REPORTED SPEECHWe use it when we want to tell another personabout a conversation that took place in the past(e.g telephone call, news or a story that someonetold us, etc.)
CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO REPORTED SPEECH:• Verb Tense (a back shift)2) Personal Pronouns, Possessives: change from first or second person to third person, except when the speaker is reporting his own words.3) Demonstratives: This That These Those4) Time & Place Expressions: Here There
Verb Tense Changes: I know quite a lot of Present Simple knew He said that he ......................people here.’ Robert said. Simple Past quite a lot of people thereJohn is feeling much Present Past was He said that John ...............better ‘ Paul said. feeling Continuous Continuous ............. much better ....... I enjoyed my holiday in Simple Past He said that hehad enjoyed ......................the States’ David said. Past Perfect his holiday in the StatesJackie wasn´t feeling very Past Past He said that Jackie…………… had been feeling ................................very wellwell ‘ The teacher said. Continuous Perf.Cont. They‘ve seen the Eiffel Present Past had He said that they …….........Tower ‘ John said. Perfect Perfect .................. the Eiffel Tower seen I have been waiting for Present Past Perf. had been He said that he ......................ages ‘ My father said. Per. Cont. waiting …………...for ages Cont. Nobody had warned them Past Past He said thatabout the storm ‘ He said. Perfect Perfect had warned nobody .................... about the storm She had been reading Past Perf. Past Perf. She said that she hadall day ‘Brenda said. Cont. been reading …………… ........................ all Cont. day
I will be here with you. Future Conditional Robert promised that would be he ...............................Robert promised me. Simple there with meJohn is going to study Be going Was/Were Paul said that was going to study John ......................................French to going to Paul said. ..........FrenchMODAL VERBS: David said that could we ............................... start We can start the lesson Can Could the lessonDavid said. They may come home May Might My husband said thatMy husband said. might they ......................... come home You must be quiet in Must Had to The teacher told us thatclass ‘ The teacher told us. had to we ..................... be quiet in class.
Changes in Time and Place expressions: Time PlaceNow Then Here thereAgo BeforeToday that day This town/ That town/ garden... garden ...Tomorrow the following day These Those OR the day after cities/ ... cities/ ...Yesterday the previous day OR the day beforeLast week/ the previous week/month/ ... month ... OR the week beforeNext week / The followingmonth/ ... week / month OR the week/ month
Reporting Statements:Statements are Affirmative or Negative Sentences.We use a Reporting Verb + That (it can be omitted) + Subject +verb in Previous tense + ...Ex: “The students are tired”- said the teacherThe teacher said (that) the students were tired. Reporting Subject Verb in verb previous tense Ex: “It’s the funniest show I’ve ever seen” -Joan told me. Joan told me (that) it was the funniest show she hadever seen.
Reporting Questions:A) YES / NO QUESTIONS:Reporting Verb + If or whether + Subject + Verb +... *Order of Reported Question: Subject + Verb - as in Statements No question markEx: “Are you working these days?” he said.He asked if/whether I was working those days.Ex: “Did you speak to John last night?” she askedShe wanted to know if I had spoken to John, thenight before.
Reporting Questions: B) WH- QUESTIONS: Reporting Verb + Question Word (s) + Subject + Verb(The Word Order is again the same as in Statements)Ex: “Where did you go last summer?”. He asked me where I had gone the previoussummer.Ex: “How long were you waiting for us?”She wanted to know how long I had been waiting forthem.
Reporting• Verbs: Verb + “that clause”: Admit, declare, explain, insist, recommend, reply, reveal, say, suggest…Ex: “We took the wrong way” she said She explained that they had taken the wrong way.2) Verb + Indirect Object + (not) to infinitive: ask, advise, invite, order, remind, tell…Ex: “Would you like to come to my party?” she said.She invited me to go to her party.Ex: “Don’t do that” He told me not to do that.
Reporting Verbs:3) Verb + to infinitive: agree, decide, offer, promise, refuse, threaten… Ex: “I’ll do it” she said. She offered to do it.4) Verb + (preposition) + verb(-ing): accuse, apologise, recommend, suggest, … Ex: “Let’s go to the theatre” She suggested going to the theatre. Ex: “I’m sorry I’m late” He apologised for being late
REPORTING COMMANDS (= ORDERS)(Not) To Infinitive:The Imperative changes into Ex: He said to us: “Stay here” He told us to stay thereThe Reporting Verb must indicate “order”: He said: “Don’t mention that” He told me not to mention that. “Say that again”, he said to me He ordered me to say that again.
REPORTING SUGGESTIONS: use suggest + gerund We normally OR suggest that + Clause•Let’s, why don’t we, shall we, why not… are omitted:“Let’s go to the theatre”“Why don’t we go to the theatre?”“Shall we go to the theatre?”She suggested going to the theatreShe suggested that we (should) go to the theatre“Let’s not argue again,” he said.He suggested not arguing againHe suggested that they should not argue again.
REPORTING REQUESTS these Reporting Verbs: We use beg, ask, demand, request + (not) to (The word “please” is omitted)“Can I go out tonight, mum, please?” The boy begged.The boy begged to go out that night.“John, don’t open the window, please” I saidI asked /requested/begged John not to open the window.“Can I use your phone?” I asked my neighbourI asked my neighbour to use her phone OR (as a question)I asked my neighbour if I could use her phone
Reported Speech Exercises1.“Who lives next door?”, he asked us.He asked us who lived next door.2. “Get your coats!”, the mother ordered the children.The mother ordered the children to get their coats.3.“Shall we go out for a drink tonight?”, David suggested.David suggested going out for a drink that night.4. “I have nothing to show you”, he said to me.He said to me he had nothing to show me.5. “I’ll come with you as soon as I am ready”, she said to me.She said to me that she would come with me as soon as shewas ready.6. “We moved into our new flat yesterday”, they said.They said that they had moved into their new flat the daybefore.7. How long have you been waiting for the bus here?, heasked us.He asked us how long we had been waiting for the busthere.
Reported Speech Exercises8. “What are you going to study?”, he asked her.He asked her what she was going to study. 9. “What is your new house like?”, he asked them.He asked them what their new house was like.10.“Close all the windows!”, she told us.She told us to close all the windows.11.“Put down this gun. It’s loaded!”, she told him.She told him to put down that gun BECAUSE it wasloaded.12. “How big are the classes?”, he asked me.He asked me how big the classes were.13.“I’m going fishing with my father tomorrow morning”,he said.He said he was going fishing with his father the followingmorning.
Reported Speech Exercises14. “They should put traffic lights here. It’s a dangerous crossroads”, he said.He said they should put traffic lights there because it was a dangerous crossroads. 15. “I will also work during the summer”, she explained.She explained that she would also work during the summer.16. “I’m watching a romantic film on TV with my girlfriend now”, he says.He said he was watching a romantic film on TV with his girlfriend then.17. “A lot of gold is mined in South Africa”, the diplomat said.The diplomat said that a lot of gold was mined in South Africa.18. “I had a bad cold last week”, the worker said.The worker said he/she had had a bad cold the previous week/the week before.
Reported Speech Exercises19. “Would you like to come to my wedding?”, he asked me. (invitation)He invited me to go to his wedding.20. “I’ll drive you home in a minute.” She offeredShe offered to drive me home in a minute.21. "You ought to see a doctor about your eyes," Sally said to her mother. (advice)Sally advised her mother to see a doctor about her eyes.22. "What about going to the opera?", she suggested. She suggested going to the opera/ She suggested that we go to the opera.23."I’m sorry I spilt coffee on this tablecloth," said Greg (apology)Greg apologized for having spilt coffee on that tablecloth.
Reported Speech Exercises24.“Let’s go for a coffee!”, she said. She suggested ...She suggested going for a coffee./ She suggested that we go for a coffee.25. How does she know my name? she asked.She asked how she knew her name.26. “Close these windows now!” the manager said. (order)The manager ordered to close those windows then.27.“I’ll cook the supper” she said (offer)She offered to cook the supper.28. “Where are you going tomorrow?, Anne asked him.Anne asked him where he was going the following day.29. “Don’t eat any sweets!”, the doctor told us.The doctor told us not to eat any sweets.
Reported Speech Exercises30.“Don’t argue with me!”, the teacher said to the boy.The teacher told the boy not to argue with her/him.31.“Don’t take the dog into the children’s bedroom!”, she ordered.She ordered not to take the dog into the children’s bedroom.32.“Put the toys away in this cupboard!”, he told the children.He told the children to put the toys away in that cupboard.33.“I live in a big house with my girlfriend”, Paul said.Paul said that he lived in a big house with his girlfriend.34.“We’re watching TV with our friends now”, they declared.They declared that they were watching TV with their friends then.35.“I’ve invited you to my wedding party”, Sarah said to me. (invitation)Sarah invited me to her wedding party.
Reported Speech Exercises 36. “I saw Paul with my sister at the party last night”, Susan said to me. Susan said to me that she had seen Paul with her sister at the party the night before/the previous night. 37.“I’m going to play tennis with my father tomorrow morning”, he said. He said that he was going to play tennis with his father the following morning. 38. “I´m sorry I broke the chair”, she apologized.. He apologized for having broken the chair. 39. “I will send the letters tomorrow”, the secretary offered. The secretary offered to send the letters the following day. 40. “What time does the plane leave?”, she asked me. She asked me what time the plane left.
Reported Speech Exercises41. “Did you see the robbers yesterday?”, the policeman asked me. The policeman asked me if I had seen the robbers the day before.42. “This book is mine.” She explained. She explained that that book was hers.43. “Why don’t you fit new locks on the door?”, he suggested. He suggested fitting new locks on the door./ He suggested that I fit new locks on the door.44. Sam, would you mind opening the window, please? It’s too hot.”, I asked. (request) I asked Sam to open the window because it was too hot.45. “If I were you, I’d stop taking tranquillizers”, he said to me. (advice) He advised me to stop taking tranquillizers.
Reported Speech Exercises46. “Please, stop shouting! I can’t concentrate on my work”, he asked his daughter. He asked his daughter to stop shouting because he couldn’t concentrate on his work.