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A natural hazard teacher

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A task-based unit on natural hazards

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A natural hazard teacher

  1. 1. © Montse Irun 1 At the end of this learning unit, we would be able to a) analyze how a hazard becomes a disaster. b) assess how disaster preparedness can reduce the impact of the hazard. c) present information on Natural Hazards in an interesting format (photo report, digital book, interview, dramatization, etc.). I.- How much do you know about Natural Hazards? Fill in the chart. What do you know about Natural Hazards? What aren’t you sure of? What would you like to learn about Natural Hazards? II.- Natural Hazards A hazard is a danger or risk How can Nature be a risk or danger? When do hazards become disasters? Natural hazards remind us that we are small and vulnerable—and that living on this dynamic planet will always entail risk.
  2. 2. © Montse Irun 2 Watch this video and complete the answers to your questions above. Answer these questions by watching the video again: When do hazards become disasters? What led to the natural disaster of the Fire in San Francisco? What can we do if Natural hazards cannot be stopped? Which example does he give to keep safer in earthquakes? How can we prevent volcanic eruptions? What helps us predict hurricanes? Why are we going to see more natural disasters as a result of these hazards? These are some pictures of natural hazards. Can you identify them? NATURAL HAZARDS
  3. 3. © Montse Irun 3 Match the natural disasters in the box with the eye-witness reports below. earthquake tsunami drought volcanic eruption hurricane flooding 1 'It had been raining for several hours and finally the river burst its banks – there was water everywhere. There were cars floating down the street’ flooding
  4. 4. © Montse Irun 4 2 'Over the last few days we've seen several big explosions and a lot of smoke and ash coming from the top of the mountain. The police have told us to evacuate the area.' volcanic eruption 3 'It was about three o'clock in the morning when suddenly, everything started shaking. A lot of pictures fell on the floor and a huge crack suddenly appeared in the ´wall’ earthquake 4 'It hasn't rained here for several months. There is no water for cattle and sheep and local farmers have lost valuable crops’ drought 5 'The sirens sounded and we were told to get to higher ground immediately. We saw a massive wave come in from the sea. It destroyed everything in its path’ tsunami 6 'The windows shook and I've never seen it rain so much. A lot of the trees on the street were blown down and a few houses had their roofs torn off.' Hurricane Adapted from Higgins, E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford:CUP Complete the sentences below with the following words from the article. Use the dictionary if necessary. alive mud survivor bodies search safety debris rescue drowned shell-shocked 1 Although exhausted, the soldiers knew that they could not give up their search for the missing people. 2 The flood covered the entire valley in a matter of minutes – it is estimated that over 500 people were drowned. 3 Four days of continuous rain falling on dry earth created so much mud that some roads had to be closed. 4 The elderly woman who was trapped in a car for more than 20 hours emerged rather shell-shocked from the experience – she hasn't been able to get back in a car since. 5 The debris left by the hurricane was incredible – residents reported glass, pieces of roofing, and even bits of a bathtub lying about after the winds died down.
  5. 5. © Montse Irun 5 6 Luckily, the village was forewarned of the volcanic eruption and the majority of its residents were able to get to safety. 7 The people of Ishinomaki were amazed that a baby which had been swept away by a wave could still be alive. 8 The official death toll from the earthquake has been measured by the number of bodies found, but there are quite a few more people that are still missing. 9 After sitting on her rooftop for four days during the flood, Margaret Reed has been declared survivor of the year. 10 After the tsunami hit Japan, people donated millions of dollars and countless hours to help with the rescue effort. Adapted from Higgins, E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford:CUP Look at the adjectives in the list and complete the text about a hurricane. apprehensive strong torrential terrifying devastated homeless frightened deafening We'd been expecting the storm for several hours and everyone was apprehensive, thinking about what could happen. When the storm hit, the noise was deafening. There were extremely strong winds and torrential rain. The children were very frightened. In fact, the whole experience was absolutely terrifying for everyone. The local area has been devastated and hundreds of people have been felt homeless. Adapted from Higgins, E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford:CUP Three in a row. In pairs, one chooses X and the other O. The youngest student starts and chooses one word. He has to define it. If the definition is correct, he stays there. If not, he has to erase his mark. The student who can choose three in a row is the winner!!!!!
  6. 6. © Montse Irun 6 hurricane drought flooding heat wave landslide earthquake tornado volcanic eruption tsunami You are going to watch a video on natural hazards and humans. Write down two questions whose answers you expect to find in it. 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ Watch the video and answer your questions. Share them in your group.
  7. 7. © Montse Irun 7 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ Use the information in the video to complete the summary below. Natural hazards pose risks to humans. They result from natural earth processes. They also shape the history of human society. They can change the size of human population or drive migrations. Human activities can contribute to the intensity and frequency of natural hazards. Natural hazards can be sudden events, or they may last decades. They can be local or global in origin. Local events can have distant impacts. This is because of the interconnected nature of both human societies and earth system. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impact. Some of these activities are: identifying and avoiding high risk locations, improving construction methods where they do live, developing warning systems, and recognizing how human behaviour affects how people prepare for and respond to natural hazards. III.- When Natural Hazards become a disaster Explore the following websites and use the information to add to your list of natural hazards: • National Geographic – Natural disasters • NASA– Natural hazards • Australian government – Natural disasters • https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/index.html • http://www.ready.gov/natural-disasters In groups of three, discuss one of the hazards and create a hazard profile using the following questions: Make groups of 3 and give each group a different hazard. Allow two sessions to design the profile and when the profiles are on the wall, ask students to classifying the disasters in different ways (e.g. cause, speed, impact, recovery time). • Where does this kind of hazard occur? • What causes the hazard? • How much warning is there? • What sort of damage does it do to people and the environment?
  8. 8. © Montse Irun 8 • How are different people (e.g. school child, subsistence farmer, day labourer, transport worker, large business operator) affected? Who would be most affected? • Why might people live in an area affected by this type of hazard? • How could people prepare for this type of disaster? • What support might affected people need in order to rebuild their lives? The profile will be displayed in class, so use a DIN-A3 or DIN-A2 to design your profile. IV.- Preparing for a Natural Disaster • Who might help in the event of a disaster? • What can you do to prepare for a disaster? • How do you think preparing for a disaster such as a fire can help if a disaster occurs? • How might people in a developing country prepare for a similar disaster? • Why might there be differences? Read/view these case studies about disaster preparedness so that you can answer the following questions about each of the stories: • Disaster risk reduction in Laos • Drought in Tuvalu (2011) • Saving lives with disaster preparedness in Indonesia • Japanese tsunami (2011) ABC News and National Geographic • Queensland floods (2011) Queensland flood crisis map and Flood facts • Typhoon in Philippines (2012) • Black Saturday Australia bushfire (2009) Geographical Australia and Wikipedia i. Which hazard is the focus of the preparation? ii. Where and with what frequency does this disaster occur in the focus country? iii. How does it affect people, the environment and the economy? iv. What are some of the activities undertaken to reduce the impact of the disaster? v. How do these activities build people's resilience?
  9. 9. © Montse Irun 9 Hazard / place / year Frequency Impact Activities People’s resilence Laos Tuvalu Indonesia Queensland Philippines Victoria
  10. 10. © Montse Irun 10 Complete the following table comparing the responses to different disasters. Disaster Response Earthquake Tsunami Floods Drought Famine Typhoon Pandemic (disease) Identify responses that are common to all the disasters and work as a group to suggest how communities, governments and organizations can pre-prepare for disasters and respond more efficiently when disasters occur. V.- Rescue Reading: One of the most devastating tsunamis was the one that affected Japan in 2011. What do you know about it? 1.- Scan the text to answer the questions. 1 How old was the baby that was rescued? ________________ 2 How long was the elderly woman trapped in the car? ____________________ 3 How many people were found drowned in the Miyagi prefecture? _________________
  11. 11. © Montse Irun 11 On 11 March 2011, a massive earthquake caused a tsunami with waves of up to nine metres which struck the east coast of Japan. The final death toll was estimated at almost 16,000 people. Miracle of the baby girl plucked from the rubble The sound of a baby's cry amid the rubble seemed so impossible that soldiers searching a tsunami-smashed village thought it must be a mistake. But it came again. And they realised they could not be hearing things. They cleared away wood and thick mud – and there was the child they described as a 'tiny miracle'. The four-month-old girl had been swept from her parents' arms in the shattered village of Ishinomaki when the deadly tidal wave crashed into the family home. For three days, the child's frantic family had believed she must have been lost to them forever. But yesterday, for a brief moment, the horrors of the disaster were brightened by one helpless baby's story of survival. Soldiers from the Japanese Defence Force had been going from door to door, pulling bodies from the devastated homes in Ishinomaki, a coastal town northeast of Sendai. Most of the victims were elderly, unable to get away from the destructive black tide. But for this precious moment, at least, it was only the child who mattered to the team of civil defence troops who found her. One of them picked her up in his arms, wrapped her in a blanket which had been handed to him and cradled the child as his colleagues crowded around, not believing that someone as young as this could have survived when all hope had been lost. The tiniest survivor was cold and wet and crying her eyes out, but she is believed to have suffered no serious injuries. Why she did not drown remained a mystery. But the soldiers were somehow able to track down her overjoyed father, who had been taking refuge in his wrecked home with the rest of his family. Even then, the nightmare wasn't over. Just minutes after the emotional reunion, the shell- shocked survivors were told that a second tsunami might be on its way. The panicked father begged the soldiers to take the baby to safety on higher ground. But the 11 a.m. alarm turned out to be false and the reunited family went back to rebuilding their home. Amid the devastation, there have been very few tales of survival. But the discovery of the unnamed child has given fresh hope that others may be found alive in the shattered landscape which covers many miles of the east coast of Honshu Island. In fact, yesterday, it emerged that witnesses looking down from the second floor of a house in one of the worst hit areas thought they noticed some movement in the back of a wrecked car by the side of the road. Soldiers subsequently discovered an elderly woman who had been trapped in the passenger seat for
  12. 12. © Montse Irun 12 more than 20 hours. Although she was traumatised by her ordeal, the victim was said to be otherwise unhurt. Before the baby's discovery, searchers found at least 2,000 bodies washed up along the shoreline of the badly-hit Miyagi prefecture. All had drowned, according to police, and, as the search through the debris went on throughout the day, officials conceded that what had started out as a rescue effort would become a recovery operation. And then came the cry of a little girl. 'Her discovery has put a new urgency into the search,' said a civil defence official. 'We had better listen, look and dig with even more diligence after this.' Adapted from an article in the Mail Online http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1366155/Japan-earthquake-tsunami-4-month-old-baby-girl-father-reunited-Ishinomaki 2.- Answer multiple-choice questions. See how we do this activity. Read the question first. What was the soldiers' reaction when they first heard the baby crying? Then, read the first paragraph of the article and choose the best answer to the question. The sound of a baby's cry amid the rubble seemed so impossible that soldiers searching a tsunami-smashed village thought it must be a mistake. But it came again. And they realised they could not be hearing things. They cleared away wood and thick mud – and there was the child they described as a 'tiny miracle'. [...] Read the first paragraph of the text again and match the answer options with the three explanations.
  13. 13. © Montse Irun 13 Now, it is your turn. 1.- Why was finding the baby so special for the soldiers? What to do ... Decide which answer paraphrases 'not believing that someone ... could have survived when all hope had been lost'. a) Because they had lost hope of finding anyone alive b) Because most of the survivors were older people c) Because they had not found anyone alive in the village 2 Why did the father want the soldiers to take the baby away again? What to do ... Decide which answer matches 'The panicked father begged the soldiers to take the baby to safety on higher ground'. a) Because he was busy rebuilding the family home b) Because he thought the soldiers would be able to take her away from the danger c) Because the family had no home for the baby 3 What effect did the discovery of the baby have on the search operation? What to do ... Decide which answer is most similar to 'has given fresh hope that others may be found alive'. a) They were hoping to find another 2,000-missing people b) They were now more optimistic about finding other survivors c) They thought that the recovery operation would have to stop 3.- Find a synonym in the text for the following words. 1 broken stone and bricks The sound of a baby's cry amid the rubble seemed so impossible that soldiers searching a tsunami-smashed village thought it must be a mistake. But it came again. And they realised they could not be hearing things. They cleared away wood and thick mud – and there was the child they described as a 'tiny miracle'. 2 extremely dangerous The four-month-old girl had been swept from her parents' arms in the shattered village of Ishinomaki when the deadly tidal wave crashed into the family home. For three days, the child's frantic family had believed she must have been lost to them forever. But yesterday, for a brief moment, the horrors of the disaster were brightened by one helpless baby's story of survival. 3 very happy The tiniest survivor was cold and wet and crying her eyes out, but she is believed to have suffered no serious injuries. Why she did not drown remained a mystery. But the soldiers were somehow able to track down her overjoyed father, who had been taking refuge in his wrecked home with the rest of his family.
  14. 14. © Montse Irun 14 4 without damage to your body Amid the devastation, there have been very few tales of survival. But the discovery of the unnamed child has given fresh hope that others may be found alive in the shattered landscape which covers many miles of the east coast of Honshu Island. In fact, yesterday, it emerged that witnesses looking down from the second floor of a house in one of the worst hit areas thought they noticed some movement in the back of a wrecked car by the side of the road. Soldiers subsequently discovered an elderly woman who had been trapped in the passenger seat for more than 20 hours. Although she was traumatised by her ordeal, the victim was said to be otherwise unhurt. Adapted from Higgins,E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford:CUP 4.- Is it easy to rescue people? What or who can help rescue people after a natural disaster? Work with a partner. Look at the photos advertising a radio programme and discuss what you think it is about. Listen to the programme. Were your ideas right? Listen again and choose the correct answer to these questions. 1 Which of these situations does Jason Grey not mention search dogs working in? a) Earthquakes b) Terrorist attacks c) Airport luggage searches d) Mountain rescue
  15. 15. © Montse Irun 15 2 What does a search dog have to be able to do? a) To search for lots of different things at the same time. b) To focus on one thing c) To find food and water d) To find other animals or fires 3 When did Jason start working with Major? a) While Major was in advanced obedient training b) While Jason was learning to be a fireman c) While Major was in basic obedient training d) While Major was just a puppy 4 What was the first thing that Jason and his team had to do in Haiti? a) To find three girls in the rubble b) To train Major in the area c) To find places where there might be survivors d) To find a place to sleep 5 How long had the three girls been trapped? a) Twelve days b) Two days c) Three days d) Six days 6 What is unlikely to happen in Jason’s job a week after a natural disaster? a) That they will be able to pull people from the ruins of the building b) That they will find survivors c) That their job will be finished d) That they will be able to go home Do you think it could be considered cruel to use an animal in the way that Major is used in natural disasters? Adapted from Higgins, E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford:CUP VI.- Present your research on a natural hazard Now you know a lot of things about your natural hazard. You know its causes, where it usually occurs, the risks for the population, how to prevent it, how to prepare for it, etc. It is time that you put all this information together in a creative way. In your group, think of how to present all this information to the school community. We are going to have an exhibition on Natural Hazards on ______________________(date).
  16. 16. © Montse Irun 16 What is the information you would like to convey? Present your information in an interesting format (e.g. photo report, interview, dramatization) to the class. What is the best way of presenting it to our school community? Who does what? Student Is responsible for It’ll be ready on (date)
  17. 17. © Montse Irun 17 VII.- Self assessment Which aspects of our product have been better valued? Which aspects of our product do we have to improve?
  18. 18. © Montse Irun 18 INFORMATION ON NATURAL HAZARDS RUBRIC 4 3 2 1 Overall impression and task completeness Task has been completed satisfactorily. Despite some errors, general comprehension is possible. Student has shown some expansion of the task prompts. Task has been completed well. There are relatively few errors, comprehension is easy. Student has clearly expanded on the task prompts. Task has not been completed satisfactorily. There are some errors. Student has given merely minimal responses to the task prompts Task has not been completed satisfactorily. There are many errors affecting comprehension. Student has given no responses to some task prompts. Content Content is accurate. Content is mostly accurate Content is accurate. Some important information is missing. Information is missing. Attractiveness and creativity It is exceptionally attractive in terms of design, layout, and neatness. A very creative way of presenting the information. It is attractive in terms of design, layout and neatness. Creative way of presenting information. It is acceptably attractive though it may be a bit messy. Not very creative way of presenting the information. It is distractingly messy or very poorly designed. It is neither attractive or creative. Mechanics Capitalization and punctuation are correct, OR pronunciation is accurate, and comprehension is easy. There is 1 error in capitalization or punctuation. OR pronunciation is clear, and comprehension is easy There are 2 errors in capitalization or punctuation OR Some words are pronounced incorrectly, but comprehension is possible, if difficult at times There are more than 2 errors in capitalization or punctuation OR Pronunciation is not clear and seriously affects comprehension. Grammar and use of English Language structures and lexis appropriate to the level are used with a high degree of accuracy making comprehension easy. Language structures and lexis appropriate to the level are used with a satisfactory degree of accuracy, despite some errors at times which should not affect comprehension. Language structures and lexis appropriate to the level are used with a satisfactory degree of accuracy, despite some errors at times which affect comprehension. Language structures and lexis appropriate to the level are consistently used inaccurately making comprehension difficult or impossible.
  19. 19. © Montse Irun 19 OTHER RESOURCES Drought > Earthquakes > Extreme Heat > Floods > Hurricanes > Landslides & Debris Flow > Severe Weather > Space Weather > Thunderstorms & Lightning > Tornadoes > Tsunamis > Volcanoes > Wildfires > Winter Storms & Extreme Cold >
  20. 20. © Montse Irun 20 BIBLIOGRAPHY Higgins, E et al. (2012) Next Generation 2, Oxford: CUP http://www.bushfireeducation.vic.edu.au/secondary/learning-about- bushfires/secondary-learning-about-bushfire.html http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/teaching-activity/disasters-consequences-and- responses.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bmOmozR7ZQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oRiLLd2hX0E The trailer for a special exhibition on Earthquakes. Volcanoes. Tornadoes. Hurricanes

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