Fundamentals of Writing


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Fundamentals of Writing

  1. 1. 1 Fundamentals of writing Deyanira MoraTopic: When choosing a topic for writing, make sure to narrow it down sothat you have something specific. If you write about the general aspects ofthe topic, the information will not be relevant. This means that you cannotuse a topic like education because it is very broad. In this case, beginnarrowing it down as follows. 1. Education in Costa Rica 2. Private education 3. English in private schools 4. Methodology of English teaching in private schools. 5. Most common methodology of English teaching in private schools.Once you have a topic like this, it will be easier to look for informationbecause you can read the sources you find and pick out only what is relatedto your topic.Research: Whatever the topic, you need at least three sources. Otherwiseyou will be copying your source with other words. This is why it is importantto have a narrow topic, so you will be able to extract only relevantinformation from each source. What works for me is to copy all theinformation I find to a document and then delete what I don´t need. What Iam left with are facts, so I can start creating my own version. Remember tocopy the source next to each fragment of information, that way you will notget confused when inserting the in-text citations.Organization: An informal outline is always a good idea in order to organizeyour information, write your thesis statement and choose a topic for eachparagraph.
  2. 2. 2 • If you are specific in your writing, your communication will be more clear and powerful. • Use details, examples, and precise language.Introductory paragraph: It will provide general information about the topic,and it will end with the thesis statement. The thesis is the main point thatyoumake in the essay. It is the statement or proposal of the idea you willdevelop and it is not necessary to mention each one of the topics within thisthesis statement; however, you need to mention in a general way whataspects are going to be developed.Each body paragraph will have a topic sentence, which will be the first orsecond. • What is a topic sentence? – The key point that you make in the paragraph. • This is the minimum required for a simple and complete sentence with no errors. 1. Subject 2. Verb 3. Complete thoughtIn the conclusion, restate the thesis statement but do not repeat it. Also,provide a summary of what has been developed, as well as final thoughts(not new facts).Avoid: • Using the second person point of view (p.o.v.) “you” • These phrases: I believe…, I think…, In my opinion…, I personally…, I myself personally believe that…
  3. 3. 3 • Writing like you speak • Words such as: thing, a lot, basically, nice, just, something, would, like • Contractions: Use cannot (not can’t), I am (not I’m), I will (not I’ll), it is (not it’s) • Directly addressing the readerEx: You are going to learn about how (or I am going to tell you about how)after our family trip to Oregon, I realized how dysfunctional my familyreally is.Correction:After our family trip to Oregon, I realized how dysfunctional myfamily really is. • Announcing your purpose and planEx: In this essay, I am going to discuss how MTV has had an enormousimpact on the spending habits of young people.Correction: MTV has had an enormous impact on the spending habits ofyoung people. • Abbreviations, and symbols: do not use & or L.A • Repeating words, especially at the beginning of sentences (use a thesaurus or change the sentence around)Using the APA:When you use others ideas in your paper, you should credit them with an in-text citation. APA Style uses a kind of parenthetical referencing called theauthor–date system.As the name author–date system implies, APA Style in-text citations includethe author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the authornames in running text and the date in parentheses. Here are two examples:
  4. 4. 4 1. -After the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week (Smith &Wexwood, 2010). 2. -Smith and Wexwood (2010) reported that after the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week.-The "and" in Smith and Wexwood is written as an ampersand (&) insideparentheses and as the word and outside of parentheses, as shown in theexamples above.For direct quotations, use apostrophes and include the page number: 1. According to Palladino and Wade (2010), “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147). 2. In 2010, Palladino and Wade noted that “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147). 3. In fact, “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (Palladino& Wade, 2010, p. 147). 4. “A flexible mind is a healthy mind,” according to Palladino and Wade’s (2010, p. 147) Palladino and Wade’s (2010) results indicate that “a flexible mind is a healthy mind”(p. 147).Parenthetical references:What information do Solution Position A Position Byou have?I have both author and n/a Authorsurname yeardate Substitute the Title of Book orAuthorismissing title for the "Title of year author name Article"
  5. 5. 5 Use "n.d." forDate ismissing Authorsurname n.d. "no date" Combine Title of Book orAuthor and date are solutions for "Title of n.d.both missing author and date Article" being missingThe Reference List goes at the end of the paper under this title and italphabetically organized according to the first position.The APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) says,"Each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list,and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text" (p. 174).Reference sample for books Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Reid, J.M. (2000). The Process of Composition (3rd Ed.). White Plains, NY: Prentice Hall RegentsPrator C. &Robinett, B. (1985).Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th ed.). Orlando FL: Harcourt Brace& CompanyReference Sample for newspapers
  6. 6. 6Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile.The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.comFor articles found in the InternetProvide the following four pieces of information: Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxThe in-text citation includes the author and date(Author, date), as with any otherArticle in the Internet with no authorThe title moves to the first position of the reference entry:New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001).Retrieved March 21, 2001, from in- text the first few words of the reference list entry(usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marksaround the title or abbreviated title.: (“New Child Vaccine”, 2001)
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8Use the tab References in Word to create in-text references and ReferenceList.Choose the language on the right-hand corner.
  9. 9. 91. Cover Page sample2. Running Head and page number (pending)
  10. 10. 10Punctuation:PeriodsRule 1Use a period at the end of a complete sentence that is a statement.Example:I know that you would never break my trust intentionally.Rule 2If the last word in the sentence ends in a period, do not follow it with another period.Examples:I know that M.D. She is my sister-in-law.Please shop, cook, etc. I will do the laundry.Rule 3Use the period after an indirect question.Example:He asked where his suitcase was.CommasRule 1To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of threeor more.Example:My $10millionestate is to be split among my husband, daughter, son, and nephew.
  11. 11. 11Omitting the comma after son would indicate that the son and nephew would have to splitone-third of the estate.Rule 2Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the word and can be inserted between them.Examples:He is a strong, healthy man.We stayed at an expensive summer resort. You would not say expensive and summerresort, so no comma.Rule 3Use a comma when an -ly adjective is used with other adjectives.NOTE: To test whether an -ly word is an adjective, see if it can be used alone with thenoun. If it can, use the comma.Examples:Felix was a lonely, young boy.I get headaches in brightly lit rooms.Brightly is not an adjective because it cannot be usedalone with rooms; therefore, no comma is used between brightly and lit.Rule 4Use commas before or surrounding the name or title of a person directly addressed.Examples:Will you, Aisha, do that assignment for me?Yes, Doctor, I will.NOTE: Capitalize a title when directly addressing someone.Rule 5aUse a comma to separate the day of the month from the year and after the year.Example:Kathleen met her husband on December 5, 2003, in Mill Valley, California.Rule 5bIf any part of the date is omitted, leave out the comma.
  12. 12. 12Example:They met in December 2003 in Mill Valley.Rule 6Use a comma to separate the city from the state and after the state in a document. If you usethe two-letter capitalized form of a state in a document, you do not need a comma after thestate.NOTE: With addresses on envelopes mailed via the post office, do not use anypunctuation.Examples:I lived in San Francisco, California, for 20 years.I lived in San Francisco, CA for 20 years.Rule 7Use commas to surround degrees or titles used with names. Commas are no longer requiredaround Jr. and Sr. Commas never set off II, III, and so forth.Example:Al Mooney, M.D., knew Sam Sunny Jr. and Charles Starr III.Rule 8Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt sentence flow.Example:I am, as you have probably noticed, very nervous about this.Rule 9When starting a sentence with a weak clause, use a comma after it. Conversely, do not use acomma when the sentence starts with a strong clause followed by a weak clause.Examples:If you are not sure about this, let me know now.Let me know now if you are not sure about this.Rule 10Use a comma after phrases of more than three words that begin a sentence. If the phrase hasfewer than three words, the comma is optional.
  13. 13. 13Examples:To apply for this job, you must have previous experience.On February 14 many couples give each other candy or flowers.OROn February 14, many couples give each other candy or flowers.Rule 11If something or someone is sufficiently identified, the description following it is considerednonessential and should be surrounded by commas.Examples:Freddy, who has a limp, was in an auto accident.Freddy is named, so the description is notessential.The boy who has a limp was in an auto accident. We do not know which boy is beingreferred to without further description; therefore, no commas are used.Rule 12Use a comma to separate two strong clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction--and, or,but, for, nor. You can omit the comma if the clauses are both short.Examples:I have painted the entire house, but he is still working on sanding the doors.I paint and hewrites.Rule 13Use the comma to separate two sentences if it will help avoid confusion.Examples:I chose the colors red and green, and blue was his first choice.Rule 14A comma splice is an error caused by joining two strong clauses with only a commainstead of separating the clauses with a conjunction, a semicolon, or a period. A run-onsentence, which is incorrect, is created by joining two strong clauses without anypunctuation.Incorrect:Time flies when we are having fun, we are always having fun. (Comma splice)Time flies when we are having fun we are always having fun. (Run-on sentence)Correct:Time flies when we are having fun; we are always having fun.
  14. 14. 14ORTime flies when we are having fun, and we are always having fun. (Comma is optionalbecause both strong clauses are short.)ORTime flies when we are having fun. We are always having fun.Rule 15If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, do not use a comma.Example:Hethought quickly but still did not answer correctly.Rule 16Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations shorter than three lines.Examples:He actually said, "I do not care.""Why," I asked, "do you always forget to do it?"Rule 17Use a comma to separate a statement from a question.Example:I can go, cant I?Rule 18Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence.Example:That is my money, not yours.Rule 19Use a comma when beginning sentences with introductory words such as well, now, or yes.Examples:Yes, I do need that report.Well, I never thought Id live to see the day…Rule 20
  15. 15. 15Use commas surrounding words such as therefore and however when they are used asinterrupters.Examples:I would, therefore, like a response.I would be happy, however, to volunteer for the Red Cross.Rule 21Use either a comma or a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, that is, i.e.,for example, e.g., or for instance when they are followed by a series of items. Use a commaafter the introductory word.Examples:You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.ORYou may be required to bring many items; e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.NOTE:i.e. means that is; e.g. means for exampleQuestion MarksRule 1Use a question mark only after a direct question.Examples:Will you go with me?I asked if he would go with me.Rule 2Use a question mark when a sentence is half statement and half question.Example:You do care, dont you?
  16. 16. 16ColonsRule 1Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductorywords such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear.Examples:You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.I want an assistant who can do the following: (1) input data, (2) write reports, and (3)complete tax forms.Rule 2A colon should not precede a list unless it follows a complete sentence; however, the colonis a style choice that some publications allow.Examples:If a waitress wants to make a good impression on her customers and boss, she should (a)dress appropriately, (b) calculate the bill carefully, and (c) be courteous to customers.There are three ways a waitress can make a good impression on her boss and hercustomers:(a) Dress appropriately.(b) Calculate the bill carefully.(c) Be courteous to customers.I want an assistant who can (1) input data, (2) write reports, and (3) complete tax forms.Rule 3Capitalization and punctuation are optional when using single words or phrases in bulletedform. If each bullet or numbered point is a complete sentence, capitalize the first word andend each sentence with proper ending punctuation. The rule of thumb is to be consistent.Examples:I want an assistant who can do the following:(a) input data,(b) write reports, and(c) complete tax forms.The following are requested:(a) Wool sweaters for possible cold weather.
  17. 17. 17(b) Wet suits for snorkeling.(c) Introductions to the local dignitaries.ORThe following are requested:(a) wool sweaters for possible cold weather(b) wet suits for snorkeling(c) introductions to the local dignitariesNOTE: With lists, you may use periods after numbers and letters instead of parentheses.These are some of the pool rules:1. Do not run.2. If you see unsafe behavior, report it to the lifeguard.3. Have fun!Rule 4Use a colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences when the second sentenceexplains or illustrates the first sentence and no coordinating conjunction is being used toconnect the sentences. If only one sentence follows the colon, do not capitalize the firstword of the new sentence. If two or more sentences follow the colon, capitalize the firstword of each sentence following.Examples:I enjoy reading: novels by Kurt Vonnegut are among my favorites.Garlic is used in Italian cooking: It greatly enhances the flavor of pasta dishes. It alsoenhances the flavor of eggplant.Rule 5Use the colon to introduce a direct quotation that is more than three lines in length. In thissituation, leave a blank line above and below the quoted material. Single space the longquotation. Some style manuals say to indent one-half inch on both the left and rightmargins; others say to indent only on the left margin. Quotation marks are not used.Example:The author of Touched, Jane Straus, wrote in the first chapter: Georgia went back to her bed and stared at the intricate patterns of burned mothwings in the translucent glass of the overhead light. Her father was in ―hyper mode‖ againwhere nothing could calm him down. He’d been talking nonstop for a week about remodeling projects, following heraround the house as she tried to escape his chatter. He wasjustabouttocrash, sheknew.
  18. 18. 18Rule 6Use the colon to follow the salutation of a business letter even when addressing someoneby his/her first name. Never use a semicolon after a salutation. A comma is used after thesalutation for personal correspondence.Example:Dear Ms. Rodriguez:SemicolonsRule 1Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction hasbeen left out.Examples:Call me tomorrow; I will give you my answer then.I have paid my dues; therefore, I expect all the privileges listed in the contract.Rule 2It is preferable to use a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, however,therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they introduce a completesentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after the introductory word.Examples:You will want to bring many backpacking items; for example, sleeping bags, pans, andwarm clothing will make the trip better.As we discussed, you will bring two items; i.e., a sleeping bag and a tent are not optional.Rule 3Use either a semicolon or a comma before introductory words such as namely, however,therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they introduce a list followinga complete sentence. Use a comma after the introductory word.
  19. 19. 19Examples:You will want to bring many backpacking items; for example, sleeping bags, pans, andwarm clothing.You will want to bring many backpacking items, for example, sleeping bags, pans, andwarm clothing.Rule 4Use the semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units containcommas.Example:This conference has people who have come from Boise, Idaho; Los Angeles, California;and Nashville, Tennessee.Rule 5Use the semicolon between two sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction when oneor more commas appear in the first sentence.Examples:When I finish here, I will be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep.If she can, she will attempt that feat; and if her husband is able, he will be there to see her.ApostrophesRule 1Use the apostrophe with contractions. The apostrophe is always placed at the spot wherethe letter(s) has been removed.Examples:dont, isntYoure right.Shes a great teacher.Rule 2
  20. 20. 20Use the apostrophe to show possession. Place the apostrophe before the s to show singularpossession.Examples:one boys hatone womans hatone actresss hatone childs hatMs. Changs houseNOTE: Although names ending in s or an s sound are not required to have the second sadded in possessive form, it is preferred.Examples:Mr. Joness golf clubsTexass weatherMs. Strauss daughterJose Sanchezs artworkDr. Hastingss appointment (name is Hastings)Mrs. Leess books (name is Lees)Rule 3Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied.Example:This was his fathers, not his, jacket.Rule 4To show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then immediately use theapostrophe.Examples:two boys hats two womens hatstwo actresses hatstwo childrens hatsthe Changs housethe Joneses golf clubsthe Strauses daughterthe Sanchezes artworkthe Hastingses appointmentthe Leeses booksRule 5
  21. 21. 21Do not use an apostrophe for the plural of a name.Examples:We visited the Sanchezes in Los Angeles.The Changs have two cats and a dog.Rule 6With a singular compound noun, show possession with sat the end of the word.Example:my mother-in-laws hatRule 7If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe.Example:my two brothers-in-laws hatsRule 8Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item.Examples:Cesar and Maribels home is constructed of redwood.Cesars and Maribels job contracts will be renewed next year.Indicates separate ownership.Cesar and Maribels job contracts will be renewed next year.Indicates joint ownership of more than one contract.Rule 9Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose.They already show possession so they do not require an apostrophe.Correct:This book is hers, not yours.Incorrect:Sincerely yours.Rule 10The only time an apostrophe is used for its is when it is a contraction for it is or it has.
  22. 22. 22Examples:Its a nice day.Its your right to refuse the invitation.Its been great getting to know you.Rule 11The plurals for capital letters and numbers used as nouns are not formed with apostrophes.Examples:She consulted with three M.D.s.BUTShe went to three M.D.s offices.The apostrophe is needed here to show plural possessive.She learned her ABCs.the 1990s not the 1990sthe 90s or the mid-70s not the 90s or the mid-70sShe learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.Exception:Use apostrophes with capital letters and numbers when the meaning would be unclearotherwise.Examples:Please dot your is.You dont mean is.Ted couldnt distinguish between his 6s and 0s.You need to use the apostrophe to indicate the plural of zero or it will look like the wordOs. To be consistent within a sentence, you would also use the apostrophe to indicate theplural of 6s.Rule 12Use the possessive case in front of a gerund (-ing word).Examples:Alexs skating was a joy to behold.This does not stop Joans inspecting of our facilities next Thursday.Rule 13If the gerund has a pronoun in front of it, use the possessive form of that pronoun.Examples:I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.I appreciated his working with me to resolve theconflict.
  23. 23. 23"As chairman of the Apostrophe Protection Society (, I had towrite and express my pleasure at seeing your view on the apostrophe and names ending inan s." —John RichardsDashesThere are many uses of the en and em dash and also many ways to form these dashes usingyour computer. The following explanations offer the most common uses and methods forforming these dashes.En DashAn en dash, roughly the width of an n, is a little longer than a hyphen. It is used for periodsof time when you might otherwise use to.Examples:The years 2001–2003January–JuneAn en dash is also used in place of a hyphen when combining open compounds.Examples:North Carolina–Virginia bordera high school–college conferenceMost authorities recommend using no spaces before or after en or em dashes. To form anen dash with most PCs, type the first number or word, then hold down the ALT key whiletyping 0150 on the numerical pad on the right side of your keyboard. Then type the secondnumber or word.DashesThere are many uses of the en and em dash and also many ways to form these dashes usingyour computer. The following explanations offer the most common uses and methods forforming these dashes.En Dash
  24. 24. 24An en dash, roughly the width of an n, is a little longer than a hyphen. It is used for periodsof time when you might otherwise use to.Examples:The years 2001–2003January–JuneAn en dash is also used in place of a hyphen when combining open compounds.Examples:North Carolina–Virginia bordera high school–college conferenceMost authorities recommend using no spaces before or after en or em dashes. To form anen dash with most PCs, type the first number or word, then hold down the ALT key whiletyping 0150 on the numerical pad on the right side of your keyboard. Then type the secondnumber or word.Em DashAn em dash is the width of an m. Use an em dash sparingly in formal writing. In informalwriting, em dashes may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses to indicateadded emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought.Examples:You are the friend—the only friend—who offered to help me.Never have I met such a lovely person—before you.I pay the bills—she has all the fun.A semicolon would be used here in formal writing.I need three items at the store—dog food, vegetarian chili, and cheddar cheese.Remember, a colon would be used here in formal writing.My agreement with Fiona is clear—she teaches me French and I teach her German.Again, a colon would work here in formal writing.Please call my agent—Jessica Cohen—about hiring me.Parentheses or commas would work just fine here instead of the dashes.I wish you would—oh, never mind.This shows an abrupt change in thought and warrants an em dash.To form an em dash on most PCs, type the first word, then hold down the ALT key whiletyping 0151 on the numerical pad on the right side of your keyboard. Then type the second
  25. 25. 25word. You may also form an em dash by typing the first word, hitting the hyphen keytwice, and then typing the second word. Your program will turn the two hyphens into anem dash for you.While there are many more possible uses of the em dash, by not providing additional rules,I am hoping to curb your temptation to employ this convenient but overused punctuationmark.Ellipsis MarksUse ellipsis marks when omitting a word, phrase, line, paragraph, or more from a quotedpassage.NOTE: To create ellipsis marks with a PC, type the period three times and the spacing willbe automatically set, or press Ctrl-Alt and the period once.The Three-dot MethodThere are many methods for using ellipses. The three-dot method is the simplest and isappropriate for most general works and many scholarly ones. The three- or four-dot methodand an even more rigorous method used in legal works require fuller explanations that canbe found in other reference books.Rule 1Use no more than three marks whether the omission occurs in the middle of a sentence orbetween sentences.Example:Original sentence:The regulation states, "All agencies must document overtime or risk losing federal funds."Rewritten using ellipses:The regulation states, "All agencies must document overtime..."NOTE: With the three-dot method, you may leave out punctuation such as commas thatwere in the original.Example:Original sentence from Lincolns Gettysburg Address:"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a newnation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are createdequal."Rewritten using ellipses:
  26. 26. 26"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth...a new nation, conceived inliberty..."Rule 2When you omit one or more paragraphs within a long quotation, use ellipsis marks after thelast punctuation mark that ends the preceding paragraph.HyphensHyphens Between WordsRule 1To check whether a compound noun is two words, one word, or hyphenated, you may needto look it up in the dictionary. If you cant find the word in the dictionary, treat the noun asseparate words.Examples:eyewitness, eye shadow, eye-openerNOTE:All these words had to be looked up in the dictionary to know what to do with them!Rule 2Phrases that have verb, noun, and adjective forms should appear as separate words whenused as verbs and as one word when used as nouns or adjectives.Examples:The engine will eventually break down. (verb)We suffered a breakdown in communications. (noun)Please clean up your room. (verb)That Superfund site will require specialized cleanup procedures. (adjective)Rule 3Compound verbs are either hyphenated or appear as one word. If you do not find the verbin the dictionary, hyphenate it.
  27. 27. 27Examples:To air-condition the house will be costly.We were notified that management will downsize the organization next year.Rule 4Generally, hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun andact as a single idea.Examples:friendly-looking man(compound adjective in front of a noun)friendly little girl(not a compound adjective)brightly lit room(Brightly is an adverb describing lit, not an adjective.)Rule 5When adverbs not ending in -ly are used as compound words in front of a noun, hyphenate.When the combination of words is used after the noun, do not hyphenate.Examples:The well-known actress accepted her award.Well is an adverb followed by another descriptive word. They combine to form one idea infront of the noun.The actress who accepted her award was well known.Well known follows the noun it describes, so no hyphen is used.A long-anticipated decision was finally made.He got a much-needed haircut yesterday.His haircut was much needed.Rule 6Remember to use a comma, not a hyphen, between two adjectives when you could haveused and between them.Examples:I have important, classified documents.Jennifer received a lovely, fragrant bouquet on Valentines Day.Rule 7Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
  28. 28. 28Examples:The teacher had thirty-two children in her classroom.Only twenty-one of the children were bilingual.Rule 8Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.Examples:You need one-third of a cup of sugar for that recipe.More than one-half of the student body voted for removing soda machines from campus.ParenthesesRule 1Use parentheses to enclose words or figures that clarify or are used as an aside.Examples:I expect five hundred dollars ($500).He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand thequestion.Commas could have been used in the above example. Parentheses show less emphasis orimportance.Em dashes, which could also have been used instead of parentheses, show emphasis.Rule 2Use full parentheses to enclose numbers or letters used for listed items.Example:We need an emergency room physician who can (1) think quickly, (2) treat patientsrespectfully, and (3) handle complaints from the public.Rule 3Periods go inside parentheses only if an entire sentence is inside the parentheses.Examples:Please read the analysis (I enclosed it as Attachment A.).OR
  29. 29. 29Please read the analysis. (I enclosed it as Attachment A.)ORPlease read the analysis (Attachment A).Punctuation section was copied from the following source:Strauss, J. (n.d.) Retrieved from