Organization and administration in guidance and counseling2
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION IN GUIDANCE1. Guidance History A. Guidance in the United States Frank Parsons The first organized guidance movement – the move to assist young people – was started by a civic-minded leader in the early part of the 20th century. He is rightfully called the “father” of vocational guidance movement and of the guidance movement in general. He started as a volunteer worker in the Civic Service House in Boston to observe maladjusted young men and women. organized the Breadwinners’ Institute in 1905 with a planned program for vocational guidance. Meyer Bloomfield he next organized the Vocational Bureau of Boston. For the first time, “vocational counselor” and “vocational guidance’ were used with the present connotation. 1934 – there were 35 branches of the National Vocational Guidance Association. Guidance became national in scope when the United States Office of Education established the Occupational Information and Guidance Service with Harry A. Jaeger as director. During World War II, guidance suffered setback when young men were drafted into the military service and to job opportunities in war industries, thus causing a considerable decrease in high school enrolment. There was also a shortage of guidance workers. After the war, the Vocational Rehabilitation Act provided for the training and employment of disabled veterans and the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act for the education and training of veterans. B. Guidance Movements in Europe European countries and Great Britain developed guidance movement similar to those in the United States at about the same time. In Great Britain, as in United States, guidance suffered a setback during World War II because young workers could readily obtain employment without vocational guidance. In France, there is no provision for guidance in the secondary schools. Vocational Guidance was given national recognition in 1922, when guidance services became established offices. In Germany, under the First Reich, although service to the Emperor was part of tradition, vocational guidance enabled boys to find jobs and aided the government to relocate workers where they were needed. In Russia, the vocational guidance bureau handles counseling programs. C. Guidance Movement in the Philippines
In the Philippines, guidance is said to have both accidental and incidental origin. Before 1925, guidance as movement, as it is now practiced and accepted, was unknown in the Philippines. It was only in 1932 when a Psychological Clinic was started by Dr. Sinforoso Padilla and which concerned itself with cases of student discipline, as well as emotional, academic and vocational problems. In November 1945, the first Guidance Institute was opened. The Bureau of Public Schools started to send teachers as pensionados for observation and study of guidance services abroad. In its report of 1951, Congress proposed the establishment of a functional guidance and counseling program to help students select their course, activities, occupations, friends, future mates. In 1953, the Philippine Association of Guidance Counselors was organized in order to study the needs, interests and potentialities of our young people and to establish a Testing Bureau. The most systematic guidance program in the Philippines was launced by the Guidance Section of the United States Veterans Administration composed of both American and Filipino psychologists like Dr. Sinforoso Padilla, Dr. Jesus Perpinan and Mr. Roman Tuason.2. Organizational Chart
Model 1: Organizational Structure for a Small School.This shows that instruction,discipline and guidance are in one line. Model 2: Organizational Structure for a Big School.
3. Guidance Structure Model 3: Flow of Guidance Program
This is a simple structure of the program with the objectives directed to the benefits of the clients. COMMUNICATION/COORDINATION Communication/Coordination is a major aspects of an organization. The guidance counselor reports to the proper authority on relevant issues regarding the guidance program. He also coor- dinates with the proper persons/agencies for the best deliverance of its services;he supervises how they are delivered and carries to right channel. A two- way communication/coordination should be established. Model 4: Line of Communication/Coordination4. Guidance Personnel 1. Chairman
is better known as the educational administrator or dean who, according to Good, is any educational officer responsible for the management or direction of some parts of an educational establishment or system. Typically, it includes such officers as college presidents, school superintendents and principals In any case, the fundamental responsibilities of the administrator include leadership in the organization and reorganization of guidance services, stimulation of a guidance-minded attitude among the members of the guidance staff by means of some form of orientation and in-service education.2. Homeroom and classroom teachers one unit of school administration which is under the direct supervision of a teacher known as the homeroom sponsor and which serves as a second home to the pupils assigned to it for purposes of guidance and for the administration of certain school activities. His aims are to develop desirable pupil-teacher relationships, to assist in the guidance of pupils, to develop desirable ideals and habits – personal and civic, and to expedite the handling of administrative routine.3. Teacher-counselor the pivotal point around which all guidance services must revolve if desired outcomes are to be achieved. serves as a guidance of the pupils’ behavior and attitudes. He enjoys many guidance and counseling opportunities as the only teacher in the grade school, as adviser ao student activities at the high school level or class instructor and activity sponsor in college.4. Coordinators and Counselors has a multiple role. He has administrative responsibility by rendering service to staff members. He helps coordinate the guidance services between the administrator and staff members. He counsels students. He makes and follows up case studies, assists teachers together with counselors. Prepares materials for occupational information, assists the librarian in securing guidance materials and secures the help of the dean, psychiatrists, psychologists, parents, civic organizations, etc.5. Specialists First in the list are the health personnel – doctors, nurses and dentists. And other specialists are psychologist(administers, corrects and interprets the results of standardized tests, usually group test), psychiatrist(deals with mental and emotional problems) and social workers(study the pupil’s homelife and out-of-school conditions and cooperate with the counselors and teachers in understanding the underlying causes of undesirable behavior.
6. The Librarian help young people find reference materials,thus coming to know them intimately. Can give great assistance to the pupils in meeting problems of pupil-adjustment, in the absence of someone in whom they can confide their problems, difficulties and frustrations. 7. Parents first factor of influence in a child’s life is the home. Thus, close cooperation between principal or dean and teachers on one hand and the parents on the other should be achieved. A greatly vitalized phase of the guidance program is the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), inasmuch as the responsibility for guidance in the home lies with the parents and that in the school with the teacher. 8. The Community most important resource for guidance. Local civic, professional, health and welfare agencies like the Rotary Club have rendered valuable cooperation with the school in carrying out the guidance program.5. Basic Organizational Principles 1. It should be based upon the goals or aims of the program. It must be reflective of the school/institution’s vision/mission providing a favorable situation for its wise implementation. It has to be well prepared to meet the needs of the clients. Through the use of checklist, it involves the community, the parents, the students and the teachers in the needs analysis survey. 2. Definition of authority and line of responsibility must be clearly defined. An organizational structure will explain the flow. A clear definition of the job description of the management staff must be implemented. 3. Operation has to be systematic with the extent of control that is well-established. It must evidently present the team or persons responsible for a certain job or activities. 4. Good leadership and human elements must be indicated. A line person involve in the work under a dynamic facilitator should coordinate the guidance services.6. Factors in the Development of a Guidance Program a. Programs goals should be define based on the scope/area it will cover while considering the financial support it will receive. b. Roles and functions of the people in the system have to be explained and described. c. Data, records and resources at hand must also be considered.
d. Training and qualification of the guidance counselor who shall manage the program are relatively vital.e. Time schedule and the number of clients must be given attention.f. Is the guidance counselor a part-time or a full-time worker who can assist a considerable number of persons?g. Ideally, a guidance counselor has four to five assistant counselor-coordinators who are in-charge of fifty clients each.h. The guidance counselor with his staff works full time and coordinates with the assistant counselor-coordinators who may be on part-time service.REPORTERS: Mark Dave, Jessica, Loreto, Jhestony and Myrell