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Ob15 01

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Organigational Behavoir

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Ob15 01

  1. 1. Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior? Student Study Slideshow 1-1
  2. 2.  Understanding OB helps determine manager effectiveness ◦ Technical and quantitative skills important ◦ But leadership and communication skills are CRITICAL  Organizational benefits of skilled managers ◦ Lower turnover of quality employees ◦ Higher quality applications for recruitment ◦ Better financial performance © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2
  3. 3.  They get things done through other people. ◦ Make decisions ◦ Allocate resources ◦ Direct activities of others to attain goals  Work in an organization ◦ composed of two or more people ◦ functions on a relatively continuous basis ◦ achieve a common goal or set of goals. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3
  4. 4.  PLAN ◦ defining goals, ◦ establishing strategy ◦ developing plans to coordinate activities.  ORGANIZE ◦ what tasks are to be done ◦ who is to do them ◦ how the tasks are to be grouped ◦ who reports to whom ◦ where decisions are to be made © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4
  5. 5.  LEAD ◦ motivating employees ◦ directing others ◦ selecting the most effective communication channels ◦ resolving conflicts  CONTROL ◦ Monitoring performance, ◦ comparing actual performance with previously set goals, ◦ correcting any deviation. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5
  6. 6.  Ten roles in three groups (Exhibit 1-1)  Interpersonal ◦ Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison  Informational ◦ Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson  Decisional ◦ Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6
  7. 7.  Technical Skills ◦ The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise  Human Skills ◦ The ability to work with, understand, and motivate people, individually and in groups  Conceptual Skills ◦ The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7
  8. 8.  Four types of managerial activity: Traditional Management Decision-making, planning, and controlling. Communication Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork Human Resource Management Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training. Networking Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others.  Managers who promoted faster (were successful) did different things than did effective managers (those who did their jobs well) – see Exhibit 1-2. 1-8
  9. 9. A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge  toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9
  10. 10.  Intuition ◦ Gut feelings ◦ Individual observation ◦ Common sense  Systematic Study ◦ Looks at relationships ◦ Scientific evidence ◦ Predicts behaviors  The two are complementary means of predicting behavior. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 10
  11. 11. Evidence-Based Management (EBM) Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. Must think like scientists: Pose a managerial question Search for best available evidence Apply relevant information to case © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 11
  12. 12. The trick is to know when to go with your gut. – Jack Welsh  Intuition is often based on inaccurate information  Faddism is prevalent in management  Systematic study can be time-consuming Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. That is the promise of OB. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 12
  13. 13.  Psychology measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior ◦ Unit of Analysis:  Individual ◦ Contributions to OB:  Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception  Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction  Individual decision making, performance appraisal, attitude measurement  Employee selection, work design, and work stress © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 13
  14. 14.  Social Psychology  blends concepts from psychology and sociology  focuses on the influence of people on one another Unit of Analysis: Group Contributions to OB: Behavioral change Attitude change Communication Group processes Group decision making © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 14
  15. 15. – Unit of Analysis: – Organizational System – Group – Contributions to OB: ◦ Formal organization theory ◦ Organizational technology ◦ Organizational change ◦ Organizational culture © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 15 • Sociology people in relation to their social environment and culture
  16. 16. – Unit of Analysis: -- Organizational System -- Group – Contributions to OB: ◦ Organizational culture ◦ Organizational environment ◦ Comparative values ◦ Comparative attitudes ◦ Cross-cultural analysis © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 16 • Anthropology study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
  17. 17. Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change —e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 17 Contingency Variable (Z) Independent Variable (X) Dependent Variable (Y) In American Culture Boss Gives “Thumbs Up” Sign Understood as Complimenting In Iranian or Australian Cultures Boss Gives “Thumbs Up” Sign Understood as Insulting
  18. 18.  Responding to Globalization  Managing Workforce Diversity  Improving Quality and Productivity  Improving Customer Service  Improving People Skills  Stimulating Innovation and Change  Coping with “Temporariness”  Working in Networked Organizations  Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts  Creating a Positive Work Environment  Improving Ethical Behavior © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 18
  19. 19.  Our OB model has three levels of analysis: ◦ Each level is constructed on the prior level  Individual  Group  Organizational Systems (Exhibit 1-5) © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 19
  20. 20. Independent (X) Dependent (Y) The presumed cause of the change in the dependent variable (Y). This is the variable that OB researchers manipulate to observe the changes in Y. ◦ This is the response to X (the independent variable). ◦ It is what the OB researchers want to predict or explain. ◦ The interesting variable! © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 20 X → Y → Predictive Ability
  21. 21.  Productivity Transforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost).  Absenteeism Failure to report to work – a huge cost to employers.  Turnover Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.  Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 21
  22. 22.  Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) ◦ Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.  Job Satisfaction ◦ A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 22
  23. 23. The independent variable (X) can be at any of these three levels in this model: Individual Biographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes, ability, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision making. Group Communication, group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, conflict, power and politics, and work teams. Organization System Organizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 23
  24. 24.  See Exhibit 1-6 in the text. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1- 24 This three-part section contains the Independent Variables (X) in ascending levels: individual, group, and organizational system. This section contains the Dependent Variables (Y)

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