The effectiveness of celebrities as product endorsers
The Effectiveness ofCelebrities as Product endorsersPresented by: Courtney Goudes
Research Question• Are Celebrities Effective As Product Endorsers?
Sub-research Questions• SRQ1: What factors (credibility, attractiveness, expertise, familitarit y) have the most influence over pre- purchasing behavior?• SRQ2: Do consumers care if the celebrity is mismatched, moderately matched, or perfectly matched or the product.
Purpose•To understand if multiple uses of celebrities in brand promotion can increase the chances of recurring purchases.•To exams consumer responses to celebrities based on how well they were matched to the product they are endorsing. • To determine which factors (credibility, expertise, attractiveness, or familiarity) pays the biggest role in determining how effective celebrities are as product endorsers.
Theories Source Credibility ModelThe source’s credibility is the degree to which a viewer perceives the source to possess knowledge or an appropriate experience and do not provide biased information. Thus two fundamental dimensions for source’s credibility are: expertise and trustworthiness (Hovland and Weiss 1951). Matching Hypothesis
Theories Matching Hypothesis“According to Match up theory the influence of using a celebrity on consumer perceptions depends on the congruency between the endorsed product and the celebrity. It also argues that the effect of using a star does not only depend on source of attractiveness orsource of credibility of the star but it depends basically on the fit between the image of the celebrity and the product.” (Solomon 1992)
Survey• Participants: – 100 Nontraditional and Traditional Students at Queens University of Charlotte. – Freshman, Junior, Senior, and Graduate – Ages Groups – 18-26, 27-35, 36-43, 44-49, 50+ 69 22 6 1 2 – Genders • 50 Male • 50 Females
Celebrity Endorser• “a person who enjoys the public recognition and who uses this recognition in the name of goods while appearing with this one in advertising. They must have symbolic and cultural meanings when associating themselves with products they transfer these meanings to the endorsed products, and these meanings are passed to the target audience.” McCracken (1989)
Facts: While You’re Young 3mth infants - 40% watch television regularly -This number will change to 90% by the age of two. 36 mth olds – can form mental images of organizations mascots Leading Character Endorsers -Elmo -Spongebob - Dora -Barbie - Disney Princesses - Buzz Lightyear - Batman - Superman THESE CHARACTERS are just the Beginning for Future Consumers
Facts:• Approximately 25% of all commercials use celebrity endorsements, and advertisers must be aware of how they match their endorser to their brand. (Baker and Tagg 2001).• According to Gaied and Rached (2010), the initial age for girls to be influenced by the celebrity endorsements ranged from 18 to 35.
Results Matching Hypothesis 86%90% 78%80%70%60%50% Males Females40%30% 18%20% 14%10% 4% 0%0% No Match Moderately Matched Perfectly Matched
CredibleName, Expertise, Attraction, and Familiarity credibility •two fundamental dimensions for source’s are: expertise and trustworthiness (Hovland and Weiss 1951). •Attractiveness and familiarity does play a role in how attracted the consumers are to the brands image, but it does not want to make the consumer engage in purchasing the product. • Hovland, Janis and Kelly (1953) defined expertise as the “extent to which a communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions.”
Excellent Credibility to their Name70% 64%60% 48%50%40% 32% Males30% Females 18% 18%20% 16%10% 2% 2% 0% 0%0% Very Likely Somewhat Neither Likely Somewhat Very Unlikely Likely nor Unlikely Unlikeley
Expertise in the product60% 54%50% 44%40% 36%30% Males 26% Females20% 16% 14%10% 4% 2% 2% 2%0% Very Likely Somewhat Neither Likely Somewhat Very Unlikely Likely nor Unlikely Unlikeley
Attractiveness 34% 34%35% 32% 30%30%25% 20%20% 16% Males15% Females 12% 10%10% 8% 4%5%0% Very Likely Somewhat Neither Likely Somewhat Very Unlikely Likely nor Unlikely Unlikeley
Familiarity60% 52% 50%50%40%30% Males 24% Females 20% 20%20% 12%10% 8% 4% 4% 2%0% Very Likely Somewhat Neither Likely Somewhat Very Unlikely Likely nor Unlikely Unlikeley
Findings• 64% of all the Males chose Credibility as their mostimportant variable when purchasing from a celebrityendorse.• 50% of all the Females placed the greatest amount ofemphasis on Familiarity for their purchase decision. Ranking Males: Credibility, Expertise, Familiarity, AttractivenessFemales: Familiarity, Credibility, Expertise, Attractiveness
Findings•Respondent’s answers show consumers are morewilling to purchase products from companies that haveperfectly matched the celebrity to the product they arerepresenting.• Findings also indicate that there is a higher ratepurchase from celebrities that possess the followingqualities: credibility, expertise in the product beingrepresented, and familiarity.
References• Baker, M.,Tagg,S.(2001). Selecting Celebrity Endorsers: The Practitioner’s Perspective. Journal of Advertising and Research. 41. pp. 39-49• Bush, A., Craig, A., Victoria, D. (2004) Sports Celebrity Influence on Behavioural Intentions of Generation Y. Journal of Advertising Research. 44. pp. 108-118• Cooper, M. (1984). Can Celebrities Really Sell Products? Marketing and Media Decisions. 19 pp.64-65• Elberse, A.,Verleun, J. (2012). The Economic Value of Celebrity Endorsements. Journal of Advertising Research. June 2012. 146-165.• Friedman, H., Friedman, L. (1979). Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type. Journal of Advertising, 19, pp 63-71.• Gaied, A.,Rached, K. (2010). The Persuasive Effectiveness of Famous and Non Famous Endorsers in Advertising. IBIMA Business Review.Volume 2010. pp. 14• Hoffner,C., Cantor, J. (1991). Perceiving and Responding to Mass Media Characters. In J. Bryant and D. Zillman (eds), Responding to the Screen: Resception and Reaction Process, pp. 63-102.• Hovland,C., Weiss, W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly. 15. pp. 635-650• Hovland, C., Janis I., Kelly, H. (1953). Construction and Validation of scale to measure celebrity endorsers perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiness. Journal of Advertising 19. pp. 39-52• McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. Journal of Consumer Research. 16. pp. 310-321.• McDonough, J. (1995). Bringing brands to life. Advertising Age Midwest Region Edition. 66. pp. 3• McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and Attitude Change.The Handbook of Social Pyschology. 2. pp. 233-346• Mowen, J., Brown, S. (1981). On Explainging and Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers. Advances in Consumer Research. 8. pp.437-441.• O’Mahony, S., Meenaghan, T. (1997). Research and Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Consumers, New way of integrated communication. The Netherlands, ESCOMAR, pp. 1-16.• Pornpitakpan, C. (2003) The Effect of Celebrity Endorsers Perceived Credibility on Product Purchase Intention: The Case of Singaporeans. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 16. pp. 55-74.• Rovell, D. (2006). Investors Fret About Nike’s Star Endorsements. CNBC, September 22, 2006.• Solomon, M.,Ashmore, R., Longo, L. (1992). The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of Beatuy and Product Images in Advertisng, Journal of Advertising . 21. pp. 23-34.• Tripp, C., Jensen, T., Carlson, L. (1994). The Effect of Multiple Product Endorsements by Celebrities on Consumers’ Attitudes and Intentions. Journal of Consumer Research. 20. pp. 535-547.• Walker, M., Langmeyer, L. (1992). Celebrity Endorsers: Do You Get What You Pay For? Journal of Service Marketing. 6 pp. 35-42.• Wooeside, A., Devenport, W. (1974). The Effect of Salesman Similarity and Expertise on Consumer Purchasing Behavior. Journal of Marketing Research. 11. pp. 198- 202.