HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT• Supervised by: Ms. Sonia (Lecturer, NIN)• Presented by: Monika sharma (M.Sc. Nursing 1st year)
INTRODUCTION• Human behavior refers to the range of activities exhibited by humans and which are influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport and genetic factors.
Definition:• Human behavior, in general is the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. OR Behavior can be defined as a response/s which is observed directly/indirectly. Direct observation is possible by studying the responses of people to a work environment. Indirect observations are decision
ASSUMPTION:• Individual Differences:• A Whole Person:• Caused Behavior (Motivation):
• Individual Differences result of interaction between individual characteristics and the characteristics of the environment in which the behavior occurs. Inherited• Individual characteristics: Learned
• Individual characteristics: age, sex, race, education and abilities, psychological factors• Environmental factors: as economic conditions, social and. cultural norms, and political factors
• social environment: relationships with family, friends, co-workers, supervisors and subordinates and membership in groups such as unions
• Caused Behavior (Motivation) Peoples behavior is need based, so for the effective performance and positive behavior there should be proper motivation of the person.
• Value of the Person (Human Dignity): People have to be treated with respect and as an individual. They should be recognized and treated accordingly to increase uniqueness of the person.
MODELS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR:• Psychoanalytic Model• Existential Model• Internal vs. External Determinants of Behavior• Personality vs. the Environment• Cognition vs. the Environment
• Psychoanalytic Model (Freud): behavior is not always consciously explained. "Unconscious" is the major factor which guides the individuals behavior. behavior depends on three factors: id, Ego and Super ego.
• Id: 1.) childhood 2.) pleasure principle 3.) unconscious 4.) can be constructive and destructive( aggressiveness ,fighting, destroying) 5.) controlled with maturity
• Ego: 1.) conscious stage of behaving 2.) maintain balance between id and superego
• Superego:• 1.) represents conscience of the individual• 2.)Based on perfection principles.• 3.) depend upon cultural values and morals
Existential Model:• the depersonalizing effects of environment forces individuals to make their own destiny. So the individuals shape their own identity and make their "existence" meaningful and worthwhile to themselves. (survival for the fittest)
Internal vs. External Determinants of Behaviour• Internal: genetic endowment• External: environment
Personality vs. the Environment• Both personality and situational variables must be taken into account in order to explain an individuals behavior
Cognition vs. the Environment• Depends upon individuals past responses (Stimulus and response)
Personality• Acc. To Munn N.L : “Personality may be defined as the most characteristic, an integration of individual structures, mode of behavior, interests, attitudes, capacities, abilities and aptitude”.
Personality development:• Different on different stages• Childhood• Adolescence• Adulthood• Old age
First six years:• starts with the pregnancy or pre-natal period• Formed by the end of three years ,after that only further development of these qualities takes place.• activities like feeding, weaning, loving, scolding, beating and developing the habits of cleanliness
• Proper love and care -- emotional stability• Excessive love and pampering --- unnstable and stubborn• 2-3 years: friendship, determination and influencing others• of 4-5 years: competitiveness develops.
Pre-adolescence or Pre-pubertal childhood• pre-pubertal childhood 1.) school environment affects the child. 2.) child learns equality, freedom and independent. 3.) Success and failure during adjustment in the group teaches good and bad habits in the child. 4.) leans leadership quality.
Puberty and adolescence :• maturing of sex organs• more independent• If child is restricted in this stage then personality development may stops• development of personality
Adulthood:• requires more adjustments• do job, gets married and gives birth to children.• If these are satisfactory, then personality remains balanced and if unsatisfactory then maintaining balance of personality becomes difficult.•
THEORIES OF PERSONALITYDEVELOPMENT:• Psycho-analytical theory:• Psychosocial theory:• Abrahm Maslow Theory:• Social Cognitive Theory:• TRAIT THEORY (Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory):
Psycho-analytical theory: by SigmundFreud(1856-1939) Id (pleasure principle)• three parts. Ego(reality principle) Superego
• five psychosexual stages: 1.) The oral stage 2.) The anal stage 3.) The phallic or oedipal stage 4.) A latency stage 5.) The genital stage
Psychosocial theory : by Eric H. Erikson(1902-1994)• Age development task 0-18month trust vs. mistrust 18-3yr autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3-5 yr initiative vs. guilt 5-12 yrs industry vs. inferiority 13-19yrs identity vs. role confusion 20-40 yrs intimacy vs. isolation 40-65 yrs generatively vs. stagnation 65-death ego integrity vs. Despairs
Abraham Maslow Theory:• Two things: our capacity for growth or self actualization our desire to satisfy a variety of needs.
Social Cognitive Theory• personality development is primarily shaped by three factors: Environmental Cognitive- personal factors Behavior
TRAIT THEORY (Gordon Allport’s TraitTheory):• A trait are stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways.
Types of traits• cardinal traits(dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits.)• central traits (general characteristics, intelligent, honest, shy and anxious• secondary traits ( These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences ) often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.