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  1. 1. Diplomacy Nai Jia Jia (11) Ng Hui Xin (13) 305
  2. 2. Bilateral Relations Regional Relations International Relations How is diplomacy practiced?
  3. 3. Bilateral Relations <ul><li>Diplomatic relations with another country </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: in the 1970s, countries like Japan & the USA established trading relationships with S’pore. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: 1. let S’pore acquire advanced technological skills from these DCs (developed countries) </li></ul><ul><li>2. speed up social & economic development. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Regional Relations <ul><li>Countries in the same region form an association </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: ASEAN which is founded in August 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: 1. allow warm & friendly relations between all members to be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>2. able to respond to the changing conditions in the world by introducing new initiatives together. </li></ul>
  5. 5. International Relations <ul><li>Involve ties among many countries & groupings throughout the world </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: UN which has a membership of 192 countries! </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: 1. manages international crises & resolves conflicts between/ within countries </li></ul><ul><li>2. ensure peacekeeping, peacemaking, provides humanitarian assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>3. elections are organised & human rights are monitored </li></ul>
  6. 6. We chose International Relations!!!
  7. 7. S’pore’s involvement in UN peacekeeping missions in Cambodia <ul><li>Khmer Rouge- followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1980s the Khmer Rouge(supplied by Thailand, the US & the UK) continued to control much of Cambodia and attacked territory not under their dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>These attacks made reconstruction virtually impossible </li></ul><ul><li>and left Cambodia deeply reduced to poverty </li></ul><ul><li>(impoverished). </li></ul>Flag of Communist Party of Kampuchea
  8. 8. <ul><li>Peace efforts began in Paris in 1989 under the State of Cambodia, culminating two years later in October 1991 in a comprehensive peace settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>The UN was given a mandate to enforce a ceasefire, and deal with refugees and disarmament known as the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore provided large amounts of military aid </li></ul><ul><li>(sent over 400 police, SAF (S’pore Army Forces) & </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Service officers to keep peace within Cambodia). </li></ul>S’pore’s involvement in UN peacekeeping missions in Cambodia (cont’d)
  9. 9. Singapore's participation in International Relations? <ul><li>UN peacekeeping operations </li></ul><ul><li>S’pore has been involved in these efforts since 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>sent over 400 police, SAF (S’pore Army Forces) & Civil Service officers in such missions to various countries (e.g Timor Leste) </li></ul><ul><li>By 2005, S’pore was invvolved in 13 operations in 11 different countries & contributed about 1500 personnel for these missions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why are such international relations so important to us? <ul><li>S’pore's national interests: </li></ul><ul><li>1. be friends with all who sought friendship, </li></ul><ul><li> trade with any state regardless of ideology </li></ul><ul><li>3. to remain nonaligned </li></ul><ul><li>4. continue to cooperate closely with international </li></ul><ul><li>relations </li></ul><ul><li>What is crucial to its continued success and survival, given its constraints? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore's size and location and Indonesia's Confrontation ( Konfrontasi) campaign against Malaysia in the 1960s. [constraints] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore's survival depended on its ability to create a continuing demand for its services in the world market. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By implementing a policy of international self-assertion, Singapore would shift from a reliance on entreport trade and shipping to export-oriented industries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why are such international relations so important to us? (cont’d) <ul><li>Hence, international relations are </li></ul><ul><li>important so as to ensure that Singapore 1. Can draw international attention </li></ul><ul><li>on the need for international </li></ul><ul><li>recognition of its own sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>by doing her part for international </li></ul><ul><li>problems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Can heighten its international </li></ul><ul><li>profile by expanding diplomatic </li></ul><ul><li>representation abroad and </li></ul><ul><li>attending international forums. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits of International Relations (More examples! ) <ul><li>Peace of Westphalia of 1648 </li></ul><ul><li>encouraged the rise of the independent nation-state, the institutionalization of </li></ul><ul><li>diplomacy and armies </li></ul><ul><li>system was established through decolonization during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore – United States relations </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore buys a large number of weapon systems from the US, and has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>close ties such as the F-16 detachment stationed at Luke Air Force Base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Navy is allowed to use Singaporean naval facilities, including the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>newly constructed Changi Naval Base designed with USN aircraft carriers in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Regional Emerging Diseases Intervention Centre (REDI) a joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US-Singapore collaboration to promote cooperation in tackling emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infectious diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singaporean citizens the possibility of residing in the United States for extended periods of time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States citizens coming to Singapore are allowed to work in most business occupations for 3 months without a visa or Professional Visit Pass. </li></ul></ul></ul>NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong and U.S. President George W. Bush signing the US-Singapore Free Trade Agreement in the White House, May 6, 2003.
  13. 13. <ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. – Japanese economic, military and political cooperation will grow even more intense </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with Europe will dramatically improve with the next Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic relations with China will continue to remain strong even as the PRC emerges as a major Pacific naval and air force military power </li></ul><ul><li>Relation with Russia will grow more hostile </li></ul><ul><li>Moral of the story: Learn from history & never let it repeat itself. Hence, S’pore must be committed to serving the UN. </li></ul>Benefits of International Relations (cont’d)
  14. 14. Failures of International Relations <ul><li>At times, it was unable to solve some international crises effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, the UN is unable to take direct and independent actions without support from its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, this reduces the efficiency of the UN and this can pose as a danger in times of crises, whereby it is unable to react fast enough to stop them. </li></ul><ul><li>In a world filled with war-mongering dictators and suppressing regimes who know the UN lacks any real power, regimes are almost completely free to do whatever they want. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, North Korea has tested nuclear weapons and threatens to do so again, with the United Nations only considering sanctions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why is it more beneficial than the other forms of diplomacy? <ul><li>Although bilateral relations are able to help Singapore’s economy to improve through trading relationships, which is essential for the survival of the economy in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is still not as powerful as international relations which could introduce such trading relationships which could similarly aid in improving the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, now that more countries are involved in such trading relationships, we strongly believe that it would be able to improve our economy more significantly and hence let Singapore prosper. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why is it more beneficial than the other forms of diplomacy? (cont’d) <ul><li>Although regional relations are able to ensure warm & friendly relations between all members to be maintained, wouldn’t it be more important to have an assurance that almost the whole world is in peace rather than only countries in a certain region? </li></ul><ul><li>Also, some may feel that regional relations such as the ASEAN may be able to react faster that international relations when met with crises since it requires lesser countries to approve for their actions hence increasing efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>However, we must consider that the actions that the UN carries out will take the consideration of the whole world whereas actions that regional associations take only takes care of the needs of their members. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why is it more beneficial than the other forms of diplomacy? (cont’d) <ul><li>Hence, it can be seen that although international relations itself does have some flaws of its own (also seen in slide 14, it is still able to carry out its actions that not only benefit its members but also the whole world, hence being more beneficial than the other 2 forms of diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, ways that could improve the present flaws of the UN may include each member to contribute an equal military force or sum of money to the UN. Hence, it would be able to make use of these resources without approval from any individual country and therefore increases efficiency of the UN. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Moreover, we must not forget the importance of </li></ul><ul><li>international relations to our country as our country </li></ul><ul><li>depends it to a large extent for survival in the 21 st </li></ul><ul><li>century, whereby there are rapid technological </li></ul><ul><li>advancements & nuclear weapons are rampant in </li></ul><ul><li>countries. </li></ul>Why is it more beneficial than the other forms of diplomacy? (cont’d) <ul><li>Hence, nobody can predict when another world </li></ul><ul><li>war/terrorism might strike and so, such </li></ul><ul><li>international alliances are extremely critical for </li></ul><ul><li>uniting as many parts of the world to defend </li></ul><ul><li>against such threatens. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Secondary Social Studies Textbook 3 (EPB. Pan Pacific) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You!!