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  1. 1. CONTRAST WORDS: When we want to make two points, and emphasize that one of them contrasts with the other, there are a number of different words and expressions that we can use.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Probably the most common and simplest word to use is </li></ul><ul><li>the conjunction but . </li></ul><ul><li>It comes between the two clauses that you wish to contrast: </li></ul>I don't like most sweet food, but I love chocolate.   The team was beaten, but Paul scored three goals.  
  3. 3. <ul><li>Although is also a conjunction, and can come either </li></ul><ul><li>at the beginning of a sentence, or between the two clauses that you wish to contrast: </li></ul><ul><li>Though can be used in exactly the same way, </li></ul><ul><li>and is more common in informal speech : </li></ul>They went on a picnic although it was raining.   Although it was raining, they went on a picnic.     Though /Although it was raining, they went on a picnic. They went on a picnic though/ although it was raining.  
  4. 4. <ul><li>Even though has the same meaning as although, but the word ‘even’ stresses that what follows is surprising : </li></ul>    Even though he's almost ninety, he's entered the marathon.  
  5. 5. <ul><li>Though can also be used as an adverb, to mean however (see below). </li></ul><ul><li>This use is very similar to ‘però’ in Catalan </li></ul>&quot;Strange place, isn't it?&quot; &quot;Yes. Very interesting, though .&quot;   Frogs, though , are amphibians and not reptiles.  
  6. 6. However and nevertheless emphasize the fact that the second thing that you are saying contrasts with the first. Nevertheless is more formal . However and Nevertheless are always followed by a COMMA The government vowed to reduce inflation. Nevertheless , one year later, the rate has increased by 3 percent.   The children had a lovely day. However , they arrived home very sunburnt.  
  7. 7. In spite of + noun is very similar to although + clause In spite of and despite can be followed by an -ing form. We can also use despite + noun in the same way as in spite of in more formal English: He went to the gym in spite of his broken leg (= although he had a broken leg )   He looks very fit in spite of his age (= although he's very old )   In spite of not being able to swim, she survived for almost an hour in the sea. We went to the party despite being tired .   We went to the party despite the rain .  
  8. 8. <ul><li>The main difference between ALTHOUGH and DESPITE or IN SPITE OF is that: </li></ul><ul><li>ALTHOUGH is followed by SUBJECT + VERB </li></ul><ul><li>Although he is tired he is going to finish the report. </li></ul><ul><li>DESPITE and IN SPITE OF are followed by a NOUN or a VERB in –ING FORM </li></ul><ul><li>He is going to finish the report despite being tired. </li></ul><ul><li>He is going to sinish the report in spite of being tired . </li></ul>