REPORT MONTREAL AND KYOTO PROTOCOL
NAME : MONIQUE JANICE V TAN
STUDENT ID : 0302371
SUBJECT : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE [BCC 207]
LECTURER : MISS NORMA JEAN
SUBMISSION DATE : 14TH OCT, 2013
WHAT IS KYOTO AND MONTREAL PROTOCOL? WHY DO THEY EXIST?
Kyoto protocol is to contain the emissions of greenhouse effect from
the factories of the developed countries that emit gases harmful to the
earth’s protective ozone layer.
The objective is very noble however it is easier said than done because
executing the protocol in the most appropriate way will compromise
the pace of development and revenue generation for most countries.
Therefore the head of the countries ﬁnd it very difficult to move on. It
is hoped that the leaders of the world will learn how to think of the
future generations rather than think of just the present.
While the Kyoto protocol will be very much inﬂuenced by the concrete
determination of the leaders to help the ozone layer it is up to the
general public or the people to do their best in reducing the effect of
their lifestyle on the ozone layer. The Montréal protocol boils down to
the population to do their part in changing into a life-sustaining living.
The two protocols ensure that the implementations starts form the
leaders of the countries. Without commitment form these leaders there
is no way that the two protocols will meet their objectives. The leaders
of the countries will have to cascade the emission targets to the
responsible industry’s and companies and monitor the achievement. It
will be up to the companies and industries to strategies and approach
on reducing on their carbon footprint.
-Companies and industries are to developed construction materials
that are conducive to housing and office structures, which require less
-Sourcing raw materials only from companies with sustainable
-Spending on new technology that will be emit gases that are not
harmful to our ozone layer.
-Governments awarding the companies and organizations who built
buildings that are following building constructions standards, eg:
Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design that change the way we
think about how our buildings and communities are designed,
constructed, maintained and operated across the globe.
-for people to prefer and demand hybrid cars and houses that are
designed to be less dependant on air-conditioning rather natural air
circulations or companies designing air condition that are not going to
emit carbon emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol treaty was negotiated in December 1997 at the city
of Kyoto, Japan and came into force February 16th, 2005. It is an
international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting
internationally binding emission reduction targets.
This protocol is recognized to be principally responsible for the
current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of
more than 150 years of industrial activity and places a heavier burden
on developed nations under the principle of "common but
The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were
adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are referred to
as the "Marrakesh Accords." Its ﬁrst commitment period started in
2008 and ended in 2012.
There is the one golden rule that must be obliged under the terms of
the protocol that is, countries must meet their targets primarily
through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an
additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based
The Kyoto mechanisms are:
-International Emissions Trading
-Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
-Joint implementation (JI)
The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties
meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way leading to a better
lifestyle as well.
The Kyoto Protocol is seen as an important ﬁrst step towards a truly
global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions,
and can provide the architecture for the future international agreement
on climate change.
The Evolution of the Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer was designed to reduce the production and consumption of
ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the
atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The
original Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and
entered into force on 1 January 1989.
The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that
enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new
scientiﬁc information and agree to accelerate the reductions required
on chemicals already covered by the Protocol.
MONTREAL PROTOCOL started out their methods in determining which
product places harm on the ozone layer. Hydroﬂuorocarbons is known
as a class of partly chlorinated and ﬂuorinated hydrocarbons, used as
an alternative to chloroﬂuorocarbons in foam production,
refrigeration, and other processes.HFCs replaced chloroﬂuorocarbons
(CFCs) and hydrochloroﬂuorocarbons (HCFCs), that were phased out
under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer. HFCs pose no harm to the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and
HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine that depletes the ozone layer. But
it has been established that HFCs are not innocuous either. These
materials are super-greenhouse gases with an extremely high global
warming potential. This means they are capable of trapping enormous
amounts of infrared radiations in the atmosphere and can cause a
greenhouse effect a thousand times stronger than carbon dioxide that
are harmful to our atmostpehere.
Based on my studies I am able to conclude that learning about these
two Protocols have opened my eyes. To be able to plan and construct
from nothing and creating a whole new perspective in making a better
habitat as well as preserving the naturally is not an easy task. I can say
I highly look up to both protocols. In studies I observe that how both
protocols compliment each other well in beneﬁting both parties.
KYOTO PROTOCOL is to contain emissions of greenhouse effect...
MONTREAL PROTOCOL is to protect the ozone layer...
One would not be better of without the others existence. Overall these
two protocols are just a helping hand in nature but the real thing is on
us, as we are the ones who are able to act out the things that needed
to be done and conquer our bad habits together with preserving the
way of life we live.
They are a procedure ensuring out earths survival. They exist because
of our incompetence in handling the very destruction of our daily
activities. ACT, CONQUER AND PRESERVE. I’ve learn much from the
structure of the two procedures.
We need to act on our weaknesses as the main destruction is probably
caused non other than by us humans. Loitering trash and dumping
liquid substances into rives and oceans polluting and killing forest for
our own luxury and etc.
We need to conquer ourselves ﬁrst before we start saving our earth.
We depend too much on cars on traveling, which consume petrol, air
conditioning at the expense of our ozone layer, and etc. We can look
at other options available. Living the sustainable lifestyle and
conducting eco-technology that have been developed for the past few
years. Technology is the best in class green technology partners for an
We need to preserve the balance in our habitat and correct the
imbalanced caused due to our own selﬁshness. Turning over a new
leaf may be costly and seemingly not worth it but it all comes down to
where our next generation will see the life we see today through their
own eyes or digitally captured through the lens of a camera.
Air Source Heat Pumps
Biomass or Burning Boilers
Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP)
Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning)
Lighting (Internal & External)
• Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
• Solar Thermal
• Variable Speed Drives
• Voltage Optimisation
Water Saving Measures
Several ways in making our life better and ensuring the sustainable
living in action.