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Chapter 9, Key Issue 3 (Gender)


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Chapter 9, Key Issue 3 (Gender)

  1. 1. Gender Measurements United Nations has come up with two ways to measure the gender inequality in each nation  Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes  Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
  2. 2. Gender Related Development Index Compares same indicators as HDI  Economic, Social, & Demographic indicators  Adjusted to reflect differences in accomplishments of men verses women Penalizes a country for having a large disparity between the well-being of men and women.  Example: Iran Education and Saudi Arabia Income
  3. 3. GDI Cont… Scored out of 1.0.  No country has achieved that.  Norway had a .941 in 2001  Lowest GDIs are in sub-Saharan Africa
  4. 4. Record 2 observations about the GDI Map
  5. 5. Economic indicators of GDI Estimate the average income for males and females Every country males are higher In MDCs a gap of $12,000 or more is common In LDCs dollar gap is small but percentage is high. (low income for both)
  6. 6. about the Female Income Map
  7. 7. Social Indicators: Education Education and Literacy are main points Large education gap in LDCs, especially in secondary schools.  LDCs boys are more likely to be enrolled  MDCs girls are more likely to be enrolled Sub-Saharan Africa/Middle East: fewer than 1/3 of girls attend school
  8. 8. about the school enrollment Map
  9. 9. Social Indicators: Literacy MDCs: Literacy universal between men and women Latin America: Literacy not universal but similar between men and women Sub-Saharan Africa/Southwest Asia: Female literacy is very low in comparison to males.  Both a cause and an obstacle to development
  10. 10. Record 2 observationsabout the literacy maps
  11. 11. Demographic Indicators of GDI MDCs: gender gap is greater than in LDCs  MDCs women live substantially longer than men.  LDCs women live a little longer than men Female life expectancy in LDCs is due to the health risks of child bearing
  12. 12. about the Life Expectancy map
  13. 13. Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) REPEAT: Measures the ability of women to participate in the economic and political process of a country. Combines two economic indicators  Income  Professional/technical jobs Combines two political factors  Administrative jobs  Elected officials
  14. 14. GEM Cont… Scored out of 1.0  No country has achieved that.  Lowest GEMs are LDCs  Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia  Highest GEMs are MDCs  North America, Northern Europe, Oceania Every country has a lower GEM than GDI  Meaning… women possess great share of a country’s resources than they do power over allocation of resources.
  15. 15. Record 2 observations about the GEM Map
  16. 16. Economic Indicators of GEM Percentage of women holding professional and technical jobs. Regarded as jobs offering women the greatest opportunities for advancement to positions of influence. Cultural barriers may restrict the ability of women to obtain or secure promotions
  17. 17. Record 2 observations about theProfessional/Technical workers Map
  18. 18. Political Indicators of GEM FIRST: Percentage of administrative and managerial jobs held by women Measures the ability of women to influence decisions
  19. 19. about the Management Map
  20. 20. Political Indicator of GEM Cont… SECOND: Participation in politics More women vote than men around the world No country has a congress or parliament with more women  North Europe women comprise 33% of national parliament  United States women comprise 15% of National government
  21. 21. Record 2 observationsabout the Parliament Map
  22. 22. Comparing GEM and GDI Every country has a lower GEM than GDI A high GDI compared to the GEM means that women control a greater share of the power in a country.