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Phonics: Irregular Vowels: TheChallenging O-U-G-H Pattern SoundEnglish as a Second LanguageDeveloping - Expanding6 - 81. To connect pronunciation of –ough sounds to previously learnedsound patterns through rhyming words2. To raise awareness of differences in pronunciation of a language3. To create visuals that will assist students with the spelling andpronunciation of special soundsEven though this is a skill that is addressed in theelementary grades, English language learners who have not acquiredfluent English proficiency still struggle with fluency. For this reasonphonics needs to make part of direct instruction. Furthermore,assisting students in becoming better readers to aid theircomprehension is one of the goals of the ESL programs.
Adams, M. (1988). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.Baker, S. Stahl, S. (1994). Beginning reading: Educational tools for diverse learners.School Psychology Review, 23(3), 372-394.Ellery, V. (2009). Creating strategic readers. Newark, DE: International ReadingAssociation.Foorman, B. (1995). Research on the great debate: Code oriented versus whole languageapproaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24(3), 376-392.Stahl, S., Miller, P. (1989). Whole language and language experience approaches forbeginning reading: A quantitative research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 59,87-116.Stahl, S., McKenna, M., Pagnucco, J. (1994). The effects of whole language instruction: Anupdate and reappraisal. Educational Psychologist, 29, 175-185.Stanovich, K. (1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47(4), 280-291.
- RF.5.3:Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills indecoding words.Listening, Speaking, Reading, WritingLessons ObjectivesLesson 1: To explore the multiple sounds of the –ough lettersequence by listening to the sounds, writing the words,comparing letter vs. syllable number, and use the word walls asa learning resourceLesson 2: To identify and describe patterns within words usingdifferent forms of expression (poetry/music) and establishingconnections to previously learned patterns.Lesson 3: To create graphic organizers that support learningwords that contain the –ough letter sequence
Working With Words reproducible (Creating Strategic ReadersCD, Lesson 3) YouTube videos: Ricky reads a bedtime story in English (I LoveLucy) and OUGH Poem: Pronunciation Poem Ough, The Ough Song Rhyming –ough chart Graphic organizer – Four Corners Laptops Student Writing Journals (Notebooks) Irregular vowel words for Word Wall: enough, cough, through,rough, drought, bough
BuildingBackground /Activating PriorKnowledge – Day 1Vocabularydroughtsequíahan hándoughmasa bôtramaboughcành cây
Did the video clip remind you of anypersonal situations? Share with yourpartner (A/B partners)Allow volunteers to share.Focus: Making PersonalConnections
Explain the Working With Words activity (Ellery,2009, p. 86)Model activity with enough and cough.Use: through Teacher presents words Teacher & Students do steps 2 – 8 of Working With Words After each step, teacher calls team’s speaker to report onfindings.Use: roughUse internet or electronic translators to listen to sound of wordhttp://quizlet.com/7630942/ough-sounds-in-english-flash-cards/Working in Groups of 4, students complete steps 2-8After steps 3, and 5 – 8, teacher calls on team’s speaker to report onfindings
Use: dough Use internet or electronic translators for pronunciationhttp://quizlet.com/7630942/ough-sounds-in-english-flash-cards/ A/B partners do steps 2 -8 Teacher provides feedbackUse: drought Students do all steps on their own using same procedure Teacher monitors activity Teacher provides feedback
ReflectionWhat strategy could you useto help you remember how topronounce the different o-u-g-hsounds?(Allow 1 – 2 volunteers offer ideasbefore writing) Write it Share it
Explain Chant/Challenge/Chart activity(Ellery, 2009, pp. 69-70) Project poem onSmartBoard or documentcamera Students highlight on boardwords with -ough Teacher models reading
Pronunciation Poem – O-U-G-HUnknown AuthorEnough Is EnoughFour letters cause medisillusionOUGH makes phonetic confusionFour simple letters with fourpronunciationsMake learning English toughfor anyone in this nation*OUGH has no logic, no ruleOr rhyme or rhythm; it willfoolAll who struggle to masterexpressionEnglish may cause thoroughdepression.I pour some water in a troughI sneeze and splutter, then Icough.And with a rough hewn boughMy muddy paddy fields Iplough**.Loaves of warm bread in a rowCrispy crusts and doughydough.Now, my final duty to doAnd then my chores will allbe through.My lament is finished, eventhoughLearning this word game isreally slow.It is so difficult, its veryroughLearning English is reallytough.If a trough was a truffAnd a plough was a pluffIf dough was duffAnd though was thuffIf cough was cuffAnd through was thruffI would not pretend, or tryto bluff,But of OUGH Ive had enough* Original poem reads “Asians.”** British spelling for plow.
Distribute copies of poem or guide students to laptop folderwith lesson Reread with students echoing Question: What different sounds did you hear? Where?A/B Partners Compare different sounds of –ough Find 2 – 3 rhyming words Use the internet to do search Record words in journals (type –ough rhymingwords) Share findings with the whole group
Choose 2 of the words withough Create a rhyming sentence Record them in journal. Share them Form groups (2-4) Read the OUGH Song(http://suzyred.com/oughsong.html) Present to the class with music,PowerPoint presentation,recitation, a dance, or a skit afterfinishing this unit. Practice poem,using A / B/ AB(choose how to splitthe lines) Read to the class
ReflectionHow can rhyming help me with the pronunciation ofirregular vowel sounds?(Allow 1 – 2 volunteers offer ideasbefore writing) Write it. Share it.
Making Connections: Watch forsimilarities / differences in Britishand American Englishpronunciation.
Making Connections Think-Pair-Share:Similarities &difference inpronunciation Why do you think thishappens? Making connections:personal/text/others
Day 3 – Share onefact about the lettersequence –ought
WordI have learnedthatI have learnedthatI have learnedthatI have learnedthatWord Wall Activity Explain students will complete agraphic organizer with 4 factsabout the -ough words Model in SmartBoard or documentcamera – Use enough - Thinkaloud
Use cough Groups of 4 Guided Practice:- Let’s think, maybe, of thesound it makes and writeit on the first box.-What else have we learnedabout this word?(Students’ responses mayinclude: translation,rhyming words, differenceswith other –ough words).coughI have learnedthat it saysshort o + fsound at endI have learnedthat it means“toser or tos”in Spanish.I have learnedthat it rhymeswith rip offI have learnedthat the oughsounds differentthan in drought
Groups of 4 Use through andrough Monitor and givefeedback Group speaker willshare with class
Within group splitinto A/B partners Use the worddough Monitor and givefeedback Share with classdoughmasabôtdoughI have learnedthatI have learnedthatI have learnedthatI have learnedthat
Use drought Monitor and givefeedback Students post graphicorganizers in stations aroundclassroom Students visit stations asmusic plays. When musicstops, students move to nextstation.
How did the Four Corners activity supportyour knowledge of –ough wordspronunciation?Did the Walk-Through help you improveyour knowledge? Support your answer.enough cough throughrough doughdroughtbough
Cassidy, J., Montalvo Valdez, C., & Garret, S. D. (2010). Literacy trends and issues: A look atthe five pillars and the cement that supports them. The Reading Teacher, 63(8), 644-655.Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25656175ddeGraaff, S., Bosman, A. M. T., Hasselman, F., & Verhoeven, L. (2009). Benefits of systematicphonics instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(4), 318-333.Ellery, V. (2009). Creating strategic readers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Cassidy, J., Montalvo Valdez, C., & Garret, S. D. (2010). Literacy trends and issues: A look at the five pillars and the cement that supports them. Thehttp://suzyred.com/oughsong.htmlhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SmwZqJB_8dQ&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFNK4ebSicA&feature=relatedhttp://quizlet.com/7630942/ough-sounds-in-english-flash-cards/