Urban Geography: overview
Created by David Palmer
Eaglecrest High School
Chapter 12 Key Issue 3
Created by David Palmer & Adapted by Megan Leach
System of cities with
various levels
Few cities at top level
Increasing number of
settlements at each
lower level
Larger c...
Urban Geography – Urban Systems
Ranking of Census MSAs
(Metropolitan Statistical
Areas) of U.S., 2005
MSAs with populations over
2 million (right)
24 more...
Nested hexagonal
market areas
predicted by
Central Place
Theory
Central Place Theory
Spatial model of settlements (central...
Central Place Theory
• Geographic assumptions (Christaller, 1930s)
- featureless landscape on infinite plane
- uniform pop...
Central Place Theory
in action on a flat,
featureless plain
(e.g., Northern
Germany)
… and in a
landscape with
“locational...
Nesting of Services and Settlements
MDCs have numerous small
settlements with small thresholds and
ranges, and far fewer l...
Optimal Location Within a Market
Best Location in a Linear Settlement
Gravity Model
• Number of people vs. distance they t...
Rank-size Rule
Rank Size Rule
Nth
largest city of a national
system will be 1/n the size of
the largest city.
Example - US...
Primate City
One dominant city in
a country or region.
There is usually not
an obvious second
city
Example - Paris
France ...
Mexico Primate City
Mexico is an
excellent example of
a Primate City
model.
Mexico City is
dominant city in
Mexico
Paris historical site and growth
Chapter 12, Key 3 by David Palmer
Chapter 12, Key 3 by David Palmer
Chapter 12, Key 3 by David Palmer
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Chapter 12, Key 3 by David Palmer

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David Palmer's Chapter 12 Key Issue 3

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  • DISCUSSION:
    * Can you detect the urban hierarchy in the population distribution map in this slide?
    * Why does the pattern in the western half of the United States differ from the pattern in the eastern half?
  • DISCUSSION:
    * What type of landscape and population density does this theory / model presume?
  • DISCUSSION:
    * What is an example where your behavior conforms to the assumptions above?
    * What is an example where your behavior does not conform to the assumptions above?
  • Chapter 12, Key 3 by David Palmer

    1. 1. Urban Geography: overview Created by David Palmer Eaglecrest High School
    2. 2. Chapter 12 Key Issue 3 Created by David Palmer & Adapted by Megan Leach
    3. 3. System of cities with various levels Few cities at top level Increasing number of settlements at each lower level Larger cities provide more services than smaller towns – exists at regional, national, and global scales Urban Hierarchy Number of Business Types by Population of Colorado Cities (1899) Graph from Kuby, HGIA
    4. 4. Urban Geography – Urban Systems
    5. 5. Ranking of Census MSAs (Metropolitan Statistical Areas) of U.S., 2005 MSAs with populations over 2 million (right) 24 more MSAs have pops between 1 and 2 million 47 more between 500,000 and 1 million 74 more between 250,000 and 500,000 169 more bet. 100,000 and 250,000
    6. 6. Nested hexagonal market areas predicted by Central Place Theory Central Place Theory Spatial model of settlements (central places) for a nested hierarchy of market areas
    7. 7. Central Place Theory • Geographic assumptions (Christaller, 1930s) - featureless landscape on infinite plane - uniform population distribution • Behavioral (economic) assumptions - consumers shop at closest place possible - consumers do not go beyond the range of the good - market areas equal or exceed threshold of good • Hexagonal market areas are most efficient - non-overlapping circles leave areas unserved - higher-order central places also provide lower-order functions
    8. 8. Central Place Theory in action on a flat, featureless plain (e.g., Northern Germany) … and in a landscape with “locational biases” introduced by physical features What does Utah look like?
    9. 9. Nesting of Services and Settlements MDCs have numerous small settlements with small thresholds and ranges, and far fewer large settlements with large thresholds and ranges. Nesting pattern – overlapping hexagons
    10. 10. Optimal Location Within a Market Best Location in a Linear Settlement Gravity Model • Number of people vs. distance they travel for access Best Location in a Non-Linear Settlement Identify possible site Identify potential users & measure distance Divide users / distance to site Select other locations & repeat steps Select highest # (most users / location)
    11. 11. Rank-size Rule Rank Size Rule Nth largest city of a national system will be 1/n the size of the largest city. Example - US is close to this model - not a good model for newly urbanized countries i.e. LDC
    12. 12. Primate City One dominant city in a country or region. There is usually not an obvious second city Example - Paris France - 8.7 million next city Marseille - 1.2 million
    13. 13. Mexico Primate City Mexico is an excellent example of a Primate City model. Mexico City is dominant city in Mexico
    14. 14. Paris historical site and growth

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