740 independent reading


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Kathryn's PPoint for Jigsaw, Module 2.

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740 independent reading

  1. 1. The Importanceof IndependentReading:What the research says!Samuels and Farstrup Ch. 6Powerpoint by Kathryn L. DuselEDU 740
  2. 2. Literacy Educators have TWO Goals: To teach our students To teach our students to read to want to read Kasten and Wilfong (2005)
  3. 3. Q: What is Independent Reading?A: Time spent silently reading self-selectedtextsTWO GOALS of Independent Reading:1. To promote positive attitudes toward reading (Heathington, 1979; Manning, Lewis, & Lewis, 2010; Midgley, 1993; Mizelle, 1997)2. To provide students with the reading practice they need to become proficient (Allington, 1977, 2009; Gambrell, 2009)
  4. 4. The Relationship BetweenTime Spent Reading andReading AchievementAnderson, Wilson, and Fielding (1988)
  5. 5. Time spent reading predicts gainsin achievement between secondand fifth grade Studentswho scored in the 90th percentile:  Spent nearly 5 times as many minutes per day reading than those scoring in the 50th percentile  Over 200 times more than students who scored in the tenth percentile Time spent reading predicts achievement in comprehension, vocabulary, and reading speed
  6. 6. Teachers can influence theamount of time students spendreading outside of school!How?1. Reading aloud2. Providing independent reading time during school hours
  7. 7. Research Support forIndependent ReadingMoore, Jones, & Miller, 1980Sadoski, 1980Wiesendanger & Birlem, 1984Yoon, 2002
  8. 8. Overall, Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has aconsistent and positive effect on readingattitudes!Early studies showed that Later reviews support earlier SSR is neither more nor claims that providing SSR less effective than time for students to read other approaches to self-selected texts reading facilitated developmentAlso… when compared of positive attitudes to other approaches, the findings for benefits toward reading to higher-level reading skills for SSR were inconclusive
  9. 9. One Decade,Two Major ReportsTeaching Children to Read (NRP)To Read or Not to Read (NEA, 2007)
  10. 10. Teaching Children to Read Reported a lack of research support for independent reading Challenged the practice of providing classroom time for SSR NRP concluded that there were insufficient numbers of scientifically based research studies In spite of this, NRP acknowledged that good readers read the most and poor readers read the least The more children read, the better their fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
  11. 11. To Read or Not to Read(NEA) Conducted studies to determine American reading habits Unsettling findings: 1. Americans are spending less time reading 2. Reading comprehension skills are declining CONCLUSIONS: Pleasure reading correlates strongly with academic achievement Individuals who engage in reading for pleasure are better readers and writers than nonreaders Children and teenagers who read regularly scored better on reading tests
  12. 12. Startling Statistics: Nearly half of Americans ages 18-24 reported reading no books for pleasure From 1984-2004, the percentage of 13- year-olds who reported that they “read for fun” declined from 35%-30%  For 17-year-olds the decline was from 31% to 22% Asindividuals read less, they read less well resulting in lower academic achievement
  13. 13. Recent StudiesManning, Lewis, & Lewis (2010)Reutzel, Fawson, and Smith (2008)Kuhn and Schwanenflugel (2009)Allington (2009)
  14. 14. Effects of ScSR with GRORScaffolded Silent Reading And Guided Repeated Oral Reading  Silent reading Both practices  Wide reading  Independent-level tended toward texts tedium and  Varied genres decreased  Teacher monitors and enjoyment of interacts with individual students reading  Book response assignments
  15. 15. Effects ofFluency-Oriented Reading Instruction(FORI) and Wide Reading  Oral reading rather than silent reading  Has implications for independent reading  Students read and re-read a single text each week in the FORI group  Wide-reading group read and re-read three different texts  Wide-reading group demonstrated greater fluency than FORI group and had more positive self concept as readers  Increased reading practice matters more than which technique is used to foster expanded reading activity
  16. 16. The Use of Software Programs to Manage Reading Accelerated Reader and Reading Counts  Both programs assess students’ level and allow students to choose and read books at that level  After reading, students complete a computerized comprehension quizFINDINGS:Schools that use reading management programs have more books in their libraries and allow more time for sustained silent readingCaution:More empirical evidence is needed to support the effects of reading management programs
  17. 17. Research-Informed Visions ofIndependent Reading in theClassroomAllington (2009)Hiebert & Reutzel, (2010)Kelly & Clausen-Grace (2006)Reutzel et al., (2008)Samuels & Wu (2003)
  18. 18. Teacher Scaffolding for Effective Practice and EngagedSuccessful Reading Practice Reading The stamina of readers  Engaged reading is when students actively can be supported by use cognitive processes effective and strategies while independent, silent reading reading practice  Not all children are Students should be engaged in real taught to select reading during appropriate texts independent reading time, especially Teachers should hold struggling readers book conferences  Teachers should: Three phases:  Help students choose  Read and Relax appropriate books  Reflect and Respond  Allow time for social interaction about books  Rap
  19. 19. Time Devoted to IndependentReading in School The time spent reading in school has been low over the last 30 years Some research has suggested that students should spend 90 minutes engaged in independent reading during the school day Time spent reading and writing should be greater than time devoted to instruction
  20. 20. Appropriate Levels of TextNot all students are capable ofselecting appropriate textReading easy texts promotesreading engagement andachievement to a greater extentthan does reading more difficulttextsStruggling readers may need asteady diet of “high-success”reading experiences with booksthey can read with at least 99%accuracyTeacher guiding may benecessary to ensure strugglingreaders are choosing the rightlevel text
  21. 21. Social Interactions Around Books During Independent ReadingSocial interaction promotesachievement, higher-levelcognition, and desire to readStudents who haveopportunities to interact sociallywith peers during literacyactivities are more motivated toreadStudents who engage infrequent discussions aboutreading with friends and familyare more motivated read andhave higher readingachievement
  22. 22. To Sum Up:IF: Students to read appropriate texts Students have more time to read in school Students have meaningful interaction when it comes to readingTHEN:o Students will achieve higher reading scoreso Students will LOVE reading!
  23. 23. The End!This concludes KathrynDusel’s portion of the jigsawwiki for Module Two of EDU740