Chapter 10 key 4


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Chapter 10 key 4

  1. 1. An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 10 Agriculture PPT by Abe Goldman
  2. 2. Economic Issues of Agriculture- Issue 4 • Economic issues of commercial farmers – Access to markets – Overproduction – Sustainable agriculture • Economic issues of subsistence farmers – Population growth – International trade • Increasing food supply
  3. 3. Von Thünen Model Von Thünen’s model shows how distance from a city or market affects the choice of agricultural activity in (a) a uniform landscape and (b) one with a river. It’s outdated, but it illustrates the important role that the market plays in the distribution of different agricultural activities.
  4. 4. Von Thünen Model Von Thünen’s model shows how distance from a city or market affects the choice of agricultural activity in (a) a uniform landscape and (b) one with a river. It’s outdated, but it illustrates the important role that distance to market plays in the distribution of different agricultural activities. A commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location. He compares two costs: the cost of the land versus the cost of transporting goods to market. Distance to market is critical because the cost of transporting each product is different. Calculations show that farms located closer to market tend to select crops with higher transport costs, whereas more distant farms are more likely to select crops that can be transported less expensively. In criticism, he did not figure site factors like labor or government involvement.
  5. 5. Von Thünen Model Products in the first ring are expensive to deliver and must reach the market quickly because they are perishable. In the second ring, wood for construction on fuel was expensive to transport. In the third ring, various crops and pasture existed. Animal grazing was left for the outer most ring.
  6. 6. Issues for Farmers-Issue 4 In addition to access to markets, overproduction is an issue for commercial farmers. If too much is produced, then prices drop and farmers lose money. Governments, like the U.S., create policies to avoid overproduction: They discourage overproduction of crops and encourage fallow crops. They pay farmers when prices go too low so they don’t go bankrupt. The government buys excess production and sells it internationally.
  7. 7. Issues afor Farmers-Issue 4 Sustainable agriculture is practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality. Farmers who practice sustainable agriculture usually generate lower profits, but they have lower costs. Characteristics include: Sensitive Land ManagementSustainable agriculture protects soil through ridge tillage and the limited use of chemicals. Ridge tillage creates small ridges in the soil which are used annually. This requires less commitment to heavy machinery and protects the soil elsewhere in the field rather than plowing every part of it because it disturbs less soil. It also minimizes the use of herbicide. Better Integration of Crops & LivestockWithout integration of crops and livestock, farmers tend to specialize. A farmer who specializes and grows a single crop, tends to deplete the soil. If he raises a single animal in a pen, it strains the land, too. With a better integration of crops and livestock, farms conserve the soil and land. Instead of purchasing feed for animals, the process of raising animals and growing crops works symbiotically on a single farm, which protects the soil.
  8. 8. Issues for Subsistence Farmers-Issue 4 1. Subsistence farmers must feed an increasing number of people because populations are growing rapidly in LDCs According to Esther Boserup, population growth compels subsistence farmers to consider new farming approaches to take care of additional people. 1. First, they can leave land fallow for less time, which would increase production. They should move through the process of Forest fallow, bush fallow, short fallow, annual cropping, and multicropping. 2. Second, they can adopt new farming methods. Ploughs should replace hand tools. More weeding should be done, terracing, and irrigation. The growing population supplies the labor. 2. With international trade as the method of choice for LDCs to develop, subsistence farmers must balance growing food for export along with direct consumption. LDCs must find a way to export goods through specialized farming, like plantation farming, or through manufacturing. Then, they need to reinvest trade profits into improving agricultural techniques to expand production. Subsistence farmers need higher yield seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, and machinery. Unfortunately, drug crops like Coca in Latin America and Opium in the Middle East.
  9. 9. Grain Importers and Exporters Fig. 10-15: Most countries are net importers of grain. The U.S. is the largest net exporter.
  10. 10. Increasingarea used for agriculture. the Food Supply-Issue 4 1. Expand the land 1. Desertification, Salinization, and Urbanization challenge this. 2. Increase the productivity of land now used for agriculture. 1. 3rd Agricultural Revolution/Green Revolution 1. The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 80s is called the Green Revolution. 2. The Green Revolution is characterized by higher-yield seeds (through genetic modification at times) and the expanded use of fertilizers. 3. The expanded use of fertilizers, however, requires machines like tractors and water pumps to apply it and it is expensive to produce because it requires the use of fossil fuels. It also creates dependency issues. 4. The Green Revolution has increased productivity and agricultural production is now growing faster than global population.
  11. 11. Increasing the Food Supply-Issue 4 1. Identify new food sources. 1. Cultivate the Oceans- The sea actually provides a small percentage of the human diet, but overfishing is a problem. 2. High-Protein Cereals- This can expand the availability of needed proteins, but most people grow their own food in LDCs. 3. Improve the Palatability of Rare Foods- Eat more soybeans. Krill (a small crustacean) is available for consumption. 2. Increase exports from other countries. North America is a major exporter of grains, but questions about GM foods have caused some countries to reject donations.
  12. 12. Desertification Hazard The most severe desertification hazards are in northern Africa, central Australia, and the southwestern parts of Africa, Asia, North America, and South America. Sensitive land management can decrease desertification, but excessive planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting exhaust the soil’s nutrients and preclude agriculture.