINATION
  28. 28. Aspirin- Decreasing absorption • Activated Charcoal – Given in those who have taken more than 250mg/Kg body weight less than 1 hour ago • Gastric Lavage – May be considered in those who have taken more than 500mg/kg body less than 1 hour ago. Steps must be taken to protect the airway
  29. 29. Aspirin-Increasing Drug Elimination • Urinary Alkalinisation – If you increase urinary pH from 5 to 8 there is a 10-20 fold increase in the renal salicylate clearance – This is done by giving an infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate. Care must be taken because this in itself is dangerous and can cause severe Acid Base Disturbances
  30. 30. Aspirin- Increasing Drug Elimination • HAEMODIALYSIS – Used in severe life threatening overdose – Aims to correct the Acid Base disturbances while removing the Salicylate
  31. 31. Tricyclic Antidepressants • Seen relatively frequently • Can be fatal • Can be very symptomatic, effects made worse by alcohol • Main effects are on the Heart and Brain • Effects are – 1. Anticholinergic – 2. Quinidine like
  32. 32. TCA Overdose- Clinical features • ANTICHOLINERGIC EFFECTS – Dry Mouth, Dry Eyes, Dilated Pupils, Urinary Retention, Blurred Vision, Dizziness, Palpitations, Pyrexia without sweating – CNS Effects- Confusion, Delerium, Coma, Convulsions, Myoclonus and Respiratory Depression
  33. 33. TCA Overdose Clinical Features • Cardiac Toxicity (quinidine effects) – Heart Block, Asystole, Bradycardia, Tachycardia, Ventricular Dysrythmias – ECG Changes - broadening of QRS complex, Widened QT Interval
  34. 34. TCA Overdose- Management 1 • Mainstay of initial management is Supportive. Try not to give other drugs ontop with a few specific exceptions • A- May need intubating • B • C- Give IV fluids if low BP • D -Control convulsions with Diazepam
  35. 35. TCA Overdose Management 2 • Activated Charcoal if more than 4 mg/Kg within 1 hour. – N.B WATCH OUT FOR THE AIRWAY • Correct Hypoxia with Oxygen • Correct Acidosis with Na Bic • Correct any arrythmias with Na Bic (i.e start by controlling the acid base disturbance)
  36. 36. QUESTIONS ?
  37. 37. SUMMARY • Get as much history as you can, know your enemy • Mainstay of any poisoning is Supportive • Don’t Forget the ABC • For specific substances there maybe antidotes • For Specific circumstances consider decreasing the absorption or increasing the elimination of the drug.

×