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Biomass HeatingProject AnalysisRenewable Energy Project Analysis Course - Module 6                                      Bi...
Objectives• Review basics of   Biomass Heating Systems• Illustrate key considerations for   Biomass Heating project analys...
What do biomass heating systemsprovide?• Heat for       Buildings                    District Heating Plant, Heat Provide...
Biomass Heating SystemDescription• Heating Plant                                                  Small Diameter Wood Wast...
Biomass Heating SystemDescription (cont.)  Diagram: Buyer’s Guide To Small Commercial Biomass Combustion Systems NRCan    ...
Peak vs. Base Load SystemsThe biomass system can be sized for:• Peak load      Biofuel use maximized and fossil fuel use ...
District Heating Systems• Heat from a central plant can be distributed to multiple nearby   buildings for heating and serv...
Biomass Fuels                                                               Wood for Biomass Combustion• Biomass fuels (fe...
Environmental Attributes ofBiomass Fuels                                                   Wood chips• If harvested in sus...
Examples of Biomass HeatingSystem Costs:                                             Oil                    Wood chips• Fo...
Biomass Heating ProjectConsiderations• Availability, quality and price of biomass feedstock versus   fossil fuels       F...
Example: Austria, Germany and SloveniaCommunity Energy Systems                                                            ...
Example: CanadaInstitutional and Commercial Buildings    • Individual buildings can provide their own heat from           ...
Example: Brazil & USAProcess Heat • Often used where biomass is produced and process heat       required                S...
RETScreen Biomass Heating                      ®Project Model• World-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs ...
RETScreen® BiomassHeating Energy Calculation                      C a lc u la t e e q u iv a le n t                       ...
Example Validation of theRETScreen® Biomass Heating Project Model• Calculation of load   duration curve                   ...
Conclusions• Biomass heating energy costs can be much lower  than conventional heating costs, even when  considering highe...
Questions?               Small Commercial Biomass Heating System, Canada                                          Photo Cr...
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  1. 1. Biomass HeatingProject AnalysisRenewable Energy Project Analysis Course - Module 6 Biomass District Heating Plant, Sweden Photo Credut: Bioenerginovator © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  2. 2. Objectives• Review basics of Biomass Heating Systems• Illustrate key considerations for Biomass Heating project analysis• Introduce RETScreen® Biomass Heating Project Model © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  3. 3. What do biomass heating systemsprovide?• Heat for  Buildings District Heating Plant, Heat Provided from Rapeseed, Germany  Communities  Industrial processes…but also…  Job creation  A use for waste materials  An opportunity to use district heating and waste heat recovery Photo Credit: Centrales Agrar-Rohstoff-Marketing- und Entwicklungs-Netzwork © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  4. 4. Biomass Heating SystemDescription• Heating Plant Small Diameter Wood Waste Packaged in Bales, Finland  Waste heat recovery system  Biomass combustion system for base load  Peak load heating system  Optional back-up system• Heat Distribution System  Hot water supply, cold water return  For single building or district heating system Photo Credit: Bioenergia Suomessa• Fuel Supply Operation  Fuel receiving, storage, and transport facilities  Typically automated fuel transfer from day bin to combustion © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  5. 5. Biomass Heating SystemDescription (cont.) Diagram: Buyer’s Guide To Small Commercial Biomass Combustion Systems NRCan © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  6. 6. Peak vs. Base Load SystemsThe biomass system can be sized for:• Peak load  Biofuel use maximized and fossil fuel use minimized  Larger, more expensive system  Part load operation lowers efficiency if load variable• Base load  Operates near design capacity, so efficiency high  Capital costs much lower  Conventional system required for peak load © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  7. 7. District Heating Systems• Heat from a central plant can be distributed to multiple nearby buildings for heating and service hot water  Insulated steel pipes are buried 0.6 to 0.8 m underground• Advantages compared to each building having own plant:  Higher efficiency  Lower emissions District Heating Plant District Heat Hot Water Pipes  Safety  Comfort  Operating convenience• Initial costs high• Needs more attention than fossil-fuel systems Photo Credit: SweHeat Photo Credit: SweHeat © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  8. 8. Biomass Fuels Wood for Biomass Combustion• Biomass fuels (feedstocks) include  Wood & wood residues (chunks, sawdust, pellets, chips)  Agricultural residues (straw, chaff, husks, animal Photo Credit: ECOMatters Inc litter and manure) Walnut Shells for Biomass Combustion  Energy crops (hybrid poplars, switchgrass, willows)  Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)• Important feedstock considerations  Heating value and moisture content  Reliability, security, and price stability of supply  Transportation and storage facilities Photo Credit: Warren Gretz/ NREL Pix © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  9. 9. Environmental Attributes ofBiomass Fuels Wood chips• If harvested in sustainable manner:  Zero net production of greenhouse gases• Low sulphur content reduces acid rain Photo Credit: Bioenerginovator• Emissions of local air pollutants  Particulates (soot)  Gaseous pollutants  Trace carcinogens  May be subject to regulation Bagasse Photo credit: Warren Gretz/NREL Pix © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  10. 10. Examples of Biomass HeatingSystem Costs: Oil Wood chips• For a 150 kW system Initial Costs $21,000 $80,000 to heat a 800 m2 Annual O&M $1,000 $8,000 building: Annual fuel $18,000 $9,700 Price Cost of heat ($/GJ)• High initial costs, Electricity $0.08/kWh 22.50 potentially low fuel Propane $0.40/L 15.60 costs: Fuel Oil $0.30/L 8.50 Gas $0.20/m3 5.80 Mill residue $10/tonne 1.70 Tree chips $40/tonne 6.70 © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  11. 11. Biomass Heating ProjectConsiderations• Availability, quality and price of biomass feedstock versus fossil fuels  Future non-energy uses of biomass (e.g., pulp)  Long term contracts• Space available for fuel delivery, storage, and large boiler• Dedicated and reliable operators necessary  Fuel loading procurement & loading; ash removal• Environmental regulations on air quality and ash disposal• Insurance and safety issues © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  12. 12. Example: Austria, Germany and SloveniaCommunity Energy Systems Automatic Feedstock Handler • Groups of buildings including schools, hospitals, and clusters of residencesDH Converted from Fossil Fuel to Biomass, Slovenia Wood-Fired Boiler Photo Credit: Centrales Agrar-Rohstoff- Photo Credit: Ken Sheinkopf/ Solstice CREST Marketing-und Entwicklungs-Netzwerk © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  13. 13. Example: CanadaInstitutional and Commercial Buildings • Individual buildings can provide their own heat from biomass  Institutional: schools, hospitals, municipal buildings  Commercial: stores, garages, etc. Small Commercial Biomass Heating System, Canada Photo Credit: ECOMatters Inc. Photo Credit: Grove Wood Heat © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  14. 14. Example: Brazil & USAProcess Heat • Often used where biomass is produced and process heat required  Saw mills, sugar and alcohol factories, furniture manufacturing sites, and drying sites for agricultural processes.Sugar Cane for Process Heat, Bagasse for Process Heat Interior of a Combustion Hawaii in Saw Mill, Brazil Chamber Photo Credit: Warren Gretz/ NREL Pix Photo Credit: Ralph Overend/ NREL Pix Photo Credit: Ken Sheinkopf/ Solstice CREST © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  15. 15. RETScreen Biomass Heating ®Project Model• World-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductions  Individual buildings to large clusters with district heat  Biomass, peak, back-up and waste-heat recovery  Sizing and costing of district heat piping network• Currently not covered:  Large scale district heating not validated (>2.5 MW) © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  16. 16. RETScreen® BiomassHeating Energy Calculation C a lc u la t e e q u iv a le n t d e g re e -d a y s fo r C a lc u la te p e a k d o m e s tic h o t w a te r h e a tin g lo a d h e a tin g C a lc u la t e lo a d a n d e n e r g y d u r a tio n c u r v e s & e q u iv a le n t f u ll- lo a d h o u r s C a lc u la te t o ta l e n e r g y dem and D e te r m in e n e tw o r k D e te r m in e e n e r g y m ix p ip e s iz e s C a lc u la te fu e l See e-Textbook r e q u ir e m e n ts Renewable Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen® Engineering and Cases Chapter 6: Biomass Heating Project Analysis © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  17. 17. Example Validation of theRETScreen® Biomass Heating Project Model• Calculation of load duration curve 100 Load Duration Curve for Uppsala, Sweden Percentage of Peak Load  Compared with Swedish 80 DD-IL model for 4 cities RETScreen in Europe and North 60 DD-IL America 40• District heating 20 network pipe sizing 0  Compared with ABB R22 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Number of Hours program – good results• Heating value of wood  Compared with 87 samples of tree bark from Eastern Canada  RETScreen® estimate for wood waste within 5% of sample data of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002. © Minister
  18. 18. Conclusions• Biomass heating energy costs can be much lower than conventional heating costs, even when considering higher initial capital costs of biomass systems• RETScreen® calculates load duration curves, required biomass and peak plant capacity, and district heating network pipe sizes using minimal input data• RETScreen® provides significant preliminary feasibility study cost savings © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.
  19. 19. Questions? Small Commercial Biomass Heating System, Canada Photo Credit: Grove Wood Heat www.retscreen.net © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2002.

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