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NoSQL: The Shift to
 a Non-relational




Dwight Merriman
10gen / MongoDB
The database world is changing
     no longer one-size-fits-all


                                    RDBMS
               ...
The Web Domain
Distributed & Unpredictable

Big data
 Photos, videos, huge numbers of users

Not all data created equal
 h...
NoSQL really means:

non-relational next generation
operational datastores and databases
Scaling out
no joins +
light transactional semantics =
  horizontally scalable architectures
Scaling out - CAP
pick any two
               A




          C        P
Scaling out - CAP

                        A
                                      Amazon Dynamo
                         ...
Scaling out
distribution & query models

 consistent hashing

 range chunking
  order preserving

 scatter / gather
Data models
no joins +
light transactional semantics =
  horizontally scalable architectures

important side effect :
 new...
Data Models
Key/Value


Column-oriented / tabular


Document-based
Data Models
Key/Value
 memcached, dynamo, voldemort, memcached


Column-oriented / tabular
 bigtable, cassandra, hbase, hy...
Case Study
MongoDB at BusinessInsider.com
MongoDB at Business Insider
 600k pageviews / day
  3 apache servers
  1 database server at 5%

 MongoDB data includes
  p...
Business Insider Data Model
{ title: ‘Too Big to Fail’,
   author: ‘John S’,
   ts: Date(“05-Nov-09 10:33”),
  [ comments:...
MongoDB Query Example
cursor =
  db.posts.find({tags : ‘economy’}).sort({ts:-1}).limit(10);




{ title: ‘Too Big to Fail’...
Advantages vs. MySQL
“Schemaless”
Fast writes
 analytics: 3-8 upserts per pageview
Fast reads
 little caching necessary
Bi...
Prediction
within 12 months, majority of new
web infrastructure projects will use a
non-relational db as their primary
dat...
Questions?



10gen is hiring, email dwight@10gen.com

download MongoDB: www.mongodb.org
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As more web developers strive to make their applications scalable we see a shift away from the traditional LAMP stack towards technologies built with a focus on scaling. As part of this shift, a new approach to data storage for the web is needed – the traditional RDBMS are not suited to many of the problems that appear in large scale web applications. Fortunately, a large number of alternatives to the RDBMS have sprung up, each with different goals and approaches to the problem of scalability.

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NoSQL - the Shift to a Non-Relational World

  1. 1. NoSQL: The Shift to a Non-relational Dwight Merriman 10gen / MongoDB
  2. 2. The database world is changing no longer one-size-fits-all RDBMS (Oracle, MySQL) Non-relational New gen. OLAP (vertica, aster, greenplum) operational stores (“NoSQL”)
  3. 3. The Web Domain Distributed & Unpredictable Big data Photos, videos, huge numbers of users Not all data created equal high-value (credit cards, transactions) low-value (analytics, logs, tweets?) Nimbleness Critical agile development new programming models
  4. 4. NoSQL really means: non-relational next generation operational datastores and databases
  5. 5. Scaling out no joins + light transactional semantics = horizontally scalable architectures
  6. 6. Scaling out - CAP pick any two A C P
  7. 7. Scaling out - CAP A Amazon Dynamo Inspired (Voldemort, Cassandra, ...) C P Google BigTable / Paxos Inspired (MongoDB, Hypertable, HBase, ...)
  8. 8. Scaling out distribution & query models consistent hashing range chunking order preserving scatter / gather
  9. 9. Data models no joins + light transactional semantics = horizontally scalable architectures important side effect : new data models = improved ways to develop applications
  10. 10. Data Models Key/Value Column-oriented / tabular Document-based
  11. 11. Data Models Key/Value memcached, dynamo, voldemort, memcached Column-oriented / tabular bigtable, cassandra, hbase, hypertable Document-oriented mongodb, couchdb. JSON stores
  12. 12. Case Study MongoDB at BusinessInsider.com
  13. 13. MongoDB at Business Insider 600k pageviews / day 3 apache servers 1 database server at 5% MongoDB data includes posts, comments site settings real-time analytics images Ian - “We’re using LAMP - Linux, Apache, MongoDB, PHP” http://www.businessinsider.com/how-we-use-mongodb-2009-11
  14. 14. Business Insider Data Model { title: ‘Too Big to Fail’, author: ‘John S’, ts: Date(“05-Nov-09 10:33”), [ comments: [ { author: 'Ian White', comment: 'Great article!' }, { author: 'Joe Smith', comment: 'But how fast is it?', replies: [ {author: 'Jane Smith', comment: 'scalable?' } ] } ] ], tags: [‘finance’, ‘economy’] }
  15. 15. MongoDB Query Example cursor = db.posts.find({tags : ‘economy’}).sort({ts:-1}).limit(10); { title: ‘Too Big to Fail’, author: ‘John S’, ts: Date(“05-Nov-09 10:33”), [ comments: [ { author: 'Ian White', comment: 'Great article!' }, { author: 'Joe Smith', comment: 'But how fast is it?', replies: [ {author: 'Jane Smith', comment: 'scalable?' } ] } ] ], tags: [‘finance’, ‘economy’] }
  16. 16. Advantages vs. MySQL “Schemaless” Fast writes analytics: 3-8 upserts per pageview Fast reads little caching necessary Binary storage storing images in the db itself Easy development, scalability
  17. 17. Prediction within 12 months, majority of new web infrastructure projects will use a non-relational db as their primary data store
  18. 18. Questions? 10gen is hiring, email dwight@10gen.com download MongoDB: www.mongodb.org
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As more web developers strive to make their applications scalable we see a shift away from the traditional LAMP stack towards technologies built with a focus on scaling. As part of this shift, a new approach to data storage for the web is needed – the traditional RDBMS are not suited to many of the problems that appear in large scale web applications. Fortunately, a large number of alternatives to the RDBMS have sprung up, each with different goals and approaches to the problem of scalability.

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