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  1. 1. Assignment 6. The European Colonial Empires Monika Ahmadi 007272236
  2. 2. Spain  Spain is a very interesting country and has much history behind its geography, population, society, culture and much more. Many of this history can be based on its people and their rich taste and flavor in music and foods. Their history also shows us that from Spain originated many cultures that made many different countries we know today. Spain’s dances are also popular and still carried on today. Spain is surrounded by France and Portugal. Its size is slightly more than twice of Oregon. Spain’s major problems are pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification.
  3. 3. Spain  Spain is one of the world’s leading tourist countries. Many people visit exciting sights such as the Mediterranean beaches and islands, the rocky Atlantic coast, and castles and churches in historic Spanish cities. Most of Spain is a high, dry plateau called the Meseta. Hills and mountains rise throughout the Meseta, and north of it a mountain barrier extends across the peninsula.
  4. 4. Spain  In the A.D. 700’s, Moors conquered most of Spain. They held control for Hundreds of years. In the 1000’s, the Spanish people began to drive the Moors from the country. The Spaniards finally defeated the Moors in 1492. That same year, Christopher Columbus, who was sailing in Spanish ships, reached America. Columbus’ voyage touched off a great age of Spanish exploration and conquest. The Spaniards built an empire that included much of western South America and southern North America.
  5. 5. Spain  The economies of Cuba and Puerto Rico are very similar during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. As Spain colonized these two islands in the 16th century under the idea that gold was abundant. Thus in turn the islands became a safe port for Spain and her vessels. It also set out to be a huge migration from the Spain to the islands, because everyone was set to search for gold. . This turned out to be short lived as the mining of gold peaked in 1517 till 1819. By Spain using Cuba and Puerto Rico for mining gold they needed slave laborers as the local Indians.
  6. 6. Spain  The Indians soon became unsatisfied with their new conditions of living, they became hostile and many not able to cope with being slaves committed suicide and genocide. By 1540 – 1550 silver was discovered in Mexico and Peru. As Spain found its’ new source of income in Mexico and Peru, it left Cuba and Puerto Rico to literally fend for themselves. By the 1590’s their economy began to prosper by cattle breeding and farming as this lead to new jobs on the islands. This new slow and uneven growth led supplies to be more expensive.
  7. 7. Spain  By the 17th century the cabildos began to govern migration, basically they stopped migration. The Spanish government implemented regulation and restrictions, which in demand increased prices and taxes. As a result, many began to use the black market in order to purchase contraband.
  8. 8. Spain  At this time agriculture also developed and farming expanded with sugar, coffee and tobacco crops.
  9. 9. Portugal  Under King Emanuel, Portuguese power reached its height. From 1497 to 1499 Vasco da Gama made the first voyage to India following the route discovered by Dias, and inaugurated a lucrative trade in spices and other luxuries between Europe and South Asia. Led by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese occupied Goa, India, in 1510, Malacca (now Melaka, Malaysia) in 1511, the Moluccas (in present-day Indonesia) in 1512-14, and Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf in 1515. During the same period they opened up trade with China and established relations with Ethiopia.
  10. 10. Portugal  As other Portuguese kings had done, Emanuel dreamed of uniting Portugal and Spain under his rule and successively married two daughters of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I. Under pressure from his Spanish relations, he followed their example by expelling Jews and Muslims from his domains in 1497, thus depriving Portugal of much of its middle class. His son, John III, promoted the settlement of Brazil and (again influenced by the example of Spain) introduced (1536) the Inquisition into Portugal to enforce religious uniformity. By the time he died in 1557, Portugal had begun to decline as a political and commercial power. This trend continued under King Sebastian, who was killed during another expedition against Morocco in 1578. On the death of his successor, King Henry, in 1580, the Aviz dynasty came to an end.
  11. 11. Portugal  Portugal had many great explorations in the past. First of all, the king of Portugal, Manuel, sponsored many great discoveries. Prince Henry of Portugal was given command of the port of Ceuta (N Morroco) and it's ships. They used these ships to explore the West Coast of Africa, and he paid for numerous expeditions that eventually reached Sierra Leone on Africa's northwest coast. Later kings of Portugal financed expeditions that rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa. Portugal became immensely rich and powerful through its control of trade in this area.
  12. 12. Portugal  Another explorer was Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer and navigator, who was the first European to reach India by a sea route. Da Gama was born in Sines, Alemtejo (now Baixo Alentejo). In 1497 he began a voyage to reach India by sea. He rounded the Cape of Good Hope and anchored at Malindi on the East Coast of Africa. Da Gama then directed his course eastward and on May 20, 1498, reached Calicut on the Malabar Coast of India. Because of the hostility of Muslim merchants, he could not establish a Portuguese trading station there. After fighting his way out of the harbor of Calicut, he returned to Portugal in 1499.
  13. 13. England  During the 16th century England and much of Europe found itself in turmoil and in a constant state of war. The outbreak of fighting led to the invention and development of new weapons and the growth and change of weapons of old. The development of weapons was a trademark of the time, with a sort of renaissance, or re-birth in the field of weaponry (Miller). The technology was highlighted by the invention of gunpowder by the Chinese which eventually found its way to England (Grolier).
  14. 14. England However, the use of gunpowder was minimal, because the use of had yet to be perfected. The technological advancement most useful during the period was progression of the metals used in weaponry. The new forms could be found in the production of swords, arrows, cannons, and armor, as well as varies siege weapons.
  15. 15. England  The three major categories of weapons used during the 16th century were handheld, siege, and missiles. The primary use of handheld weapons is for the obvious is hand to hand combat in close quarters.
  16. 16. England  In the seventeenth century, the political power of the Parliament in England, and the Monarchy in France increased greatly. These conditions were inspired by three major changes: the aftermath of the reformation, the need for an increased governmental financing, and the reorganizing of central governments. These three points were each resolved in a different way in both England and in France.
  17. 17. England  The first major point which eventually increased political power was the aftermath of the Protestant reformation. In England, after the establishment of the separate Anglican church of England there were many protestant groups left in England still in conflict. These groups all tried to push and pull parliament in their favor -- which ultimately made it so that nothing could be done. These conflicts even came to the point of bloody civil wars and suffering on both sides of the fighting.
  18. 18. England  Witchcraft in Europe during the 17th century was common. It mainly took place in Germany, but also took place in England. Witches were associated with evil; it was believed witches inherited magical powers from Satan in exchange for the witch’s soul. Some of these magical powers included outrageous claims such as flying, being able to transform and cursing bad luck on others. It was extremely dangerous to be accused of being a witch as the most common punishment was death, often by beheading or even being burnt at the stake.
  19. 19. England  A large proportion of society in England believed in witchcraft, but the reasons as to why a country which was developing a belief in science and logic had faith in such a very much mythical based idea still remains a question. It is easy to follow the theory that society had developed a state of hysteria following the civil war in 1642 and wanted to direct their anger at something, but it could be something more than that.
  20. 20. France  In the seventeenth century, the political power of the Parliament in England, and the Monarchy in France increased greatly. These conditions were inspired by three major changes: the aftermath of the reformation, the need for an increased governmental financing, and the reorganizing of central governments. These three points were each resolved in a different way in both England and in France.
  21. 21. France  The first major point which eventually increased political power was the aftermath of the Protestant reformation. In England, after the establishment of the separate Anglican church of England there were many protestant groups left in England still in conflict. These groups all tried to push and pull parliament in their favor -- which ultimately made it so that nothing could be done. These conflicts even came to the point of bloody civil wars and suffering on both sides of the fighting.
  22. 22. France  In the 17th and 18th centuries, Great Britain, France, and the Hapsburg Empire were all competing for the fate of Europe. France, in particular, was caught between being a continental power or a world power; taking control of the Rhine and most of Central Europe, or taking control of The New World. France’s primary goal at the time was for control of the Rhine, but this goal was not without obstacles.
  23. 23. France  Great Britain’s main concern was to keep the balance of power in Europe on their side, while expanding overseas. The Hapsburg Empire’s goals were dealing with conquering the Holy Roman Empire and the Germanic states, in turn taking over the entire continent from the inside out. All 3 of these great powers were being opposed from their pursuits, and survival was always the top concern. Also, after 1660, a growing multipolar system of European states made decisions within each state based more on national interest than before, when most conflicts and militaristic decisions were based on religion.
  24. 24. France  Louis XIV(1661-1715) is responsible for a considerable gain in the power of France. He had huge armies, (at some points reaching up to half a million troops), that were organized with barracks, hospitals, parade grounds, and depots to support them. Along with an organized enormous fleet at sea, France became a true hybrid power. Its energies were diverted between continental aims and maritime and colonial ambitions.
  25. 25. France  The invention of the powerful artillery guns would change man’s role in warring engagements. The artillery guns at first were very limited by their own design. The guns were very heavy and had to be transported by water, which meant that only towns and fortresses that were close to a body of water could be attacked with artillery also known as the cannon. There were also some fortresses that were impervious to the early cannon attacks based on strong designs or natural defenses. The French were able to penetrate the round shaped castles and large walls during the late 1400s by using concentrated fire of several small guns instead of a few large ones. A new design of smaller walls that were built in uneven lines, like a star shape, was implemented to strengthen the area called crownworks or hornworks. Other modifications of new designs included lower and thicker walls, gun towers that projected at an angle, intervals of guns for fields of fire, wide and deep ditches, and pillboxes.
  26. 26. France  Of course with the new design of castles came new ways to attack. Some effective ways to attack these castles, but also rare ways to attack, were by surprise, by storm, or by treachery. The most common way to attack the castles were long term engagements that consisted of either surrounding the castle or getting in close enough that the castles guns would be ranged over the position.
  27. 27. Dutch  During the 17th and 18th centuries, mercantilism was the emerging economic policy through which the slave trade developed in Europe. In the Netherlands many historical events gave rise to a desire for domination of international trade. They were serious tradesman and were heavily involved in the profitable business of slavery. The Dutch, intelligent and self-ruling tradesmen took no time in displaying their dominance over rival countries, Portugal, England and Spain, in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. They established their international superiority in trade and impacted today’s society. From 1609 to 1713, the Dutch Republic was going through “The Golden Age.” It was a time of economic wealth, and a higher standard of life compared to most European countries. However, the Netherlands had the highest cost of living out of all European countries. It was the period in which mercantilism expanded, and domination of trading power was necessity. England, France, and Portugal were also expanding their boundaries of trade, which will begin a long fight for mastery at sea.
  28. 28. Dutch  German settlers came to North America in the late 17th century, they settled mainly in Pennsylvania. Germans built large, lasting houses of wood and quarry stone. Dutch settlers came, more than a century earlier, to the New World. Their first settlements were in New Amsterdam, now known as New York City and the Hudson Valley to the north. Dutch immigrants used stone and brick to build their homes. Their homes were large according to colonial standards. Dutch homes were noted for their decorative brickwork. The Germans enticed by such good reports, more displaced Germans came, crowding the trails that led westward. The rolling hills and fertile soils of the River Valley in Pennsylvania reminded them of their homeland, so they settled by the thousands, and their descendants, misnamed the quot;Pennsylvania Dutchquot; remain there to this day.
  29. 29. Dutch  The Dutch landed and decided to call New Amsterdam their home. They learned to use the sea to their advantage and became fisherman, they supplied seafood to Europe and soon became one of the leading exporters. Germans used Gable roofs with hoods in building their dwellings. Germans used hoods, or abbreviated roofs, to protect the people walking, from rain, and helped with the removal of rain from the roof. Dutch settlers built their homes using intricate, stepped gables. Some of the main architectural features in German and Dutch influenced houses are dormer windows, stepped gables or quot;hoodsquot;, metal gutters, small windows with sliding shutters, and the Dutch door. The Dutch door is a door that is divided in half horizontally, like the door outside of the pool for the concession stand.
  30. 30. Dutch  There are some distinctive features of the German and Dutch; Germans had fireplaces in the center of the first floor. The fireplace was the center of most activities. On the opposite side of the fireplace was a large family room for entertaining, they used the light and heat from the fireplaces to do many daily chores and used for the entertaining of the guests. A favorite feature of the Dutch was wide front porches on their homes. The Dutch also had dormer windows that are still widely used today. Dormer windows are windows that are projecting through a steeply sloping roof. While doing this report I found that not many houses can be influenced by only one group of people. Shingles from the English settlements and dormer windows from the Dutch can be used on the same house. Although many houses have different characteristics they still have a distinct style.
  31. 31. The Jesuit Relations  The Jesuits missionaries in America faced many problems, one in particular dealt with relations between the missionaries and the Natives. The letter deals with the treatment of prisoners after a brief military engagement and in addition, attempts by the Jesuits to convert the captured Iroquois. The treatment of the prisoners seems benevolent, compared to the past modus operandi used by the Church to hasten conversion. Furthermore, the letter exemplifies the hypocrisy of the missionaries after the prisoners, willingly, convert. This letter is a perfect of the Counter Reformation, and Church's attempt to expend its areas of influence as well as to quot;savequot; more souls from the Devil. Furthermore, the content of the letter can be easily proven to be bias towards the Iroquois in order to promote Catholicism. This letter, being one of many, is a part of the Counter-Reformation and serves as propaganda for the Catholic Church.
  32. 32. The Jesuit Relations  The original New England Natives first felt the effects of Smallpox and other diseases during the first decade of the sixteenth century. This was shortly after John Cabot explored the coast in 1498. By 1504, constant fishing trips were being made by the French and Portuguese, which started the spread of disease. However, It wasn’t until the outbreak of 1616 and 1617, when huge numbers of natives were killed. Diseases like chicken Pox, cholera, the plague, tuberculosis, and many others were introduced to New England for the first time. For the most part, Europeans had become immune to these diseases over the years. The natives, on the other hand, were completely vulnerable.¹ Native Americans were completely susceptible to contracting the disease, but they weren't the only victims. Twenty people died on the Mayflower as a result of smallpox. There was a smallpox outbreak in Plymouth Colony around 1633. Twenty people died including their only physician. This was the beginning of the colonial's struggle with the disease.  Smallpox became distinguishable as the most destructive disease in New England in 1633. From this date forward, smallpox continued to plague New England. Captain John Oldham was considered the first Englishman to conduct explorations along the Connecticut River. After his trip north, there was a severe breakout of smallpox
  33. 33. The Jesuit Relations  One common point between the two civilizations was the very prominent class distinctions. In both areas settlers also fought to restructure these systems. Rebellions such as Bacon's 1676 rebellion in Virginia, and Leisler 1689 to 1691 rebellion in New York were due to the settler's unhappiness with the social class distinctions. Another similarity was that of relatively cheap and wages which almost tripled that of the English. Unity in New England was something that was not commonly found in the Chesapeake. New England's puritan ways easily molded this tightly knight colony. In the Chesapeake this was not the case. Farmers were more of loners who did not move or live in very close communities. New England grew in a more organized way, unlike the Chesapeake that was very spontaneous in its growth. New England also established Harvard, the first college, in 1636 as a training school for the ministry. This school opened only eight years after the founding of the colony. In Virginia, the first college of William and Mary did not open until 1693, eighty-six years after Virginia was founded, this shows an example of the much more organized society of New England.
  34. 34. The Jesuit Relations  Religion was a very important part of everyday life in colonial America. Sometimes people were not allowed to question what they were taught, and if they did so they were punished accordingly. Before 1700 some colonies had more religious freedom then others. While others colonies only allowed religious freedom to a select group, others allowed religious freedom to all different kinds of religions. In the overall there was quite a bit of religious freedom in colonial America First there is the colony or Rhode Island, which was started by a man, named Roger Williams in (1636). It did not become an official colony until (1644) when it then received a charter from Parliament. Williams welcomed every one; he guaranteed religious freedom to everyone even the Catholics and the Jews. Williams also granted religious freedom to the Quakers, even though his own views were very different from those of the Quakers. This was truly the most democratic of all of the colonies. Williams did not demand mandatory attendance at services, or oaths regarding religious beliefs. Rhode Island was truly the first example of religious tolerance and freedom of opportunity.