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08 lecture presentation

  1. 1. WHAT CELL REPRODUCTION ACCOMPLISHES • Reproduction: – May result in the birth of new organisms – More commonly involves the production of new cells © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. • When a cell undergoes reproduction, or cell division, two “daughter” cells are produced that are genetically identical to each other and to the “parent” cell. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. • Before a parent cell splits into two, it duplicates its chromosomes, the structures that contain most of the organism’s DNA. • During cell division, each daughter cell receives one set of chromosomes. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Cell division plays important roles in the lives of organisms. • Cell division: – Replaces damaged or lost cells – Permits growth – Allows for reproduction
  5. 5. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • In asexual reproduction: – Single-celled organisms reproduce by simple cell division – There is no fertilization of an egg by a sperm
  6. 6. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Some multicellular organisms, such as sea stars, can grow new individuals from fragmented pieces.
  7. 7. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Growing a new plant from a clipping is another example of asexual reproduction.
  8. 8. LM Asexual Reproduction Figure 8.1ba
  9. 9. Asexual Reproduction Figure 8.1bb
  10. 10. Asexual Reproduction Figure 8.1bc
  11. 11. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • In asexual reproduction, the lone parent and its offspring have identical genes. • Mitosis is the type of cell division responsible for: – Asexual reproduction – Growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms
  12. 12. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Sexual reproduction requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis. • Thus, sexually reproducing organisms use: – Meiosis for reproduction – Mitosis for growth and maintenance
  13. 13. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • In a eukaryotic cell: – Most genes are located on chromosomes in the cell nucleus THE CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS
  14. 14. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Eukaryotic Chromosomes • Each eukaryotic chromosome contains one very long DNA molecule, typically bearing thousands of genes. • The number of chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell depends on the species.
  15. 15. Number of chromosomes in body cells Indian muntjac deer Species Opossum Koala Human Mouse Giraffe Buffalo Dog Red viscacha rat Duck-billed platypus 102 78 60 54 46 40 30 22 16 6 Figure 8.2
  16. 16. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Chromosomes: – Are made of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein molecules – Are not visible in a cell until cell division occurs
  17. 17. Chromosomes LM Figure 8.3
  18. 18. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Before a cell divides, it duplicates all of its chromosomes, resulting in two copies called sister chromatids. • Sister chromatids are joined together at a narrow “waist” called the centromere.
  19. 19. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • When the cell divides, the sister chromatids separate from each other. • Once separated, each chromatid is: – Considered a full-fledged chromosome – Identical to the original chromosome
  20. 20. Chromosome duplication Sister chromatids Chromosome distribution to daughter cells Figure 8.5
  21. 21. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cell Cycle • A cell cycle is the orderly sequence of events that extend from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell to its own division into two cells. • The cell cycle consists of two distinct phases: – Interphase – The mitotic phase
  22. 22. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Most of a cell cycle is spent in interphase. • During interphase, a cell: – Performs its normal functions – Doubles everything in its cytoplasm – Grows in size Video: Animal Mitosis
  23. 23. Nuclear envelope LM Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Spindle microtubules Fragments of nuclear envelopeCentrosome Centromere Early mitotic spindle Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin PROPHASEINTERPHASE Figure 8.7.a
  24. 24. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • The mitotic (M) phase includes two overlapping processes: – Mitosis, in which the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei – Cytokinesis, in which the cytoplasm is divided in two Video: Sea Urchin (time lapse)
  25. 25. Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) Mitosis (division of nucleus) Mitotic (M) phase: cell division (10% of time) Interphase: metabolism and growth (90% of time) S phase (DNA synthesis; chromosome duplication) G1 G2 Figure 8.6
  26. 26. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mitosis and Cytokinesis • During mitosis the mitotic spindle, a football-shaped structure of microtubules, guides the separation of two sets of daughter chromosomes. • Spindle microtubules grow from two centrosomes, clouds of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain centrioles.
  27. 27. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Mitosis consists of four distinct phases:
  28. 28. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. – (A) Prophase – (B) Metaphase – (C) Anaphase – (D) Telophase
  29. 29. ANAPHASEMETAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS Spindle Daughter chromosomes Cleavage furrow Nuclear envelope forming Figure 8.7b
  30. 30. ANAPHASEMETAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS Spindle Daughter chromosomes Cleavage furrow Nuclear envelope forming Figure 8.7ba
  31. 31. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Cytokinesis typically: – Occurs during telophase – Divides the cytoplasm – Is different in plant and animal cells Animation: Cytokinesis Blast Animation: Cytokinesis in Plant Cells
  32. 32. Cleavage furrow Contracting ring of microfilaments Daughter cells Figure 8.8ab
  33. 33. Daughter cells New cell wall Vesicles containing cell wall material Cell plateCell wall Wall of parent cell Cell plate forming Daughter nucleus LM Figure 8.8b
  34. 34. Wall of parent cell Cell plate forming Daughter nucleus LM Figure 8.8ba
  35. 35. Daughter cells New cell wall Vesicles containing cell wall material Cell plate Cell wall Figure 8.8bb
  36. 36. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer Cells: Growing Out of Control • Normal plant and animal cells have a cell cycle control system that consists of specialized proteins, which send “stop” and “go- ahead” signals at certain key points during the cell cycle.
  37. 37. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Cancer? • Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. • Cancer cells do not respond normally to the cell cycle control system.
  38. 38. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Cancer cells can form tumors, abnormally growing masses of body cells. • The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site of origin is metastasis. • Malignant tumors can: – Spread to other parts of the body – Interrupt normal body functions • A person with a malignant tumor is said to have cancer.
  39. 39. A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Cancer cells invade neighboring tissue. Metastasis: Cancer cells spread through lymph and blood vessels to other parts of the body. Glandular tissue Blood vessel Tumor Lymph vessels Figure 8.9
  40. 40. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer Treatment • Cancer treatment can involve: – Radiation therapy, which damages DNA and disrupts cell division – Chemotherapy, which uses drugs that disrupt cell division
  41. 41. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer Prevention and Survival • Certain behaviors can decrease the risk of cancer: – Not smoking – Exercising adequately – Avoiding exposure to the sun – Eating a high-fiber, low-fat diet – Performing self-exams – Regularly visiting a doctor to identify tumors early
  42. 42. • Sexual reproduction: – Uses meiosis – Uses fertilization – Produces offspring that contain a unique combination of genes from the parents Meiosis, the Basis of Sexual Reproduction © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  43. 43. Figure 8.10
  44. 44. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Homologous Chromosomes • Different individuals of a single species have the same number and types of chromosomes.
  45. 45. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • A human somatic cell: – Is a typical body cell – Has 46 chromosomes
  46. 46. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • A karyotype is an image that reveals an orderly arrangement of chromosomes. • Homologous chromosomes are matching pairs of chromosomes that can possess different versions of the same genes.
  47. 47. Pair of homologous chromosomes LM One duplicated chromosome Centromere Sister chromatids Figure 8.11
  48. 48. LM Figure 8.11a
  49. 49. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Humans have: – Two different sex chromosomes, X and Y – Twenty-two pairs of matching chromosomes, called autosomes
  50. 50. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gametes and the Life Cycle of a Sexual Organism • The life cycle of a multicellular organism is the sequence of stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next.
  51. 51. Multicellular diploid adults (2n  46) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION MITOSIS 2n and development Key Sperm cell n n Diploid zygote (2n  46) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Egg cell Haploid gametes (n  23) Figure 8.12
  52. 52. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Humans are diploid organisms in which: – Their somatic cells contain two sets of chromosomes – Their gametes are haploid, having only one set of chromosomes
  53. 53. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • In humans, a haploid sperm fuses with a haploid egg during fertilization to form a diploid zygote. • Sexual life cycles involve an alternation of diploid and haploid stages.
  54. 54. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Meiosis produces haploid gametes.
  55. 55. MEIOSIS I Sister chromatids separate. MEIOSIS II Homologous chromosomes separate. INTERPHASE BEFORE MEIOSIS Sister chromatids Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Chromosomes duplicate. Pair of homologous chromosomes in diploid parent cell Figure 8.13-3
  56. 56. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Process of Meiosis • In meiosis: – Haploid daughter cells are produced in diploid organisms – Interphase is followed by two consecutive divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II – Crossing over occurs
  57. 57. MEIOSIS I: HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES SEPARATE Sister chromatids remain attached Pair of homologous chromosomes INTERPHASE Sister chromatids Homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange segments. Chromosomes duplicate. Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up. Pairs of homologous chromosomes split up. Nuclear envelope Chromatin Centromere Microtubules attached to chromosome Sites of crossing over Spindle Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I Figure 8.14a
  58. 58. TELOPHASE II AND CYTOKINESIS Sister chromatids separate ANAPHASE II Cleavage furrow TELOPHASE I AND CYTOKINESIS Two haploid cells form; chromosomes are still doubled. MEIOSIS II: SISTER CHROMATIDS SEPARATE PROPHASE II METAPHASE II During another round of cell division, the sister chromatids finally separate; four haploid daughter cells result, containing single chromosomes. Haploid daughter cells forming Figure 8.14b
  59. 59. TELOPHASE II AND CYTOKINESIS Sister chromatids separate ANAPHASE IIPROPHASE II METAPHASE II Haploid daughter cells forming Figure 8.14ba
  60. 60. PROPHASE II METAPHASE II Figure 8.14bb
  61. 61. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review: Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis • In mitosis and meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate only once, during the preceding interphase.
  62. 62. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • The number of cell divisions varies: – Mitosis uses one division and produces two diploid cells – Meiosis uses two divisions and produces four haploid cells • All the events unique to meiosis occur during meiosis I.
  63. 63. Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) MITOSIS Prophase Chromosome duplication Chromosomes align at the middle of the cell. Metaphase Sister chromatids separate during anaphase. Anaphase Telophase Daughter cells of mitosis 2n2n Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I MEIOSIS Chromosome duplication Homologous chromosomes come together in pairs. MEIOSIS I Site of crossing over between homologous (nonsister) chromatids Homologous pairs align at the middle of the cell. Chromosome with two sister chromatids Homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I; sister chromatids remain together. Daughter cells of meiosis I Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II. Haploid n  2 MEIOSIS II Parent cell (before chromosome duplication) 2n  4 Daughter cells of meiosis II n n n n Figure 8.15
  64. 64. Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) MITOSIS Prophase Chromosome duplication Chromosomes align at the middle of the cell. Metaphase Prophase I Metaphase I MEIOSIS Chromosome duplication Homologous chromosomes come together in pairs. MEIOSIS I Site of crossing over between homologous (nonsister) chromatids Homologous pairs align at the middle of the cell. Parent cell (before chromosome duplication) 2n  4 Figure 8.15a
  65. 65. Sister chromatids separate during anaphase. Anaphase Telophase Daughter cells of mitosis 2n2n Anaphase I Telophase I Chromosome with two sister chromatids Homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I; sister chromatids remain together. Daughter cells of meiosis I Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II. Haploid n  2 MEIOSIS II Daughter cells of meiosis II n n n n Figure 8.15b
  66. 66. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Origins of Genetic Variation • Offspring of sexual reproduction are genetically different from their parents and one another.
  67. 67. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Independent Assortment of Chromosomes • When aligned during metaphase I of meiosis, the side-by-side orientation of each homologous pair of chromosomes is a matter of chance. • Every chromosome pair orients independently of the others during meiosis.
  68. 68. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • For any species the total number of chromosome combinations that can appear in the gametes due to independent assortment is: – 2n where n is the haploid number. • For a human: – n = 23 – 223 = 8,388,608 different chromosome combinations possible in a gamete Blast Animation: Genetic Variation: Independent Assortment Animation: Genetic Variation
  69. 69. Metaphase of meiosis I POSSIBILITY 1 POSSIBILITY 2 Figure 8.16-1
  70. 70. Metaphase of meiosis I Metaphase of meiosis II POSSIBILITY 1 POSSIBILITY 2 Figure 8.16-2
  71. 71. Metaphase of meiosis I Metaphase of meiosis II Combination a POSSIBILITY 1 POSSIBILITY 2 Combination b Combination c Combination d Gametes Figure 8.16-3
  72. 72. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Crossing Over • In crossing over: – Homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information – Genetic recombination, the production of gene combinations different from those carried by parental chromosomes, occurs Blast Animation: Genetic Variation: Fusion of Gametes Animation: Crossing Over
  73. 73. Prophase I of meiosis Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Figure 8.18-1
  74. 74. Homologous chromatids exchange corresponding segments. Prophase I of meiosis Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Chiasma, site of crossing over Figure 8.18-2
  75. 75. Metaphase I Homologous chromatids exchange corresponding segments. Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres. Prophase I of meiosis Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Chiasma, site of crossing over Spindle microtubule Figure 8.18-3
  76. 76. Metaphase I Metaphase II Homologous chromatids exchange corresponding segments. Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres. Prophase I of meiosis Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Chiasma, site of crossing over Spindle microtubule Figure 8.18-4
  77. 77. Metaphase I Metaphase II Recombinant chromosomes Gametes Recombinant chromosomes combine genetic information from different parents. Homologous chromatids exchange corresponding segments. Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres. Prophase I of meiosis Duplicated pair of homologous chromosomes Chiasma, site of crossing over Spindle microtubule Figure 8.18-5
  78. 78. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • What happens when errors occur in meiosis? • Such mistakes can result in genetic abnormalities that range from mild to fatal. When Meiosis Goes Awry
  79. 79. How Accidents during Meiosis Can Alter Chromosome Number • In nondisjunction, the members of a chromosome pair fail to separate during anaphase, producing gametes with an incorrect number of chromosomes. • Nondisjunction can occur during meiosis I or II. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  80. 80. Meiosis I Nondisjunction: Pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate. NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS I NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS II Figure 8.20-1
  81. 81. Meiosis I Nondisjunction: Pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate. NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS I Meiosis II Nondisjunction: Pair of sister chromatids fails to separate. NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS II Figure 8.20-2
  82. 82. Meiosis I Abnormal gametes Gametes Nondisjunction: Pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate. NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS I Number of chromosomes Meiosis II Nondisjunction: Pair of sister chromatids fails to separate. Abnormal gametes Normal gametes nnn  1n  1 n – 1n  1 NONDISJUNCTION IN MEIOSIS II n – 1 n – 1 Figure 8.20-3
  83. 83. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • If nondisjunction occurs, and a normal sperm fertilizes an egg with an extra chromosome, the result is a zygote with a total of 2n + 1 chromosomes. • If the organism survives, it will have an abnormal number of genes.
  84. 84. Abnormal egg cell with extra chromosome Normal sperm cell n  1 n (normal) Abnormal zygote with extra chromosome 2n  1 Figure 8.21
  85. 85. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Down Syndrome: An Extra Chromosome 21 • Down Syndrome: – Is also called trisomy 21 – Is a condition in which an individual has an extra chromosome 21 – Affects about one out of every 700 children
  86. 86. Chromosome 21 Figure 8.22a
  87. 87. Figure 8.22b
  88. 88. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • The incidence of Down Syndrome increases with the age of the mother.
  89. 89. Age of mother 25 35 4520 30 40 50 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90InfantswithDownsyndrome (per1,000births) Figure 8.23
  90. 90. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Abnormal Numbers of Sex Chromosomes • Nondisjunction can also affect the sex chromosomes.
  91. 91. Table 8.1
  92. 92. Figure 8.24
  93. 93. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. • Sexual reproduction may convey an evolutionary advantage by: – Speeding adaptation to a changing environment – Allowing a population to more easily rid itself of harmful genes • Asexual reproduction conveys an evolutionary advantage when plants are: – Sparsely distributed – Superbly suited to a stable environment
  94. 94. Duplication of all chromosomes Genetically identical daughter cells Distribution via mitosis Figure 8.UN1
  95. 95. Duplicated chromosome Chromosome (one long piece of DNA) Centromere Sister chromatids Figure 8.UN2
  96. 96. Interphase Cell growth and chromosome duplication G2 Mitotic (M) phase S phase DNA synthesis; chromosome duplication G1 Genetically identical “daughter” cells Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) Mitosis (division of nucleus) Figure 8.UN3
  97. 97. MITOSIS Male and female diploid adults (2n  46) MEIOSIS Sperm cell Human Life Cycle Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Haploid gametes (n  23) Egg cell Diploid zygote (2n  46) and development FERTILIZATION 2n n n Figure 8.UN4
  98. 98. Daughter cells Parent cell (2n) MITOSIS Chromosome duplication 2n 2n MEIOSIS MEIOSIS IParent cell (2n) Chromosome duplication Daughter cells n MEIOSIS II Pairing of homologous chromosome Crossing over n nn Figure 8.UN5

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