• Emperor Penguins are the largest of 17 species
• The average yearly survival rate of the Emperor
Penguin is 95.1%, with an average life span of
• 1% of Emperor Penguins hatched could reach
an age of 50 years.
• Only 19% of chicks survive their first year of life.
So, 80% of the Emperor Penguin population
consists of adults five years and older.
Slide 3 : Appearance (Diagram of
Emperor Penguin’s major body parts)
• The adult Emperor Penguin stands up to 110–130 cm
(43–51 in) tall.
• The weight ranges from 22.7 to 45.4 kg (50 to 100 lb)
• The Emperor has a streamlined body to minimize drag
while swimming, and wings that become stiff, flat
• The tongue is equipped with rear‐facing barbs to prevent
prey from escaping when caught.
• The adult has deep black dorsal feathers, covering the
head, chin, throat, back, dorsal part of the flippers, and
• The under parts of the wings and belly are white. The
Emperor Penguin chick is typically covered with silver‐
grey down and has a black head and white mask.
• It almost always breeds on stable pack ice near the coast and
up to 18 km offshore. You will only find Emperor Penguins in
Antarctica, they don't live anywhere else in the world.
• Emperor penguins do not migrate, they spend the entire year
in Antarctica and are one of the few animals to spend winter
• Breeding colonies are usually located in areas where ice cliffs
and icebergs shelter them from the wind.
• The total population is estimated at around 400,000–450,000
individuals, which are distributed among 40 independent
• Emperor penguins live on the Antarctic ice and feed in the
waters of the Antarctic.
• They even breed and lay their eggs during the freezing
temperatures of the Antarctic during winter
• The penguins start mating in March or April, when the temperature can be as low as −40 °C .
• The female penguin lays one egg of 1 lb in May or early June.
• After laying, the mother's nutritional reserves are exhausted and she very carefully transfers
the egg to the male, before immediately returning to the sea for two months to feed.
• The male spends the winter incubating the egg in his pouch, balancing it on the tops of his
feet, for 64 consecutive days until hatching.
• In these four months, the male may lose as much as 20 kg.
• Hatching may take as long as two or three days to complete.
• Newly hatched chicks are covered with only a thin layer and entirely dependent on their
parents for food and warmth.
• The female penguin returns at any time from hatching to ten days afterwards, from mid‐July
to early August. Female takes over caring for the chick, feeding it by the food that she has
stored in her stomach.
• The male then leaves to take his turn at sea, spending around 24 days there before
• About 45–50 days after hatching, the chicks form a crèche, huddling together for warmth
• From early November, chicks begin moulting into juvenile plumage, which takes up to two
months and is often not completed by the time they leave the colony; adults cease feeding
them during this time. All birds make the considerably shorter trek to the sea in December
or January and spend the rest of the summer feeding there.
Slide 6 : Diet
• The Emperor Penguin's diet consists mainly of fish.
• The diet of the Emperor penguin includes krill, fish, squid and
other various crustaceans.
• Fish are usually the most important food source, and the
Antarctic silverfish makes up the bulk of the bird's diet.
• The Emperor Penguin searches for prey in the open water, in
ice‐free areas of open water.
• One of its feeding strategies is to dive to around 50 m, where
it can easily spot sympagic fish swimming against the bottom
surface of the sea‐ice; it swims up to the bottom of the ice
and catches the fish. It then dives again and repeats the
sequence about half a dozen times before surfacing to
Slide 7 : Predators
• The Emperor Penguin's predators include birds and aquatic
• The Southern Giant Petrel is the predominant land predator
• It is responsible for up to 34% of chick deaths in some
colonies though they often scavenge dead penguins as well.
• The known aquatic predators are both mammals: 1) the
Leopard Seal, which takes some adult birds, as well as
fledglings soon after they enter the water, and the 2 ) Orca
which takes adult birds.
• If one of a breeding pair dies or is killed during the breeding
season, the surviving parent must abandon its egg and go
back to the sea to feed.
Slide 8 :
• How does the species contribute to the diversity of
life? (How does this species help the environment)?
• It keeps specific fishes populations from not over
• Penguins are a significant source of specific animals
(for example Leopard seals)
• How do humans continue to impact the natural
environment of your chosen species? How do
humans interact and interfere with this species?
• Humans continue to impact the natural
environment of the Emperor Penguin by causing
• Global warming causes the ice that the penguins
live on to melt.
• This causes a huge disruption in their population
• Other interesting facts/pictures (several slides)
This slide will be included in the slide show