OLED SCREENS

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A summary of existing OLEDs technologies and products

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OLED SCREENS

  1. 1. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 1 March 2008
  2. 2. Summary • What is an OLED? • How does an OLED create light? • OLEDs types • OLEDs vs LCD • The OLEDs global market • OLED TV market • TV prototypes • Other OLEDs uses © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 2 March 2008
  3. 3. What is an OLED? Source: http://www.hometheatermag.com/gearworks/0704GWoled/ An OLED or Organic Light Emitting Diode is a light emitting device based on the principle of electroluminescence of organic crystals. An OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 3 March 2008
  4. 4. OLEDs Device operation principles By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 4 March 2008
  5. 5. How do OLEDs create light? © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 5 March 2008
  6. 6. OLEDs structure The two-layer structure Magnesium-silver (10:1) Lithium-Aluminium Polyfluorene Polyaniline Indium-tin-oxide (90%+10%) 550 nm By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 6 March 2008
  7. 7. OLEDs structure The multi-layer structure The multi-layer structure of OLED consists of several layers of organic materials sequentially deposited on glass substrate, each layer having a specific purpose that serves to enhance device quality and performance. The schematic representation of an ideal/standard OLED device is shown below. Source: http://sanjaykram.blogspot.com/2007/10/organic-semiconductors-small-molecules.html © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 7 March 2008
  8. 8. History of OLEDs development • In 1979 Chin Tang discovered electroluminescence in the research department of Kodak. During his work with solar cells he observed a blue glow of organic material. • The technology of current OLEDs was developed by Eastman Kodak starting in 1987 (Tang and Van Slyke) • The first OLEDs were organic light diodes from small molecules (SM- OLED). • In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered. • Cambridge Display Technology developed OLEDs on the basis of polymers (P-OLED or PLED). © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 8 March 2008
  9. 9. Two technological options SM-OLEDs and P-OLEDs Small Molecules = SM-OLEDs Polymer OLEDS = P-OLEDs • Technology developed by Kodak since • Technology developed in 1990 by 1987 Cambridge University in the UK • Small molecules have to be deposited • Spin off into a private company: onto the glass by vacuum deposition  Cambridge Display Technology (CDT) expensive • P-OLEDs allow the solution of organic • Heating necessary  not all the material in liquid Production process compounds can stand heating (glass is not can be spin coating or Ink Jet printing  an option) inexpensive and easy to industrialize • Moisture and oxygen sensitivity of the • Flexible supports (plastic) possible  compounds more options than glass only • Most suitable for small screens • Still lag behind SM-OLEDs in picture • Used in some cell phones made by quality Motorola and in car stereos made by • The technology has been licensed to a Pioneer Electronics. variety of companies including Philips, Seiko, Epson and OSRAM. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 9 March 2008
  10. 10. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 10 March 2008
  11. 11. Passive Matrix – PM-OLEDS • Strips of of cathode and strips of anode arranged in a perpendicular way • The intersection forms the pixel where light is emitted • External circuitry illuminates any chosen pixel in the array by driving the appropriate row line and column line • A video image is created by sequentially scanning through all rows and columns, briefly switching on the pixels needed to display a particular image • The brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of current applied Source: http://www.scienceofspectroscopy.info/edit/index.php?title=OLED_(Fr) © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 11 March 2008
  12. 12. Active Matrix - AM-OLEDs • Each pixel is addressed by at least two TFT (thin-film transistor) transistors, which provide brightness and on-off control by addressing the pixel in a row/column format • The transistor circuits retain the state (on/off) and level (intensity) information programmed by the display electronics. • Therefore, the light output of every pixel is controlled continuously, rather than being quot;pulsedquot; with high currents just once per refresh cycle. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 12 March 2008
  13. 13. Which uses for PM-OLEDs & AM-OLEDs? PM-OLEDs AM-OLEDs • Suitable for 2-3’’ screens • Suitable for large displays (cellphones, PDA, MP3) (computer monitors, TVs) • Consume more, due to the • Consume less, because TFT power needed for external array requires less power circuitry than external circuitry • Easy to produce • Faster refresh rates  suitable for video • More expensive • Brighter and sharper images © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 13 March 2008
  14. 14. OLEDs Acronyms…. TOLED SM- SM-OLED POLED PhOLED RCOLED SOLED PLED FOLED PM-OLED AM -OLED WOLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 14 March 2008
  15. 15. OLEDs for dummies… AM OLED Active Matrix OLED device FOLED Flexible OLED OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode/Device/Display PhOLED Phosphorescent OLED PLED Polymer Light Emitting Diode PM OLED Passive Matrix OLED device P-OLED Polymer OLED (Cambridge Display Technology) RCOLED Resonant Cavity OLED (provides a purer color in the forward direction along the viewing axis of the OLED) SM-OLED Small Molecule OLED (Kodak) SOLED Stacked OLED TOLED Transparent OLED WOLED White OLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 15 March 2008
  16. 16. OLEDs vs. LCD • Self-emitting light, in contrast to the required backlight for LCD • High brightness and contrast (1.000.000 : 1, against max. 10.000 : 1) • Lightweight and thin (less than 2 mm) • The support can be plastic (instead of glass) • Capable of wide viewing angles(~170°) • Low operating voltage and power consumption • Quick response (~ μ second level, instead of 8 msec.) No “trailer” effect • Wide range of operating temperatures (-40 to 85 ) • A simplified manufacturing process compared to LCD © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 16 March 2008
  17. 17. OLEDs vs. LCDs A simplified manufacturing process OLEDs LCDs © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 17 March 2008
  18. 18. OLED vs. LCD Thinner, lighter, faster, brighter © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 18 March 2008
  19. 19. OLEDs are already on the market! Philips- Norelco Sensotec Kodak's EasyShare LS633 zoom digital camera sports an AM550L 2.2quot; OLED active-matrix display. Kodak boasts that the Cell phones with AM This razor has a Polymer- display is so good that you OLEDs based OLED display don't need a PC to own showing battery life and one! Photo: Kodak shave-sensitivity settings. When switched off, it acts as a mirror! © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 19 March 2008
  20. 20. OLEDs market shows strong growth By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 20 March 2008
  21. 21. OLED Market 2004-2005 Revenues 2005 USD 600 mio Source: DisplayBank • 2004: 37 mio units  Korea = 16 million units  Taiwan = 11 million units  Japan = 7 million units  Others = 3 million units • 2005: 61 mio units  global mkt. growth of 65%  Korea = 22 million units  Taiwan = 27 million units  Japan = 8 million units  Others = 4 million units • Leading makers from Korea, Taiwan and Japan control over 90% of the market • China has reached in 2005 half the production of Japan © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 21 March 2008
  22. 22. OLED TV Market 2006 - 2013 • Sales of the first 11’’ OLED display by Sony began in December 2007 in Japan. • The set is sold in the US since January 2008 for USD 2500 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 22 March 2008
  23. 23. Problems OLEDs have to overcome • Lifetime  shorter than other technologies • Moisture and Oxygen  cause major damages • Manufacturing processes  still expensive This requires innovations in materials : chemistry will decide about the future and the success of the OLED technology. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 23 March 2008
  24. 24. LG at CES 2007 The 2.2-inch A220A screens boast QVGA resolution (240 x 320) and 262,000 colors AM-OLED A220A screens © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 24 March 2008
  25. 25. Samsung at CES 2007 & 2008 Samsung's prototype 40-inch OLED TV at CES 2007 • Resolution : 1280 x 800 • Brightness : 600 cd/m² • Contrast ratio : 5000 : 1 Samsung's 14-inch prototype at CES 2008 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 25 March 2008
  26. 26. Samsung at CES 2008 TV sets that are a mere 3cm thick, or less 31’’ OLED • Resolution: 1080p • Contrast : 1.000.000 : 1 • Life expectancy : 35.000 hrs. • Planned for 2009/2010 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 26 March 2008
  27. 27. Sony at CES 2008 XEL-1 - 11’’ OLED 27’’ OLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 27 March 2008
  28. 28. Sony at CES 2008 11’’ XEL-1 27’’ • Resolution : 960 x 540 • Resolution 1920 x 1080 • Contrast : 1.000.000 : 1 • Contrast: 1.000.000 : 1 • Thickness : 3 mm. • Thickness : 10 mm. • Expected life-time: 30.000 hrs. • Brightness: (peaks) 600 cd/m² • Selling price: USD 2500 • On the market by 2009 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 28 March 2008
  29. 29. OLEDs make light! Makoto Tojiki’s “Archimedes Dream” OLED illuminated surfaces © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 29 March 2008
  30. 30. OLEDs make light! © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 30 March 2008
  31. 31. Uses & advantages of lighting OLEDs USES • Replace conventional light bulbs   OLEDs do not get hot  They are flexible so they enable original designs  OLEDs can change colours and brightness at the press of a button • Light emitting wall papers • Lighting windows • Lighting ceilings ADVANTAGES • Energy consumption reduction by 50% • OLEDs do not contain mercury • OLEDs can be disposed of like glass © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 31 March 2008
  32. 32. Customize your keyboard! GAMES • Since each key has an OLED display it is not game dependant. Below is an image of the Optimus keyboard setup to run Quake. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 32 March 2008
  33. 33. Optimus OLED keyboard will change keyboards forever… LANGUAGES AND ALPHABETS Roman QWERTY Russian © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 33 March 2008
  34. 34. Customize your shortcuts • Keyboard icons can look anything you want • Keyboard is OS independent (open-source keyboard) • Optimus keyboard is still expensive (379 € the 1 active button in configuration; 1259€ with 113 active buttons) © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 34 March 2008
  35. 35. You said OLED keyboard? OLED keyboard: easier for control towers than for gamers??? © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 35 March 2008
  36. 36. The future Fully flexible displays Eye catching packaging with changing information content Customizable touchpads for Korean mobile market Concept watch Paper-thin lighting that can be 36 applied to whole wall surfaces.
  37. 37. The future © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 37 March 2008
  38. 38. Bibliography • ANTONIADIS, Homer, Overview of OLED Display Technology, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/cpmt/presentations/cpmt0401a.pdf • BYLUND, Anders, Steve Abramson is OLEDing the way, in The Motley Fool, http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2007/09/26/steve- abramson-is-oleding-the-way.aspx, September 26, 2006 • FELTON, Michael J., Thinner, lighter, better, brighter, in Today’s Chemist at work, http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/tcaw/10/i11/html/11felton.html, November 2001 • FREUDENRICH, Craig, How OLEDs Work, in Howstuffworks, http://computer.howstuffworks.com/oled.htm • HECKER, Dr. Klaus, Brochure on Organic Electronics, OE-A, Organic Electronics Association, VDMA Verlag, 2006 • ISRAELSON, Joshua, Powering OLEDs: the care and feeding of organic displays, http://www.edn.com/article/CA480492.html?text=OLEDs, November 2004 • SMITH, Peter, OLED Displays: Better Than Plasma Or LCD, http://www.siliconchip.com.au/cms/A_30650/printArticle.html • TOON, John, Biasing Spin Statistics: Research Explains How to Boost the Efficiency of Polymer Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Georgia Institute of Technology, http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/oleds.htm, April 2, 2004 • Kodak’s OLEDs Tutorial, http://www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-path=1473&pq-locale=en_US&_requestid=4214 • Site Cambridge Display Technology: http://www.cdtltd.co.uk/ • Site OLED-Display : http://www.oled-display.net/ • Site OLEDomains : http://oledomains.blogspot.com/ • Site OLED-Info : http://www.oled-info.com/ • Site EDN Asia, Ruling the Roost : http://www.ednasia.com/article-17749-rulingtheroost-Asia.html, 2005 • Site IDTechEx : OLED Lighting Has a Bright Future, http://www.idtechex.com/products/en/articles/00000551.asp • Site Practical Home Theater Guide: The Contrast Ratio Game, http://www.practical-home-theater-guide.com/contrast-ratio.html • Site The Science of Spectroscopy : OLED, http://scienceofspectroscopy.info/edit/index.php?title=OLED • Site Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/ • European project OLLA, High Brightness OLEDs, site: http://www.hitech-projects.com/euprojects/olla/ © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 38 March 2008
  39. 39. Little reminder of screen resolutions VGA = Video Graphics Array (original IBM VGA display technology, which became a de facto industry standard in the late 1980s QVGA = Quarter Video Graphics Array © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 39 March 2008

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