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What’s the role of universities in high tech economic


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Presentation supporting the talk I gave to my fellow students of 'Economics & Governance of Innovation Institutions' on 21/01/2012

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What’s the role of universities in high tech economic

  1. 1. What’s the Role of Universities in High-Tech Economic Development?The Case of Portland, Oregon and Washington, DC By Heike Mayer, 2006Discussed by Monika Gierszewska
  2. 2. Regional innovation systems UniversitiesIndustry Government
  3. 3. Triple helix of U-I-G relations Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff (1995) Universities Provide region with Research, knowledge skilled workforce creation Support Reduced gov entrepreneurs Stanford funding MITIndustry Government
  4. 4. Triple helix of U-I-G relations Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff (1995) Universities New Jersey South KoreaIndustry Government
  5. 5. Triple helix of U-I-G relations Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff (1995) Universities Seattle Colorado SpringsIndustry Government
  6. 6. What’s needed for success Anchor tenant Innovative environment Tiers of engagement
  7. 7. Case of Portland, Oregan Universities located outside Not contributing locally No applied research BUT There is
  8. 8.  Started by local entrepreneurs in post- war period Manufacture & test measurement instruments Supportive work environment, education ◦ Create skills labour 1970 build R&D lab: ‘Tek Labs’ ◦ No success, closed 1995 Problems in the 1980s ◦ 50% of the staff made redundant
  9. 9.  1976 – Intel moves in From manufacturing to R&D operations 41% of state patents in 1979-99 27% patents growth in Portland, compared to 17% in California labour sourced externally 70-80% ◦ Subcontractors & suppliers
  10. 10. Anchor tenant in Portland UniversitiesIndustry Government
  11. 11. Case of Washington, DC Major universities, not contributing Other universities establishing R&D labs due to close proximity to fed gov agencies, e.g. National Institute of Health How did the high-tech evolve?
  12. 12. New Policies Technology Innovation Act Small Business Patents Act ◦ Incentive for scientist to start their own Small Business Innovation & Research Programme ◦ Financing resources for startups
  13. 13. Federal downsizing &outsourcing Development of startups ◦ Contractual or finding ties with gov Response creation of incubation facilities ◦ Targeted educational programmes 45 biotech companies started by ex- employees of NIH WC, DC captured 51.9% of nation’s total procurement in homeland security
  14. 14. Anchor tenant in Washington UniversitiesIndustry Government
  15. 15. Etzkowitz (2001)– defines Triple Helix1) Internal transformation of each individual element of triple helix2) Nature of relationships, dependency3) Doesn’t explain engagement of higher education
  16. 16. Boucher et al. (2003)– explains Tiers of Engagement1) Single player, close links to regional development2) Multi – player universities, less clear cut3) Traditional universities in core regions, engaged on the national scale rather than local4) Newer tech-orientated universities, evolved in a core region
  17. 17. Understanding the Future The role of higher education ◦ For creation & maintenance of high-tech labour ◦ Knowledge creation ◦ Technology transfer ◦ Entrepreneurship Also: ◦ Engage in regional culture & sports ◦ Outreach & community services ◦ Increase region’s brand / image ◦ Educational opportunities
  18. 18. Summary Universities not needed for creation of regional innovation systems BUT Necessary for its future expansion