Progeria

8,413 views

Published on

We present skin manifestation of this rare syndrome

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Progeria

  1. 1. Progeria Gilford SyndromeHutchinson Professor Dr Monem Alshok College of Medicine , Babylon University
  2. 2. Case Report Progeria <ul><li>We presents Ammar, a 23 year-old male patient , who lives in Babylon , Haswa District , and his mother describes symptoms of growth retardation , skin changes , hair changes early graying and alopecia . These manifestation started early during his childhood period . There is canseguanity between the patient’s mother & father also one of the patient’s sister has similar illness and one male brother died few months following birth . We admit the patient to hospital due acute pulmonary infection in Jan 2009 , which is controlled after a course of antibiotic and after 5 months he develops generalised mucocuteneous bullous eruption which shows partial response to oral prednisolone 2mg per Kg and his sister also has vitiligo . The patient has normal IQ and he is in the secondary school and he has normal blood picture and the only abnormal biochemical abnormalities is mild hyperlipidemia Serum cholestrol of 5.8 mmolL and Serum Triglyceride of 260mgdl </li></ul>
  3. 3. Case Report <ul><li>The clinical diagnosis is CW progeria </li></ul><ul><li>Progeria affects approximately one out of every eight million children, with only a few hundred cases seen worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs usually first develop between the age of 6 and 12 months, though the disease occasionally does not develop until 2 years of age or later. Nearly 97% of all children with the disease are Caucasian, and slightly more males than females develop the disease. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Children with progeria appear perfectly healthy at birth. Typically, the first signs of the disease appear between 6 and 12 months when the child fails to gain weight and his/her skin starts to become thick and inelastic, particularly on the arms, legs, and hips. Scalp hair and eyelashes are then progressively lost, usually progressing to complete baldness. At about the same time, much of the body’s fat is lost. As a result of this loss of hair and subcutaneous fat, many of the body’s veins become prominent, particularly those on the scalp. Children with progeria usually will also not grow to a full height, will develop thin limbs with prominent joints, and will have a small jaw (micrognathia).All of the described feature were seen in our patient Ammar As the disease progresses, individuals with progeria develop widespread thickening and loss of elasticity of the artery walls, severe joint stiffness similar to that of arthritis, and frequent hip dislocations. A few children have been reported who have muscle weakness as well, and the disease is related to a form of muscular dystrophy. However, most children do not have muscle problems. Children with progeria have normal intellectual capabilities and can learn just as well as (if not better than) other children of their same age and also demonstrate the same range of emotions and feelings as other children. They do often remain very reserved in the presence of strangers, however, because they are aware very early on in life that they appear very different than their peers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms and signs develop within 2 yr and include : <ul><li>Growth failure </li></ul><ul><li>Craniofacial abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>eg, craniofacial disproportio micrognathia, beaked nose </li></ul><ul><li>Physical changes of aging ( </li></ul><ul><li>)eg, wrinkled skin, balding </li></ul>
  6. 6. HGPS <ul><li>Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome ( HGPS)is an extremely rare disorder characterized by premature aging of postnatal onset. The main clinical and radiological features include alopecia, thin skin, hypoplasia of nails, loss of subcutaneous fat, stiffness of joints and osteolysis. Intelligence is not impaired. Early death is caused by atherosclerosis or cerebrovascular disease, and failure to thrive. Most cases are sporadic, caused by a </li></ul><ul><li>within lamin A genedominant recurrent truncating mutation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diagnosis <ul><li>A genetic test( Lamin A mutation ) was recently developed that can test for and diagnosis progeria. Prior to the development of this test, the disease was diagnosed based solely on the physical symptoms& signs. With the genetic test, children can be diagnosed at a much earlier age than they were before the test was available, allowing an earlier start to treatment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prognosis <ul><li>Progeria is a disease that continually worsens with no treatment that has yet been proven effective in slowing this progression. The average life expectancy of a child diagnosed with progeria is 13 years, but some children with the disease have died as early as 7 and some have survived till the age of 27 Our patient age is still 23 years .. Over the course of the disease, the child’s heart and circulatory abnormalities become progressively worse and are usually the most significant health problem for children with progeria. These children usually die from cardiovascular problems such as atherosclerosis, but some have died due to convulsions or various types of malnutrition </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROGERIA <ul><li>Progeria is a rare syndrome of accelerated aging that manifests early in childhood and causes premature death. </li></ul><ul><li>Progeria is caused by a sporadic mutation in ( LMNA ) gene that codes for a protein Lamin A that provides the molecular scaffolding of cell nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>The defective protein leads to nuclear instability from cell division and early death of every body cell </li></ul>
  10. 10. Progeria Differential Diagnosis <ul><li>Diagnosis is usually obvious by appearance but must be distinguished from segmental progerias (eg, acrogeria, metageria) and other causes of growth failure. Median age at death is 12 yr; cause is coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease. Of note is that other problems associated with normal aging (eg, increased cancer risk, degenerative arthritis) are not present. There is no known treatment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other progeroid syndromes <ul><li>Premature aging is a feature of other rare progeroid syndromes, including : </li></ul><ul><li>Werner's syndrome (premature aging after puberty with hair thinning and development of conditions of old age [eg, cataracts, diabetes, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis]) and </li></ul><ul><li>Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (premature aging with increased susceptibility to cancer). </li></ul><ul><li>Both are caused by gene mutations leading to defective RecQ DNA helicases, which normally repair DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Cockayne's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation in the 8ERCC gene which is important in DNA repair , </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical features include severe growth failure, cachectic appearance, retinopathy, hypertension, renal failure, skin photosensitivity, and intellectual disability </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other progeroid syndromes <ul><li>Neonatal progeroid (Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch) syndrome:is a recessively inherited syndrome of aging causing death by 2 yr </li></ul><ul><li>Other syndromes (eg, Down, Ehlers-Danlos) occasionally have progeroid features. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Craniofacial abnormalities The patient Ammar Majid 23years old with evident craniofacial features
  14. 15. Sever skin manifestations Pemphigus We report a sever skin manifestations in the form of diffuse bullous eruption which respond to good dose of steroid
  15. 16. Skin
  16. 17. Mucocuteneous
  17. 18. Bullous cuteneous disease
  18. 19. Legs
  19. 20. Ammar’s Sister with the same illness her age is 14 yrs
  20. 21. Skeletal & bone changes
  21. 22. Vitiligo
  22. 23. What is new in Progeria Researches?
  23. 24. Busch A, Kiel T, Heupel WM, Wehnert M, Huebner S., “Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants.” Exp Cell Res . 2009 May 11.   <ul><li>HGPS has previously been shown to affect many fundamental cellular functions including replication, gene expression, and DNA repair. Busch and coworkers have added the transport of proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to this list. All proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm, and those that end up being in the nucleus have to get across the nuclear membrane. The transport is accomplished through channels in the nuclear membrane called &quot;nuclear pores&quot;. Many proteins are too large to simply diffuse through the nuclear pores, but are &quot;ushered&quot; through them by special proteins that have evolved for this purpose. In this article, cells that express the mutant gene responsible for HGPS were found to have reduced transport of proteins into nuclei by direct measurement. </li></ul>
  24. 25. April 2009: Linking Progeria and Normal Aging: Novel Insights <ul><li>This article is a very thoughtful and up-to-date review which will be of interest to investigators working on progeroid diseases (with emphasis on HGPS) and their relation to normal aging, It also touches on the relation of aging to cancer. Topics covered are: </li></ul><ul><li>     Providing structure and organization: nuclear architecture and genome integrity    DNA damage and repair gone awry        Old and beyond repair tumor suppressors an cellular senescence, and        Regeneration and renewal: stem-cell biology </li></ul>
  25. 26. April 2009: Linking Progeria and Normal Aging: Novel Insights <ul><li>Capell BS, Tlougan BE, Orlow SJ, “From the Rarest to the Most Common: Insights from Progeroid Syndromes into Skin Cancer and Aging.” Investigative DermatologyJournal of (2009 Apr 23 1-11 </li></ul>
  26. 27. Fong LG, Vickers TA, Farber EA, Choi C, Yun UJ, Hu Y, Yang SH, Coffinier C, Lee R, Yin L, Davies BS, Andres DA, Spielmann HP, Bennett CF, Young SG , “Activating the synthesis of progerin, the mutant prelamin A in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, with antisense oligonucleotides.” Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Apr 1. <ul><li>Previous experiments with Fibroblast cells from Progeria patients have shown that the damage caused by the mutation is initially the result of action by the altered form of Lamin A, called Progerin. But the interpretation of these experiments can be difficult in culture for varying numbers of generations. Fong et. al. have set up an experimental system in which the amount of Progerin in Wild-type cells can be increased or decreased. This method will allow investigators to sort out the direct effects of Progerin from secondary ones, thereby advancing the study of cellular mechanisms that lead to the pathophysiology of Progeria cells.   </li></ul><ul><li>HutchinsonActivating the synthesis of progerin, the mutant prelamin A in with antisense Oligonucleotides Gilford progeria (PubMed Article) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Rodriguez S, Coppedè F, Sagelius H and Erikson M. &quot;Increased expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome truncated lamin A transcript during cell aging”. European Journal of Human Genetics (2009), 1-10.   <ul><li>Progerin is the abnormal protein causing Progeria. In recent years, several research groups have found that normal cells also produce progerin, but much less than the cells of a child with Progeria. Moreover, the amount of progerin protein in normal cells increases as they age in the laboratory. These results established a direct link at the cellular level between Progeria and normal aging. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Capell et al “A farnesyltransferase inhibitor prevents both the onset and late progression of cardiovascular disease in a Progeria mouse model.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, no. 41, 15902-15907 (Oct. 14 , 2008) <ul><li>Two separate studies show that Progeria is reversible in the cardiovascular system and the skin of mouse models. The experiments were significant in not treating the mice until they expressed Progeria symptoms, whereas most previous studies began treatment before Progeria was apparent. Production of progerin (the damaging protein made from the Progeria gene) was inhibited either by treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) or by turning off the gene. In both cases the mice reverted to normal or almost normal conditions. These observations provide encouraging evidence for the current clinical trial of FTIs for Progeria. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Eriksson, et. al., “Reversible phenotype in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome.” J. Med. Genet. published online 15 Aug 2008; doi:10.1136/jmg.2008.060772 <ul><li>In a second study Dr. Maria Eriksson’s research team at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden created another mouse model of Progeria with abnormalities of the skin and teeth.  The mice are genetically engineered so that the Progeria mutation can be shut off at any time. Once disease was apparent, the gene for Progeria was turned off. After 13 weeks the skin was almost indistinguishable from normal skin. This study shows that in these tissues the expression of the Progeria mutation does not cause irreversible damage and that the reversal of disease is possible, which gives promise for treatment for Progeria. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Thank you

×