Social Psychology Report

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This is an overview of social psychology. The presentation is in the partial fulfillment of Experimental Psychology class. 1st Term AY 2011-2012.

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Social Psychology Report

  1. 1. Presented by: Monica Renee G. Policarpio MSPSYCP June 21, 2012
  2. 2. WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY?
  3. 3. HOW DOES IT DIFFER WITH SOCIOLOGY?  The scientific study of how a person‟s thoughts, behavior and feelings are influenced by real, imagined, or implied presence of others is called Social Psychology  While Sociology, on the other hand is the study and classification of human societies
  4. 4. THREE MAIN AREAS  SOCIAL COGNITION  SOCIAL INTERACTION  SOCIAL INFLUENCE
  5. 5. SOCIAL COGNITION  How we perceive our social worlds and how we attend to, store, remember, and use information about other people and the social world
  6. 6. SOCIAL COGNITION  Attitude  Impression Formation  Attribution
  7. 7. ATTITUDE  A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, person, object, or situation idea/ person/ object/ situation Your perception Response
  8. 8. THREE COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE Affect • Distrustful to politicians Behavior • Does not practice voting Cognition • Politicians are all the same
  9. 9. ATTITUDE FORMATION Experiences Mom and Teacher Friends Observation Attitude
  10. 10. ATTITUDE FORMATION Direct Contact Direct Instruction Interaction with others Vicarious Conditioning Attitude
  11. 11. ATTITUDE CHANGE  Persuasion is the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading or explanation
  12. 12. FACTORS OF PERSUASION  SOURCE  MESSAGE  TARGET AUDIENCE
  13. 13. COGNITIVE AND DISSONANCE
  14. 14. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Boring task “Did you enjoy the task?” $1 $20 “No” “Yes” Received
  15. 15. HOW DO WE REDUCE THE DISCOMFORT?  1) Change the conflicting behavior  2) Change the conflicting cognition  3) Form new cognition WHY???
  16. 16. IMPRESSION FORMATION  PRIMACY EFFECT  persistent impression made toward a person even though they may later have a contradicting information regarding their original impression
  17. 17. STEREOTYPES A belief or set of beliefs about people in a particular social category
  18. 18. ATTRIBUTION  The process of explaining one‟s own and others‟ behavior  ATTRIBUTION THEORY  Developed by Fritz Heider  Situational / External  Dispositional / Internal
  19. 19. ATTRIBUTION BIASES  Fundamental Attribution Error  Overestimation of internal characteristics and underestimation of the influence of situation  Self-serving bias = situational attribution  Belief in a Just World = dispositional attribution
  20. 20. SOCIAL INFLUENCE  The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual
  21. 21. SOCIAL INFLUENCE  CONFORMITY  COMPLIANCE  OBEDIENCE  GROUP BEHAVIOR
  22. 22. CONFORMITY  Is changing one‟s own behavior to match that of other people 1 2 3Find the matching line Asch‟s Experiment
  23. 23. COMPLIANCE  Changing one‟s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for a change
  24. 24. 4 TECHNIQUES TO GAIN COMPLIANCE  Foot-in-the-Door Technique  Door-in-the-Face Technique  Lowball Technique  That‟s-not-all-Technique
  25. 25. OBEDIENCE  Changing of one‟s own behavior at the direct order from an authority figure
  26. 26. GROUP BEHAVIOR  GROUPTHINK is the kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which group is concerned
  27. 27. GROUP POLARIZATION  Tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions than the initial inclination of other members  Group tends to intensify opinions
  28. 28. SOCIAL FACILITATION  The positive influence of others on performance  Increased arousal in presence of others resulting to increased performance
  29. 29. SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT  The negative influence of others on performance  Increased arousal in presence of others resulting to decreased performance
  30. 30. SOCIAL LOAFING  „loafers‟ tend not to do well as well when other people are working on the same task, but can do quite well when working on their own
  31. 31. SOCIAL INTERACTION  Positive and negative aspects of people relating to others
  32. 32. SOCIAL INTERCTION  PREJUDICE  Negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group  In-groups and out-groups  “us” vs. “them”  DISCRIMINATION  Treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
  33. 33. REALISTIC CONFLICT THEORY  Increasing prejudice and discrimination between the in-group and the out-group when those groups in conflict over a limited resource, such as land and available jobs  Example:  “Illustrado” vs. “Indio”
  34. 34. THE SOCIAL SELF
  35. 35. SOCIAL COGNITION
  36. 36. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY  Referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world
  37. 37. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY  A theory in which the formation of a person‟s identity within a particular social group is explained by  SOCIAL CATEGORIZATION  SOCIAL IDENTITY  SOCIAL COMPARISON
  38. 38. SOCIAL INTERACTION Aggression • When one has the intention to hurt or destroy another person whether verbally or physically Altruism • Helping someone without expectation of reward and often without fear of own‟s safety Attraction • To have a desire for a relationship with someone
  39. 39. AGGRESSION  Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis  As a Human instinct  As a biological phenomenon (amygdala and testosterone) / learned behavior  Alcohol-influenced aggression?
  40. 40. ALTRUISM  Bystander Effect  Refers to finding the likelihood of a bystander to help someone in trouble decreases as the number of bystander increases.  Diffusion of Responsibility  When a person fails to take responsibility for either action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
  41. 41. ATTRACTION: LIKING AND LOVING  RULES OF ATTRACTION Proximity Similarity Physical Attraction
  42. 42. RECIPROCITY OF LIKING  Tendency to like people who like them  Complementary qualities
  43. 43. STERNBERG‟S LOVE THEORY LIKING INTIMACY INFATUATION PASSION CONSUMATE LOVE EMPTY COMMITMENT FATUOUS ROMANTIC COMPANIONATE
  44. 44. THANK YOU! ;)

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