MO*lezing Richard Wilkinson “ Waarom gelijkheid beter is voor iedereen” Organisatie: MO* en Vlaams-Nederlands Huis deBuren...
Richard Wilkinson Emeritus Professor of  Social Epidemiology University of Nottingham & Kate Pickett Professor of Epidemio...
Income per head and life-expectancy: rich & poor countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equali...
Among the rich countries life expectancy is not related to national differences in average income Source: Wilkinson & Pick...
… but life expectancy is related to income  within  rich societies Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) ww...
How much richer are the richest 20% than the poorest 20%? Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalit...
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries <ul><li>Index of:  </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li><...
Health and Social Problems are not Related to Average Income in Rich Countries <ul><li>Index of:  </li></ul><ul><li>Life e...
Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich Countries  Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equality...
Child-Wellbeing is Unrelated to Average Incomes in Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www...
Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal US States Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust....
The Prevalence of Mental Illness is Higher in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2...
Infant Mortality Rates are Higher in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equal...
Drug Use is More Common in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) Index of use of: op...
Teenage Birth Rates are Higher in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equ...
Source: Daly M, Wilson M, Vasdev S. Income inequality and homicide rates in Canada and the United States.  Canadian Journa...
Rates of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equali...
Social mobility is higher in more equal countries Intergenerational income mobility data from:  Blanden J. (2009) Centre f...
Correlations & p-values:  Index of Health & Social Problems Indicator International data US data   r p-value r p-value Tru...
<ul><ul><li>Almost everyone benefits from greater equality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the benefits are greatest a...
Source: Leon DA, Vagero D, Olausson PO. BMJ 1992; 305; 687-91 Infant Mortality rate
Source:  Willms JD. 1997. Data from OECD Programme for International Student Assessment. Literacy Scores of 16-25 year old...
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries <ul><li>Index of:  </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li><...
Why are we so sensitive to inequality?
<ul><ul><li>Psychosocial risk factors for ill health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low social status  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels? Source: Dickerson SS & Kemeny ME. Psychological Bulletin 2004; 1...
Stereotype Threat The effect of caste identity on children's performance Number of mazes solved Source:  Hoff K, Pandey P,...
Gilligan J.  Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes.   (G .P. Putnam 1996) &quot; ...the prison inmates I work with ...
<ul><li>Social Status and Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Two sides of the same coin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status  (d...
Dunbar R. Brains on two legs: group size and the evolution of intelligence In: Tree of Origin: F de Waal. (ed) 2001. The S...
Source: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005; 115 (507): F397–F412. 2005. Working hours are longer in more unequal coun...
Business leaders in more equal countries give a higher priority to complying with international environmental agreements W...
Inequality (Gini) Great Britain  1961 - 2008
http://www.equalitytrust.org.uk <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>…  a book </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and a ...
 
Trends in income inequality 1979-2005/6 (Gini coefficient, Great Britain.) Brewer M, Goodman A, Muriel A, Sibieta L.  Pove...
Inequality Debt Debt P. Krugman Inequality and Crisis: coincidence or causation?  Data from: Picketty-Saez, Historical Sta...
<ul><li>The effects of inequality - a two stage process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adult experience of inequality </li></ul...
 
www.equalitytrust.org.uk World average CO 2
More equal countries are more generous foreign aid donors
More equal countries recycle more waste Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
More equal societies are more innovative www.equalitytrust.org.uk
<ul><li>The public and policy response? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more:- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police </...
More Adults are Obese in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrus...
 
Children Experience More Conflict in More Unequal Societies Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) 11, 13 & ...
More Children Drop Out of High School in More Unequal US States Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.e...
Cognitive Score: Socioeconomic status more important than starting point High Cognitive Score at 22 months Low Cognitive S...
Educational Scores are Higher in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equali...
Single parents and child wellbeing
Source: Bagehot,  On equality.   The Economist ,  19 th  August 2010
The changing relation between life expectancy and income. Reproduced from World Bank , World Development Report 1993
 
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MO*lezing Richard Wilkinson: "Waarom gelijkheid beter is voor iedereen"

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Op dinsdag 12 april 2011 gaf professor Richard Wilkinson in een uitverkochte Beursschouwburg een boeiende MO*lezing over gelijkheid en ongelijkheid. Ondersteund door heel wat onderzoek betoogde hij dat samenlevingen met meer inkomensongelijkheid meer gezondheids- en sociale problemen hebben. Bekijk hier zijn powerpointvoorstelling.

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  • The public and policy response? more:- Police Doctors Social Workers Drug rehabilitation units Educational Psychologists But…services are expensive and only partially effective.
  • Most important sources of chronic stress – relative risks and population attributable risk Pointer – underlying source of stress: Social anxiety Eyes of others Social Gateway
  • A meta-analysis of 208 laboratory studies of cortisol responses to acute stressors found that “Tasks that included social-evaluative threat (such as threats to self-esteem or social status), in which others could negatively judge performance, particularly when the outcome of the performance was uncontrollable, provoked larger and more reliable cortisol changes than stressors without these particular threats.” (p.377) &amp;quot;Humans are driven to preserve the social self and are vigilant to threats that may jeopardize their social esteem or status.” (p.357)
  • Len Syme – MRFIT – smoking
  • MO*lezing Richard Wilkinson: "Waarom gelijkheid beter is voor iedereen"

    1. 1. MO*lezing Richard Wilkinson “ Waarom gelijkheid beter is voor iedereen” Organisatie: MO* en Vlaams-Nederlands Huis deBuren Partners: Beursschouwburg, Zuiderpershuis, Vooruit en Kaaitheater.
    2. 2. Richard Wilkinson Emeritus Professor of Social Epidemiology University of Nottingham & Kate Pickett Professor of Epidemiology University of York http:// www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    3. 3. Income per head and life-expectancy: rich & poor countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    4. 4. Among the rich countries life expectancy is not related to national differences in average income Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    5. 5. … but life expectancy is related to income within rich societies Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    6. 6. How much richer are the richest 20% than the poorest 20%? Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries <ul><li>Index of: </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Math & Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Homicides </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Teenage births </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul>Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    9. 9. Health and Social Problems are not Related to Average Income in Rich Countries <ul><li>Index of: </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Math & Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Homicides </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Teenage births </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul>Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    10. 10. Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    11. 11. Child-Wellbeing is Unrelated to Average Incomes in Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    12. 12. Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    13. 13. Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal US States Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    14. 14. The Prevalence of Mental Illness is Higher in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    15. 15. Infant Mortality Rates are Higher in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    16. 16. Drug Use is More Common in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) Index of use of: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    17. 17. Teenage Birth Rates are Higher in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    18. 18. Source: Daly M, Wilson M, Vasdev S. Income inequality and homicide rates in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Criminology 2001; 43: 219-36.
    19. 19. Rates of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    20. 20. Social mobility is higher in more equal countries Intergenerational income mobility data from: Blanden J. (2009) Centre for Economic Performance, LSE. Paper No' CEEDP0111. www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    21. 21. Correlations & p-values: Index of Health & Social Problems Indicator International data US data   r p-value r p-value Trust -0.66 <0.01 -0.70 <0.01 Life expectancy -0.44 0.04 -0.45 <0.01 Infant mortality 0.42 0.04 0.43 <0.01 Obesity 0.57 <0.01 0.47 <0.01 Mental illness 0.73 <0.01 0.18 0.12 Education score -0.45 0.04 -0.47 .01 Teen birth rate 0.73 <0.01 0.46 <0.01 Homicides 0.47 0.02 0.42 <0.01 Imprisonment 0.75 <0.01 0.48 <0.01 Social mobility 0.93 <0.01 - - Index 0.87 <0.01 0.59 <0.01
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Almost everyone benefits from greater equality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the benefits are greatest among the poor but extend to the majority of the population </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Source: Leon DA, Vagero D, Olausson PO. BMJ 1992; 305; 687-91 Infant Mortality rate
    24. 24. Source: Willms JD. 1997. Data from OECD Programme for International Student Assessment. Literacy Scores of 16-25 year olds by Parents' Education -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Parents' Education (years) Literacy score Sweden Canada United States
    25. 25. Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries <ul><li>Index of: </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Math & Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Homicides </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Teenage births </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul>Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    26. 26. Why are we so sensitive to inequality?
    27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Psychosocial risk factors for ill health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak social affiliations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress in early life (pre- and postnatally) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels? Source: Dickerson SS & Kemeny ME. Psychological Bulletin 2004; 130(3): 355-91 ACTH Cortisol Tasks with both social-evaluative threat and uncontrollability Other tasks Effect size
    29. 29. Stereotype Threat The effect of caste identity on children's performance Number of mazes solved Source: Hoff K, Pandey P, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3351, June 2004 Caste Unannounced Caste Announced
    30. 30. Gilligan J. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. (G .P. Putnam 1996) &quot; ...the prison inmates I work with have told me repeatedly, when I asked them why they had assaulted someone, that it was because 'he disrespected me', or 'he disrespected my visit' (meaning 'visitor'). The word 'disrespect' is central in the vocabulary, moral value system, and psychodynamics of these chronically violent men that they have abbreviated it into the slang term, 'he dis'ed me.&quot; p.106 A few pages further on Gilligan continues:- &quot;I have yet to see a serious act of violence that was not provoked by the experience of feeling shamed and humiliated, disrespected and ridiculed, and that did not represent the attempt to prevent or undo this &quot;loss of face &quot; - no matter how severe the punishment, even if it includes death.&quot; p.110
    31. 31. <ul><li>Social Status and Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Two sides of the same coin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status (dominance hierarchies, pecking orders) are orderings based on power, coercion and privileged access to resources – regardless of the needs of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship , in contrast, is based on reciprocity, mutuality, social obligations, sharing and a recognition of each other’s needs. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Dunbar R. Brains on two legs: group size and the evolution of intelligence In: Tree of Origin: F de Waal. (ed) 2001. The Social Brain: the neocortex is a larger proportion of the brain in primate species with larger social groups Average social group size Neocortex ratio
    33. 33. Source: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005; 115 (507): F397–F412. 2005. Working hours are longer in more unequal countries
    34. 34. Business leaders in more equal countries give a higher priority to complying with international environmental agreements With permission from R De Vogli & D Gimeno
    35. 35. Inequality (Gini) Great Britain 1961 - 2008
    36. 36. http://www.equalitytrust.org.uk <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>… a book </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and a website… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Trends in income inequality 1979-2005/6 (Gini coefficient, Great Britain.) Brewer M, Goodman A, Muriel A, Sibieta L. Poverty and Inequality in the UK: 2007. Institute of Fiscal Studies, London.
    38. 39. Inequality Debt Debt P. Krugman Inequality and Crisis: coincidence or causation? Data from: Picketty-Saez, Historical Statistics, Federal Reserve. Inequality and Household Debt 1913-2007 Household debt as % of income Inequality: richest 1% share
    39. 40. <ul><li>The effects of inequality - a two stage process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adult experience of inequality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passed on to children – epigenetics? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 42. www.equalitytrust.org.uk World average CO 2
    41. 43. More equal countries are more generous foreign aid donors
    42. 44. More equal countries recycle more waste Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    43. 45. More equal societies are more innovative www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    44. 46. <ul><li>The public and policy response? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more:- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Workers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug rehabilitation units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Psychologists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>But…services are expensive and only partially effective. </li></ul>
    45. 47. More Adults are Obese in More Unequal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    46. 49. Children Experience More Conflict in More Unequal Societies Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) 11, 13 & 15 yr olds fighting, bullying, and finding peers not kind & helpful www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    47. 50. More Children Drop Out of High School in More Unequal US States Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    48. 51. Cognitive Score: Socioeconomic status more important than starting point High Cognitive Score at 22 months Low Cognitive Score at 22 months 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Child’s age (years) Cognitive score percentile position at each age (I Feinstein. Inequality in cognitive development. 1970 British Births. Economica 2003; 70: 3-97) (from The Marmot Review 2010)
    49. 52. Educational Scores are Higher in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    50. 53. Single parents and child wellbeing
    51. 54. Source: Bagehot, On equality. The Economist , 19 th August 2010
    52. 55. The changing relation between life expectancy and income. Reproduced from World Bank , World Development Report 1993

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