Madison MooreFN 424Professional PresentationNeeds Assessment1/26/12 1. Mini Conference Group Theme: Nutrition to Promote Health and Fight Disease - This theme deals with nutrition intervention to prevent or treat disease such as diabetes, cancer nutrition, malnutrition, eating disorders in athletes, nutrition in school lunches, and Danish food culture. 2. National/Program Goals and Concerns: Eating disorders are becomingmore prevalent with time. NCAA studies have shown that at least 40 percent of institutions have one case of anorexia nervosa or bulimia in their athletic program. When the athlete has been identified for an eating disorder he or she should be referred for medical, psychological, and nutrition evaluations. One worldwide issue that can lead to eating disorders in athletes is the chronically dieting athletes. One of the goals for eating disorders in athletes is prevention. There have been large efforts to educate the coaching staff and athletes of the negative impacts of under fueling the body and food/weight preoccupation of the athlete‟s performance and overall wellbeing. National Collegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Nutrition and Performance. NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook website. Available at http://www.ncaa.org/wps/portal/ncaahome?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ncaa/ NCAA/Academics+and+Athletes/Personal+Welfare/Nutrition- performance/Nutrition. 2009 Accessed February 1, 2012. 3. Hot Topics in the News: In order to start prevention on eating disorders in athletes, knowledge about eating disorders needs to be placed first. A study by Ashlee Hoffman revealed that it may be hard for college students to recognize the warning signs of eating disorders. The survey also reveals that one out of four students reported they had a “lifetime involvement in disordered eating” and 50 percent knew an individuals who had/or has an eating disorder. Only a moderate percentage of the student could name other risk factors that could trigger eating disorders. Research examines college students‟ knowledge about eating disorders.Science Daily. October 31, 2011. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111031120245.htm New Advances in Research:
A study was conducted to see how the contribution of a contextual body image perspective on disordered eating in high performance women. This questionnaire was divided up into sections such as „appearance‟, „muscularity‟, „thin-fat self evaluation‟ and thin-fat perceived opinions of others‟, in both contexts. The results of the study showed that both the „thin-fat self‟ and „thin-fat opinions of others‟ in sports made a huge contribution to explaining eating disorder variance, showing the important role of the athletic body image, meaning that the contextual body image approach seems to be a future framework for understanding athletes with disordered eating. Bruin AP, Oudejan R, Bakker FC, Woertman L. Contextual body image and athletes‟ disordered eating: The contribution of athletic body image to Disordered Eating in High Performance Women Athletes. Eur. Eat. Disorders Rev. 2011; 19:201-215.4. Primary Data Collection and Assessment: Survey Our mini conference group consisted of six students. Each student created 4-5 questions that they wanted to ask and know about their specific topic. The main idea of the survey was for each of us to decide between 2 broad topics if we were given the option. The survey was given to 12 members of the F&N 424 Thursday morning lab. After the survey was conducted each member of the group tallied up their questions on the survey and then had Morgan turn in all the original surveys. The survey was very helpful because it allowed me to narrow down my topic and to see what people‟s opinions were about certain aspects and what they wanted to know about eating disorders in athletes. My questions were quite broad and did not center on just one type of eating disorder, but overall I ended up with great questions that I could ask my focus group about. I asked my individual questions to find out how interested my audience was in learning about eating disorders in athletes. I also wanted to know what my audience thought was the main reasons for eating disorders in athletes, and in what sports they thought body weight was the most important aspect. For the most part my audience selected the same variable and the same sports, which helped me narrow my topic down to those answers. The most difficult part of the survey for me was coming up with questions that did not start with “what do you know”, but instead to make it “what do you think”. For my next survey I would add more variety in my questions. Focus Group The focus group took place in STON 232 on January 26, 2012. The people that attended were Wes, Gina as well as my fellow peers in the class. We all sat in a circle around a big table and the focus group questions were asked from the person whose topic we were on. The guests answered the questions to
the best of their knowledge, and if my peers knew some information about the topic they were encouraged to answer as well. My group had no specific way of knowing which person was to ask his or her question. I asked my focus groups my questions in relation to figure out who my target audience should be and what type of questions I should ask for my presentation. My questions were also asked because I wanted to make sure my information for my presentation is accurate and to educate my audience in helping preventing eating disorders in athletes. Survey Questions/Answers 1. How interested in learning about eating disorders in athletes?Not very interested 1 (1) 2 3 (3) 4 (6) 5 (2) Very interested 2. What different variables do you think attribute to eating disorders (check all that apply). ___ Self Esteem(10) ___ Media(11) ___ Body Image(12) ___ Depression(7) ___ Other(3) 3. What type of athletes do you think are more concerned about their body weight? ___ Track (10) ___ Swimming/Diving (11) ___ Football (7) ___ Gymnastics (10) ___ Wrestling (7) ___ Triathletes (4) ___ Basketball (1) ___ Cycling 4. What are you more interested to learn about in eating disorders in athletes? Diagnosing Treatment (5) Both (6) No Preference (1) I would say that the focus group was not as effective as it could have been. Eventhough everyone participated and there were hardly any points where everyone was quiet,the timing was not on point, making it so we ended earlier than the other group. Eventhough we ended before time was up, the focus group worked well because everyoneknew at least one answer to one of the questions and everyone had their own opinion. Focus Group Questions/Answers 1. How many of you grew up playing sports? Everyone 2. What sports did you play?
All Types: basketball, track, cross-country, swimming, gymnastics, cheerleading, tennis, soccer. 3. How many of you know what the different types of eating disorders are, what are they? Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge Eating 4. What do you think the diagnostic criterion is for eating disorders? Extreme weight loss, obsessive habits, binge eating, low self-esteem, bad teeth. InterviewsI interviewed two students, Sadie Nagle and Allison Schenk. Both of these students arefrom class, but were not part of my mini conference. The questions I came up for myinterview were based off my questions from my focus group questions and answers.What I learned from the focus group audience was that not only one sport is affected byeating disorders.Interview Questions 1. If you had to pinpoint one cause of eating disorders in athletes what would it be?Allison: The constant pressure to be the best.Sadie:Pressure to look skinny for image (ballet). 2. How would you say the most effective way to teach athletes about healthy eating and habits?Allison: Probably hosting a dinner of some sort. Serve them the portions and varieties offoods that are necessary.Sadie:Create a small teaching session where athletes come in and learn how to pack anappropriate lunch or snack for competitions that require traveling (2-3 hrs or day trips). 3. Who should be the target audience when dealing with eating disorders in athletes? Coaches? Athletes? Parents?Allison: I think the coaches would be most effective. As we get older we tend to notlisten to our parents as much, and an athlete looks to their coach as they‟re mostimportant influence.Sadie:High School or College athletes (16-24 years) and Coaches. Parents may need tobe involved if using a high school setting (maybe even teachers if you choose your targetaudience to be in high school). 4. What is something about eating disorders you would like to know more about?Allison: The percentage of athletes diagnosed with an eating disorder.Sadie:Long term effects of a prolonged eating disorders and the body‟s ability to recoverfrom an eating disorder (time, nutrients of importance, etc). 5. How would you present this information to the target audience?
Allison: Put it in terms of their team—so say something like “with these statistics, yourentire defensive line could have an eating disorder.”Sadie:I think PowerPoint presentation would be effective in presenting the information.However, using classroom interaction would help the audience think of the differentthings that are a part of an eating disorder (head-over projector and ask the class whatthey think defines a BMI and write them down, etc). 6. Is there a misconception on eating disorders in athletes that needs to be cleared up?Allison: There is a misconception—people believe that the only eating disorders areanorexia and bulimia. This isn‟t true.Also, I think it‟s important for athletes to know thattheir performance will be at an all-time high if they eat a well-balanced diet every day.Sadie:Most people, I think, don‟t understand what habits (signs/symptoms) indicate aneating disorder. Yes, most people will notice a reduction in food intake, but what aboutthe person who eats and immediately goes to the bathroom; lying, etc about food andfood habits. 7. Do you think social media has an impact on eating disorders in athletes? If so, what does it have?Allison: The athletes that magazines show on the cover of their magazines are always theleanest, fastest, tallest, and most muscular.Sadie:Yes, I think social media has an impact on eating disorders in athletes. Everyoneinteracts with some form of social media whether its Facebook, TV, radio, ads on buses,etc. All it takes is one professional athlete to promote a supplement for weight loss or afood product to affect an individual and put in their head that this supplement or productcould be used as a tool for weight loss or manipulation for the diet. 8. Are there some preliminary measures that could be taken to screen for eating disorders in athletes and basically stop it before it happens?Allison: Maybe like a calculation of the amount of calories they should be consumingbased on activity level compared to what they are actually consuming.Sadie:3 day or more food record could be used to identify eating habits and kcal intake.Food questionnaires, body image questionnaires, BMI that indicates underweight,checking hands (fingers) for scarring from vomiting, discoloration of teeth (abnormal).Family interviews may be useful to help indicate eating habits.9: Can you give me one type of prevention for this disease? Why do you think itwould work?Allison: I think that athletes should be educated starting young. I think that coachesshould talk to their players as pee-wees.Sadie:Education to athletes on the effects of what an eating disorder could do theirathletic career. Could be useful and effective if coaches required they to attend.The interview was helpful because it allowed me to narrow my topic down to what Ireally needed to focus on such as, what in society attributes to eating disorders in athletes
and that coaches, and athletes should be my target audience because in order to helpdecrease the prevalence of eating disorders in athletes, athletes need to be informed ofthis disease along with the coaches to help prevent it. Next time, I would ask more in-depth, “what do you think” questions instead of just asking the basics about eatingdisorders, because sometimes I thought the interviewees were bored because it was basicknowledge for them. Summary of Information In conclusion, I learned that there are many different factors that can lead to aneating disorder in athletes, with body image, media, and self esteem being the top threefrom my survey. I also learned from my surveythat there are many different sports inwhich my classmates thought the athletes were concerned about their body weight. Frommy focus group, I learned that people want to learn the diagnostic criteria and how toprevent eating disorders in athletes. From my interviews, I learned that in order to helpprevent eating disorders it is the job of the coach to teach the athletes at a young age, butit is also important for athletes to be educated in school about eating disorders.Therearedifferent misconceptions when it comes to eating disorders. One misconceptionis that the only two eating disorders there are, are anorexia and bulimia. Also individualswhether they are a high school student, or a athlete do not understand the signs/symptomsof eating disorders. Interpretation of Data Using the results from my survey, focus group, and interviews, I was able tonarrow my topic down and to decide what I want my complex concept to be. Having mytopic narrowed down and complex concept chosen I can organize my presentation mucheasier compared to if I did not have those two. My complex concept is going to be thedifferent stages leading up to osteoporosis in women. I learned to make my goals on howto prevent malnutrition in athletes and to show that proper nutrition can be beneficial toan athlete‟s performance. If coaches and athletes are not educated about how to preventeating disorders, then this problem will not be fixed. Also with the survey I was able tocome up with my potential objectives. The three potential objectives I came up with areto raise awareness of the consequences of anorexia in high endurance female athletes, beable to list three nutrition tips to prevent anorexia in high endurance female athletes, andto be able to define the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome.