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  2. 2. ENERGYIndex:*Energy definitions.*Types of energy.*Energy Sources.*Renewable Energy.*Non-renewable energy.*Types of power stations.*Wind turbines.
  3. 3. EnergyEnergy. Its the capacity of an object or body to transform an energy source into work.The quantity of energy is the equivalent of quantity of work.
  4. 4. EnergyThere are a lot of types of energy:*Mechanical energy*Electrical energy.*Electromagnetic energy.*Sound energy.*Chemical energy.*Nuclear energy.*Thermal or calorific energy.
  5. 5. EnergyMechanical energy. -Kinetic energy: its the energy that have de objects when they are in motion. -Potencial energy: its the energy that objects have when theyre moved from one position to another.
  6. 6. Electrical energy. This energy makes electrical Energy enegy work when they are connected to a supply of electricity.
  7. 7. EnergyElectromagnetic energy. This energy is transported by electromagnetic waves. Luminous energy is a type of this energy produced by the sun or artificial lights.
  8. 8. EnergySound energy. This energy is associated with sound waves transmited throught vibrations.
  9. 9. EnergyChemical energy. It is released or consumed during chemical processes.
  10. 10. EnergyNuclear energy. Its stored in nuclei atoms and its released during chemical reactions.
  11. 11. EnergyThermal or calorific energy. Its produce from the vibration of particles in matter. The thermal energy of objects is measured by the temperature.
  12. 12. EnergyEnergy sources. They are natural resources that produce forms of energy , and they can be transformed to especific use.There are two types:*Renewable energy sources.*Non-renewable energy sources .
  13. 13. EnergyRenewable energy sources:*Hydraulic energy*Solar energy*Wind energy*Marine energy*Geothermal energy*Biomass
  14. 14. Energy Hydraulic EnergyProduction. 1. When water is released from damps and falls its potencial energy is transform into kinetic energy. 2. The kinetic energy moves turbines , which rotate an alternator. 3. The alternator transforms kinetic energy into electricity
  15. 15. Energy Hydraulic EnergyTransformation.* Most hydraulic energy produce electricity in hydroelectric power stations. They need: * Rivers with a lot of water. * Rivers in valleys with high slopes to contain the water.* Small hydraulic power stations produced electricity and dont damage.
  16. 16. Energy Hydraulic energyAdvantages. *Its cheap. *Its clean. *Its non-polluting.
  17. 17. Energy Hydraulic energyDisadvantages. *Building power stations is very expensive. *Reservoirs cover productive land and can destroy villages. *Resevoirs can spoil the landscape and affect the animal. *Theres a risk of a catastrophe if a dam breaks.
  18. 18. Energy Solar energyProduction and transformation. * It produces hot water by using flat solar thermal collectors. These use suns heat to heat up the water that circulates in the pipes below. *It generates electrical energy using solar panels. They are used for energy comsumption in homes, bussinesses and industry. *It produces electrical energy in heliosat fields. Heliostas reflect light fro the sun and focus it onto a central collector that holds water that is
  19. 19. Energy Solar energyAdvantages. *Its clean. *Big power stations are not needed. *Its unlimited.Disadvantages. *Its variable source of energy- sunlight depends on the season,climate and latitude. *Solar panels are expensive.
  20. 20. Energy Wind energyProduction and transformation. *Its produced by the effect of radiation of the atmosphere. Radiation produces different temperatures at different heights. The air moves. When wind energy moves the blades of a wind turbine, kinetic energy is transformed into electricity.
  21. 21. Energy Wind energyAdvantanges. *Its unlimited and non-polluting. *The cost of building and maintaining a wind farm is low.Disadvantages. *Its variable source of energy-there are many regions that havent got much wind. *Wind turbines are a hazard for birds and produce noise pollution.
  22. 22. Energy Marine energyTypes. *Tidal energy can be extracted from the tides. *Wave energy is obtained from the movement of seas waves. *Ocean thermal energy is produced from the difference in temperature between the surface of the sea and the deep sea.
  23. 23. Energy Geothermal energyThis energy comes from the heat stored in the earths crust. It can appears naturally in geysers and volcanic eruptions. If the temperature is below 150 ºC, heat can be produced. If the temperature is above 150 ºC, electricity can be produced.
  24. 24. Energy BiomassThis is produced from plant remains, forest and agricultural waste. Its mainly used in two ways: *to produce electricity. *transformation into fuels such as charcoal, biogas,biodiesel and alcohol.
  25. 25. EnergyNon- renewable energy sources:*Nuclear energy.*Coal.*Petroleum.*Natural gas.
  26. 26. EnergyNuclear energy. The energy stored in the nuclei of atoms and its released in the nuclear reactions of some atoms.*Types: *Nuclear fusion. Its the fusion of two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. Energy from the sun and the stars are produced by the fusion of hydrogen nuclei.*Nuclear fission. The fission of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei by bombarding it with neutrons.
  27. 27. Energy*Transformation. Thermal energy is released by the reaction heats water and the water is converted into steam under high pressure. This moves the turbines of a generator to produce electrical energy.
  28. 28. EnergyCoal. Its was formed from the remains of plants that were buried and transformed. Its light and black.*Types:*Athracite.*Bituminous.*Lignite.*Peat.
  29. 29. Energy*Extraction:*Open-cast mines.The coal is close to the surface and the soil is remove to expose it.*Underground mines. The mineral is buried below the surface and it must be mined underground.*Transport:*by sea:in enormous ships.*by land: normally by train.*by road: usually for local transport.
  30. 30. Energy*Uses:* Now. -generate electricity in coventional power stations. -for central heating systems.*Before. -for street lighting. -as a domestic fuel.
  31. 31. EnergyPetroleum. Its formed from the buried ramins of plants and animals that hace descomposed because of bacterias action.*Extraction:1. The petroleum is drilled on land or under the sea.2. Its extracted using pumps, or natural pressure in the well causes the oil to rise to the surface.3. This contains salt water, rock, mud and gas, so its purified.
  32. 32. Energy*Storage and transport:*Oil tankers. These are specialised ships designed for intercontinental transport.*Oil pipelines. These are enormous steel pipes.
  33. 33. EnergyTransformation and uses:Liquefied Methane, Fuelgases ethane and butaneLiquefied Petrol and diesel Heatfields engines/ aeroplanes.
  34. 34. EnergyFuel oils *In thermal power stations to produce electricity. * Heating.Liquid Vaseline Lubricant, forcomponents making creams.Haevy Paraffin/tar To make thingscomponets waterproof/ for alphat.
  35. 35. EnergyNatural gas. Its a mixture of gases formed from descomposed plants ans animals.*Extraction:1. Its transported from gas fields by gas pipelines to liquefaction.2. The gas is converted into liquidform.3. Its transported in LNG carries.4. When it reaches its destination, the LNG is returned to a gaseous state ans trasported once again through gas pipelines.
  36. 36. Energy*Uses: Its used in homes to produce thermal energy, and in thermal power stations to obtain electrical energy.
  37. 37. EnergyNon-renewable energies and the enviroment:*Increased greenhouses effect.*Acid rain.*Oil spills.*Nuclear waste.*Rising water temperature.*Atmospheric pollution.
  38. 38. Energy Increased greenhouses effectThe burning of fossils fuels release carbon dioxide. This increase in the atmospehere traps the suns rays, and the earths temperature increases.
  39. 39. Energy Acid rain.This is caused by burning coal and petroleum. They produce sulphur and nitogen oxide. The acids have negative effects on rivers, lakes and forests.
  40. 40. Energy Oil spillsThis happen when petroleum is released into the sea or because of oil tanker accidents. They are a hazard for marine and coastal ecosystems.
  41. 41. Energy Nuclear waste.It must be stored in safe conditions because it emits radioactivity that is very dangerous to living things, so safety sistems are important.
  42. 42. Energy Rising water temperatureThermal power stations emit hot water that causes the temperature of river and sea water to rise. This affect negativily on animals and plants.
  43. 43. Energy There are many types of power stations. These are some of them:*Nuclear power station. This power station use fission energy. *Thermal power station. *Hydraulic power station. This power station needsrivers with a lot of water and rivers in valleys with highslopes to contain the water.
  44. 44. Energy Wind turbines:*Wind turbines creates water from thin air. They have produced renewable energy but a French engineering firm has discovered another eco- purpose for the towering structures.*One turbine can produce 1,000 liters of water everyday , depending on the level of humidity , temperature and wind speeds.* The disadvantages are that wind turbines are a hazard for birds and produce noise pollution.
  45. 45. Energy*This enough to provide water for a village or town of 2,000 to 3,000 people.*It cost between 660,000$ depending on the installation.
  46. 46. EnergyThis is the end of our presentation.We hope you enjoyed. Mónica García Jaime Murillo 2ºB