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Knowledge Management And Enterprise Modelling A Complementary Review


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Knowledge Management And Enterprise Modelling A Complementary Review

  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management (KM) </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Modelling (EM) </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The role of EM in KM </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and perspective </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction – General Context <ul><li>There is an increased recognition that the competitive advantage of firms depends on their ability to create, transfer, utilize and protect difficult-to-imitate knowledge assets (Teece, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, management scholars consider knowledge and the capability to create and utilize knowledge to be the most important source of a firm's sustainable competitive advantage (Nonaka, 2000). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1-The organizations exist to deal with the complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Knowledge and knowledge management phenomena are naturally too dynamic and ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>A- Necessary to implementing an integrated view of KM in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>B- Need to have a good understanding of current state of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Modelling Techniques are to design and deal with understanding and modelling the current state of each organization. </li></ul><ul><li>EM is an important tools for KM (more especially in implementation of KM projects) that allows explicating of informal knowledge into formal knowledge </li></ul>Some Statements of our work
  5. 5. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge, Data, Information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>KM Process </li></ul><ul><li>KM Definition </li></ul>
  6. 6. Knowledge, Data, Information <ul><li>Data can be classified as facts, raw numbers, images, words, and sounds derived from observation or measurement out of context that are therefore, not directly meaningful (Zack, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Information results from placing data into some meaningful context and patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge is about beliefs, commitment, perspectives, intention and action (Nonaka, 1994) and so as a justified true belief (Polanyi, 1958) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Knowledge Taxonomy <ul><li>Tacit Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Knowledge </li></ul>Communication Application Revealed by Declarative Procedural Objective Subjective Knowing About Knowing How Nature, Type More Easy Hard, Slow , Costly and Uncertain Transferability Explicit Tacit Factors
  8. 8. KM Process <ul><li>A) Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>B) Knowledge Generation (Creation and Acquisition), Knowledge Codification (Storing), Knowledge Transfer (Sharing), and Knowledge Application (Use). Davenport and Prusak (1998), Alavi and Leidner (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>C) Production + Integration + Application </li></ul>
  9. 9. KM definition <ul><li>The Deliberate and Systematic Coordination of an organization’s People, Processes, Technology, and Structure in order to Add Value through Reuse and Innovation . </li></ul><ul><li>This coordination is achieved through Production, Integration and Application of Knowledge as well as through feeding the valuable Lessons Learned and Best Practices into Corporate Memory in order to foster Continued Organizational Learning . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problematic of KM <ul><li>KM as a Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The needs to have an integrated and systemic methodology with a life cycle; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM as a Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational levels, structure, culture, and management should be Knowledge oriented; So </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how we can prepare these infrastructure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How must be the change management from AS-IS to TO-BE? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How we can select and then apply the tools that were presented in KMS? </li></ul></ul>So for each problematic question we will try to answer by studying and using the EM languages and techniques.
  11. 11. Enterprise Modelling <ul><li>Understanding or explaining an existing situation </li></ul><ul><li>Realizing and then validating a conceived project. </li></ul><ul><li>Externalizing enterprise knowledge </li></ul>Enterprise modelling aims to formalize the Whole or part of an enterprise with the purpose of:
  12. 12. A model is always built on the basis of a language that is either: <ul><li>Abstract (natural language) </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-formal (language with graphic formalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal (mathematical language) </li></ul><ul><li>Models based on an abstract language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describe an existing situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models based on a formal language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow the checking of the properties designed in a given project </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Problematic of EM <ul><li>1) The needs to reinforce and enhance theoric basis of EM specially in reference models to encounter with Knowledge economy. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The needs to considering and then modelling Tacit Knowledge in modeling languages </li></ul><ul><li>3) The importance to have an Corporate Memory that includes Knowledge gathering from different modeling view, to use them. </li></ul>We based our study to research, and develop the potential roles of KM in these research questions.
  14. 14. Framework of our study <ul><li>1) To compare two Notions systematically; </li></ul><ul><li>2) To Define and recategorize the semantic process of Knowledge creation; </li></ul><ul><li>3) To investigate and evaluate the potential roles of EM in KM; </li></ul><ul><li>4) To determine and then realize the potential roles of KM in EM; </li></ul><ul><li>5) To Propose a methodology that encompass an integrated approach to KM by using EM tools; and </li></ul><ul><li>6) To apply and then validate the proposed methodology in a real industrial case. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comparative Analyze <ul><li>Conceptual and theoretical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Project approach </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational approach </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conceptual and theoretical approach Production and process management Systems and Decision systems theory Information systems theory Resource-based view of the firms Organizational Learning theory Information systems theory Underline theory More Explicit but a little Tacit Tacit and Explicit Type of knowledge considered Growth Ethic Develop Ethic Objective Production and Automation, IT/IS Economic, Business and IT/IS Origin and root Positivist Positivist (objectivity) Interpretive (subjectivity) Philosophical approach Enterprise Modelling Knowledge Management Comparative Factors
  17. 17. Project approach Exist in different frameworks Exist in several different frameworks Measurement systems Leadership Commitment Participative Esprit Strategy and Leadership Motivation and Performance Communication and Collaboration Critical success factors EM life cycle accurately designed KM life cycle proposed but not clearly designed Life cycle Practical consideration Not very practical consideration System approach Several sophisticated methods were presented from different viewpoints Several sophisticated methods were presented from different viewpoints Implementation Methodology Several validated model and framework from holistic to microscopic Not a unified and popularity accepted holistic and microscopic model because of diverse approach to KM Framework and strategy Enterprise Modelling Knowledge Management Comparative Factors
  18. 18. Organizational approach Considered but not proposition of new form Considered and some propositions Organizational structure Essential Very essential Managerial and leadership factors Not very clear position but role is in MIS, strategic management or quality department Clear role by considering CKO in MIS or HRM department Roles and responsibilities IT, people Culture, structure, people, IT Enablers (context) Enterprise Modelling Knowledge Management Comparative Factors
  19. 19. The roles of EM in KM <ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Four problem of Knowledge processing </li></ul>Unify Multiple interpretations of a goal, situation or task Equivocality Clarify Inadequate knowledge (patterns/concepts) about, no explanation for, or understanding of a goal, situation or task Ambiguity Certify Insufficient factual information about the goal, situation or task, and some lack of confidence in the consequent inferences, estimates or predictions required Uncertainty Simplify Too many situational elements and relationships to coordinate or consider simultaneously Complexity Requirement Description Knowledge Problem
  20. 20. Conclusion In this paper we argued: The context in which the modern organization acts ( knowledge economy) The need to understand the enterprises and organisation as complex systems. In the Enterprise modelling field, based on multi approach view, the information and knowledge from several unit by several point of view can be gathered and then facilitate a better understanding of current stand of enterprises. Some basic concepts in KM A comparative analyze of two discipline with a meta review
  21. 21. Perspectives <ul><li>Future research: </li></ul><ul><li>To Use the EM tools and approach in detail to facilitate the KM implementation; </li></ul><ul><li>To apply the theoretical basis of KM to enhance the reference models of EM; </li></ul><ul><li>By Regarding the Knowledge Taxonomy, To apply EM in order to model Tacit Knowledge and difficult to imitate resources; and </li></ul><ul><li>To Propose and to apply an integrated methodology and framework to implementing KM approach and then going toward Knowledge based view of the firms. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Questions