• to get or produce something, especially
information or a reaction
• Have you managed to elicit a response from
them yet? The questionnaire was intended to
elicit information on eating habits.
• They were able to elicit the support of the
• [ U ] a feeling of anger and shock
• These murders have provoked outrage across the country. Many
politicians and members of the public expressed outrage at the
• [C ] a shocking, morally unacceptable and usually violent action
• The bomb, which killed 15 people, was the worst of a series of
terrorist outrages. [ + that ] It's an outrage (= it is shocking and
morally unacceptable) that so much public money should have been
wasted in this way.
• (especially of an unfair action or statement) to cause someone to
feel very angry, shocked or upset
• Local people were outraged at the bombing. A proposed 5% pay cut
has outraged staff at the warehouse.
Outraged and outrageous
• Many outraged viewers wrote to the BBC to complain.
1. shocking and morally unacceptable
• The judge criticized the "outrageous greed" of some of the lawyers. [ + that
] It is outrageous that these buildings remain empty while thousands of
people have no homes.
• These prices are just outrageous (= much too high) .
2. describes something or someone that is shocking because they are unusual
• outrageous clothes/behaviour an outrageous character
outrageously high prices
(1) carefully considering things
• He has a thoughtful approach to his work.
(2) quiet because you are thinking about something
• You look thoughtful.
(3) kind and always thinking about how you can
help other people
• Thank you for phoning when I was ill - it was very
thoughtful of you. She's a very thoughtful person.
• Opposite thoughtless
1. serious and without any humour
• a solemn face/voice solemn music
• Everyone looked very solemn.
2. solemn promise/commitment/undertaking
• an agreement which you make in a serious
way and expect to keep
Introvert (n) Someone who is shy, quiet and
unable to make friends easily.
• Extrovert (n) an energetic, happy person who
enjoys being with other people
• Most sales people are extroverts.
1. [ U ] the characteristic of being easy to see through
The old-fashioned type of plastic lacked transparency.
2. [ C ] SPECIALIZED a photograph or picture printed on plastic which
you can see on a screen by shining a light through it.
• Transparent (adj) If a substance or object is transparent, you can
see through it very clearly
• Grow the bulbs in a transparent plastic box, so the children can see
the roots growing. Her blouse was practically transparent!
• 2. clear and easy to understand or recognize
• I think we should try to make the instructions more transparent.
• relating to the position, area and size of things
• This task is designed to test the child's spatial
awareness (= understanding of where things
are in relation to other things) .
Set the tone
set the tone:
(1) if something someone says or does sets the tone
for an event or activity, it establishes the way that
event or activity will continue, especially the mood
of the people involved (often + for ) He was furious
when she arrived late, and that set the tone for the
(2) to establish a particular mood or character for
something The governor's speech was intended to
set the tone for the party's national convention next
1. the outer edge of an area
• Houses have been built on the periphery of the
factory site. The ring road runs around the
periphery of the city centre.
2. the less important part of a group or activity
• Many women feel they are being kept on the
periphery of the armed forces.
1. unable to produce plants or fruit
• We drove through a barren, rocky landscape.
2. LITERARY unable to have babies
3. not productive
• She became very depressed during the barren
years when she was unable to paint.
draw someone or
something into something
1. Lit. to sketch a picture, adding someone or
something into the picture. She drew a little dog
into the lower corner of the picture. I drew in a
large tree and the ruins of an abbey. She drew
herself into the scene.
2. Fig. to involve someone or something in
something. Don't draw me into this
argument. This is not the time to draw that
argument into the discussion.
1. serious, sad and without humour or entertainment
• a sombre atmosphere/voice/face The funeral was a
• I left them in a sombre mood.
2. dark and plain
• He wore a sombre black suit.
to choose one person or thing from a group for
special attention, especially criticism or praise
• It's not fair the way my sister is always singled
out for special treatment. Jamie was thrilled
when the teacher singled out his poem and
asked him to read it out.
1. [ C or U ] the quality of something that can be
decided by touch; the degree to which
something is rough or smooth, or soft or hard
• a smooth/rough/coarse texture This artificial
fabric has the texture of silk.
• 2. [ U ] the character of a piece of writing or
• The writing has a rich texture.
1. Vivid descriptions, memories, etc. produce very
clear, powerful and detailed images in the mind
• He gave a very vivid and often shocking
account/description of his time in prison. He's one
of those people with a very vivid imagination every time he hears a noise he's convinced it's
someone breaking in.
2. very brightly coloured
• She was wearing a vivid pink shirt.
happening or done in a natural, often sudden
way, without any planning or without being
• His jokes seemed spontaneous, but were in
fact carefully prepared beforehand. APPROVING
She's such a spontaneous, lively woman.
(verb) to stick out in a round shape
• Her bags were bulging with shopping.
(noun) 1. a curved shape sticking out from the surface of
• I wondered what the bulge in her coat pocket was.
• 2. a sudden increase that soon returns to the usual
• There was a bulge in spending in the early part of the
stiff or fixed; not able to be bent, moved,
changed or persuaded
• a rigid steel and concrete structure I was rigid
with (= stiff and unable to move because of)
• DISAPPROVING We were disappointed that they
insisted on such a rigid interpretation of the
• to hold the attention of someone by being
extremely interesting, exciting, pleasant or
• With her beauty and charm, she captivated
film audiences everywhere.
a captivating performance