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Health and quality test

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Health and quality test

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. TITLE OF THE EXPERIMENT <ul><li>HEALTH AND QUALITY OF RICE SEED SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM PARSHURAM UPAZILA OF FENI DISTRICT AND THEIR MANAGEMENT BY PLANT EXTRACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Dr. M. Mahboob Hossain </li></ul><ul><li>Co- Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Dr. Md. Ayub Ali </li></ul>Presented By Mansur Ahmed Roll: 08Ag. P.Path. JD-04M Reg: 30465 Session: 2003-2004 Semester: July-December/2009
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Rice ( Oryza sativa ) is the staple food of Bangladeshi people . Seed is the most important input for crop production. Pathogen free healthy seed is urgently needed for desired plant populations and good harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>Many plant pathogens are seed-borne, which can cause enormous crop losses. . Fungi are the principal organisms associated with seeds. Various methods have been practiced to control these pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of plant extracts against plant disease is however, a recent approach to plant disease control. It helps to avoid environmental pollution by chemicals. In Bangladesh considerable work has been done on seed health and seed quality of rice by different researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>In view of the above facts, the present study was under taken in laboratory conditions with seed samples collected from Parshuram upazila of Feni district. </li></ul>
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>To detect the fungi associate with the seed samples of Parshuram upazila of Feni district </li></ul><ul><li>To record the germination of seed samples </li></ul><ul><li>To control the fungi in the seeds with different plant extracts </li></ul>
  5. 5. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Experimental Site </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Pathology Centre (SPC) and MS Laboratory of the Department of Plant Pathology, BAU, Mymensingh. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental period </li></ul><ul><li>August, 2008 to October, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties included </li></ul><ul><li>BR6, Pajam and Joya </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental design </li></ul><ul><li>Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of seed samples </li></ul><ul><li>36 rice seed samples were collected from farmers of Parshuram Upazila of Feni District. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Dry inspection of seed samples </li></ul><ul><li>400 seeds from each sample were visually inspected and graded into six categories. The categories were: (1) Apparently healthy seeds, (2) Spotted seeds, (3) Discoloured seeds, (4) Deformed seeds, (5) Varietal mixtures and (6) Chaffy grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Plating of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>To detect the seed-borne fungal pathogens associated with the seeds in seed samples the Blotter method was used by following international rules for seed testing (ISTA, 1976). </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual seed was observed under stereo-microscope at X16 and X25 magnification in order to identify the seed-borne fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant extracts used </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic, allamanda, neem, chirata and bishkatali extracts were used for the experiment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treatments employed T 10 = Chirata extract (1:2) T 9 = Allamanda extract (1:2) T 8 = Bishkatali extract (1:2) T 7 = Neem extract (1:2) T 6 = Garlic extract (1:2) T 5 = Chirata extract (1:1) T 4 = Allamanda extract (1:1) T 3 = Bishkatali extract (1:1) T 2 = Neem extract (1:1) T 1 = Garlic extract (1:1) T 0 = Control
  8. 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Seed treatment with plant extracts </li></ul><ul><li>Selected seed samples of rice were treated following dipping method. The seeds were dipped in 1:1 and 1:2 dilutions for 1 hour in previously prepared garlic cloves, allamanda, neem, chirata and biskatali leaf extracts. After 1 hour, plant extracts were drained out from the petridishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The data collected from the experiment were analyzed for test of significance and compared the treatment means following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) by using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability </li></ul>
  9. 9. RESULTS <ul><li>Without treatmeant the lowest germination of the rice seeds of variety Pajam was found 58.00%, lowest germination of the rice seeds of variety BR6 was obtained 54.67% and lowest germination of the rice seeds of variety Joya was found 58.80%. The germination of the rice seeds of variety BR6 was significantly higher than the variety Pajam and Joya. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Table-1: Germination of the collected samples without treatment RESULTS 80.00 74.33 71.67 S 12 77.00 76.67 69.33 S11 76.33 85.00 77.00 S 10 71.33 81.67 72.33 S 9 58.00 81.00 81.33 S 8 81.67 70.33 71.67 S 7 79.33 69.33 58.80 S 6 77.67 81.33 78.67 S 5 75.67 77.00 75.33 S 4 67.33 54.67 68.67 S 3 78.33 72.67 69.63 S 2 72.33 77.73 75.67 S 1 Pajam (%) BR6 (%) Joya (%) Sample
  11. 11. Prevalence of Fungi associated with three varieties: <ul><li>Nine species of fungi were identified on rice seeds of three varieties. </li></ul><ul><li>The identified fungi were Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Nigrospora oryzae. </li></ul><ul><li>Incase of Variety Pajam and BR6, above mentioned nine species of fungi were identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Incase of Variety Joya, Aspergillus niger was absent. </li></ul>RESULTS
  12. 12. Conidia of Bipolaris Oryzae Conidia of Aspergillus niger Conidia of Curvularia lunata Conidia of Aspergillus flavus Conidia of Fusarium moniliforme Conidia of Fusarium oxysporum Conidia of Nigrospora oryzae Conidia of Penicillium sp. Conidia of Alternaria padwickii Plate-1: Identified species of fungi on rice seeds of three varieties:
  13. 13. Table-2 : Effect of variety on percent seed borne infection of rice seeds sample (based on lowest germination and highest prevalence of fungi ) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 54.001 4.667 a 8.667 a 4.000 a 6.333 b 4.667 a 4.667 b 11.333 a 3.000 a 6.667 c Pajam 66.334 4.667 a 5.333 b 3.667 a 7.000 ab 6.333 a 11.00 a 13.00 a 2.667 a 12.67 a BR6 56.996 5.000 a 4.667 b 4.000 a 9.333 a 6.333 a 5.333 b 12.33 a 0.000 b 10.00 b Joya Total Penicillium sp. Aspergillus flavus Nigrospora oryzae Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium moniliforme Curvularia lunata Bipolaris oryzae Aspergillus niger Alternaria padwickii Variety
  14. 14. Table-3 : Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on germination of rice seeds (Pajam) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 60.91 93.33 bc T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 30.46 75.67 f T 9 = Allamanda(1:2) 61.50 93.67 bc T 8 = Bishkatali(1:2) 43.67 83.33 d T 7 = Neem(1:2) 64.36 95.33 ab T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 67.75 97.30 a T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 37.93 80.00 e T 4 = Allamanda(1:1) 58.05 91.67 c T 3 = Bishkatali(1:1) 38.50 80.33 e T 2 = Neem(1:1) 67.81 97.33 a T 1 = Garlic (1:1) 58.00 g T 0 = Control Germination increase over control (%) Seed Germination (%) Treatments
  15. 15. Table-4: Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on seed-borne infection of rice seeds (Pajam) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 91.30 4.667 0.000 e 0.000 d 0.000 b 1.000 ef 0.000 d 1.667 b 0.333 f 0.000 b 1.667 cd T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 56.52 23.333 1.000 bcd 3.000 b 0.000 b 4.667 b 3.333 b 2.000 b 5.333 b 0.000 b 4.000 b T 9 = Allamanda(1:2) 81.36 10.001 1.667 b 1.000 cd 0.000 b 2.667 cd 0.667 d 0.000 d 2.000 cde 0.000 b 2.000 c T 8 = Bishkatali(1:2) 81.37 10.000 0.000 e 1.000 cd 0.000 b 2.000 de 2.000 c 0.000 d 2.667 cd 0.000 b 2.333 c T 7 = Neem(1:2) 86.96 6.999 0.333 de 0.667 d 0.000 b 1.000 ef 1.333 cd 0.000 d 2.333 cd 0.000 b 1.333 cde T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 93.79 3.334 0.333 de 0.667 d 0.000 b 1.000 ef 0.000 d 0.000 d 0.667 ef 0.000 b 0.667 de T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 73.29 14.334 1.333 bc 2.667 b 0.000 b 3.667 bc 0.000 d 2.000 b 3.000 c 0.000 b 1.667 cd T 4 =Allamanda(1:1) 89.44 5.667 0.667 cde 1.000 cd 0.000 b 1.000 ef 0.000 d 1.000 c 1.333 def 0.000 b 0.667 de T 3 =Bishkatali(1:1) 80.74 10.334 1.333 bc 1.667 c 0.000 b 2.667 cd 0.000 d 0.000 d 2.667 cd 0.000 b 2.000 c T 2 = Neem(1:1) 95.03 2.667 0.333 de 0.667 d 0.000 b 0.667 f 0.000 d 0.000 d 0.667 ef 0.000 b 0.333 e T 1 = Garlic (1:1) 53.668 4.667 a 8.667 a 4.000 a 6.333 a 4.667 a 4.667 a 11.333 a 2.667a 6.667 a T 0 =Control Reduction (%) Total (%) Penicillium sp. Aspergillus flavus Nigrospora oryzae Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium moniliforme Curvularia lunata Bipolaris oryzae Aspergillus niger Alternaria padwickii Treatment
  16. 16. Neem 1:1 Neem 1:2 Allamanda 1:1 Allamanda 1:2 Chirata 1:1 Chirata 1:2 Bishkatali 1:1 Bishkatali 1:2 Garlic 1:1 Garlic 1:2 Control Plate -2. Effect of different plant extracts on Pajam seeds
  17. 17. Table-5 : Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on germination of rice seeds (BR6) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 34.13 73.33 g T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 28.04 70.00 h T 9 = Allamanda(1:2) 39.62 76.33 f T 8 = Bishkatali(1:2) 39.02 76.00 f T 7 = Neem(1:2) 62.19 88.67 b T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 46.94 80.33 d T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 42.67 78.00 e T 4 = Allamanda(1:1) 28.04 70.00 h T 3 = Bishkatali(1:1) 59.74 87.33 c T 2 = Neem(1:1) 67.68 91.67 a T 1 = Garlic (1:1) 54.67 i T 0 = Control Germination increase over control (%) Seed Germination (%) Treatments
  18. 18. Table-6 : Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on seed-borne infection of rice seeds (BR6) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 83.42 11.000 0.667 cd 1.000 b 2.000 bc 1.000 c 1.000 bc 1.333 bc 2.333 bc 0.000 b 1.667 cde T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 76.38 15.667 1.333 bcd 1.333 b 1.000 cde 2.000 bc 1.667 b 1.667 bc 3.667 b 0.000 b 3.000 b T 9 =Allamanda(1:2) 76.88 15.334 2.667 b 1.333 b 2.667 ab 2.000 bc 0.000 c 2.000 b 3.000 bc 0.000 b 1.667 cde T 8 = Bishkatali(1:2) 80.90 12.667 1.667 bc 2.000 b 1.667 bcd 2.667 b 0.000 c 1.333 bc 2.000 c 0.000 b 1.333 de T 7 = Neem(1:2) 88.44 7.667 1.000 cd 1.333 b 0.000 e 2.000 bc 0.000 c 0.667 c 2.000 c 0.000 b 0.667 e T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 85.43 9.667 1.000 cd 1.000 b 0.667 cde 2.333 bc 1.000 bc 0.667 c 2.000 c 0.000 b 1.000 de T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 83.42 11.000 1.333 bcd 0.333 b 1.000 cde 1.000 c 1.000 bc 1.667 bc 2.667 bc 0.000 b 2.000 bcd T 4 =Allamanda(1:1) 74.37 17.001 1.667 bc 1.000 b 2.000 bc 2.000 bc 2.000 b 2.000 b 3.667 b 0.000 b 2.667 bc T 3 = Bishkatali(1:1) 82.41 11.667 2.000 bc 1.667 b 0.333 de 1.667 bc 0.333 c 1.667 bc 2.667 bc 0.000 b 1.333 de T 2 = Neem(1:1) 91.46 5.667 0.000 d 1.000 b 0.000 e 1.000 c 0.000 c 0.667 c 2.000 c 0.000 b 1.000 de T 1 =Garlic (1:1) 66.337 4.667 a 5.333 a 3.667 a 7.000 a 6.333 a 11.00 a 13.00 a 2.667 a 12.67 a T 0 = Control Reduction (%) Total (%) Penicillium sp. Aspergillus flavus Nigrospora oryzae Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium moniliforme Curvularia lunata Bipolaris oryzae Aspergillus niger Alternaria padwickii Treatment
  19. 19. Control Garlic1:1 Garlic 1:2 Neem 1:1 Neem 1:2 Chirata 1:1 Chirata 1:2 Bishkatali 1:1 Bishkatali 1:2 Allamanda 1:1 Allamanda 1:2 Plate-3. Effect of different plant extracts on BR6 seeds
  20. 20. Table-7 : Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on germination of rice seeds (Joya) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 54.60 89.67 d T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 57.46 91.33 cd T 9 = Allamanda(1:2) 43.67 83.33 e T 8 = Bishkatali(1:2) 61.50 93.67 b T 7 = Neem(1:2) 62.64 94.33 b T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 59.19 92.33 bc T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 62.07 94.00 b T 4 = Allamanda(1:1) 41.38 82.00 e T 3 = Bishkatali(1:1) 66.09 96.33 a T 2 = Neem(1:1) 68.39 97.67 a T 1 = Garlic (1:1) 58.80 f T 0 = Control Germination increase over control (%) Seed Germination (%) Treatments
  21. 21. Table-8 : Effect of plant extracts (1:1 and 1:2) on seed-borne infection of rice seeds (Joya) Figure with common letters did not differ significantly at 5% level RESULTS 81.87 10.333 1.000 c 2.333 bc 0.000 c 1.000 c 1.000 b 0.000 c 3.333 bc 0.000 1.667 bcd T 10 = Chirata(1:2) 80.69 11.001 1.667 bc 1.667 bcd 0.000 c 3.000 b 0.000 c 0.000 c 3.000 bc 0.000 1.667 bcd T 9 =Allamanda(1:2) 75.44 14.000 2.333 b 1.667 bcd 0.000 c 3.000 b 0.000 c 1.000 b 3.667 b 0.000 2.333 b T 8 =Bishkatali(1:2) 84.21 9.001 0.667 c 0.667 d 0.667 b 3.333 b 0.000 c 0.000 c 2.667 bc 0.000 1.000 cd T 7 = Neem(1:2) 88.30 6.667 1.000 c 0.667 d 0.000 c 2.000 bc 0.000 c 0.000 c 2.000 bc 0.000 1.000 cd T 6 = Garlic(1:2) 86.55 7.667 1.000 c 1.000 cd 0.000 c 1.000 c 0.000 c 0.000 c 2.667 bc 0.000 2.000 bc T 5 = Chirata(1:1) 83.62 9.334 1.000 c 1.667 bcd 0.000 c 2.000 bc 0.000 c 0.667 bc 3.000 bc 0.000 1.000 cd T 4 =Allamanda(1:1) 73.68 15.001 2.667 b 2.667 b 0.000 c 2.000 bc 1.000 b 1.000 b 3.667 b 0.000 2.000 bc T 3 =Bishkatali(1:1) 81.28 10.668 1.667 bc 1.667 bcd 0.000 c 3.333 b 0.000 c 0.667 bc 2.667 bc 0.000 0.667 d T 2 = Neem(1:1) 88.89 6.334 0.667 c 1.333 bcd 0.000 c 1.000 c 0.333 c 0.667 bc 1.667 c 0.000 0.667 d T 1 = Garlic (1:1) 56.996 5.000 a 4.667 a 4.000 a 9.333 a 6.333 a 5.333 a 12.33 a 0.000 10.00 a T 0 = Control Reduction (%) Total (%) Penicillium sp. Aspergillus flavus Nigrospora oryzae Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium moniliforme Curvularia lunata Bipolaris oryzae Aspergillus niger Alternaria padwickii Treatment
  22. 22. Plate- 4. Effect of different plant extracts on Joya seeds Control Garlic1:1 Garlic 1:2 Neem 1:1 Neem 1:2 Allamanda 1:1 Allamanda 1:2 Chirata 1:1 Chirata 1:2 Bishkatali 1:1 Bishkatali 1:2
  23. 23. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Among the plant extracts, best performance in terms of reducing per cent seed-borne infection was obtained through treating the seeds of variety Pajam with garlic extract at (1:1) dilution and chirata (1:1) which reduced 95.03% and 93.79% seed-borne infection, respectively and also increased seed germination by 67.81% over control. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of variety BR6, best performance was obtained through treating the seeds with garlic extract at (1:1) dilution which reduced 91.46% seed-borne infection and also increased seed germination by 67.68% over control. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of variety Joya, best performance was obtained through treating the seeds with garlic extract at (1:1) dilution and neem (1:1) which reduced 88.89% and 81.28% seed-borne infection, respectively and also increased seed germination by 68.39% and 66.09%, respectively over control. </li></ul>
  24. 24. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION <ul><li>Seed treatment with plant extracts is an eco-friendly measure in controlling seed-borne pathogens. Seed treatment with garlic extracts @ 1:1 dilution significantly increases seed germination of three varieties and also effectively controls the seed-borne fungi of rice. And it is also found that neem extracts (1:1) and chirata extracts (1:1) also effective against seed-borne fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>As chemical is hazardous to our ecology, serious threat to our terrestrial and aquatic species of animal, use of plant extract is essential for maintaining sustainable environmental condition. </li></ul><ul><li>So, we should practice seed treatment before sowing as a routine practice to achieve sustainable agricultural production. </li></ul>
  25. 25. THANKS TO ALL

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