Thoughts on Carbon as the New Muda




© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
About the Presenter                                                 Mondher Ben-Hamida, CPIM, CSCP
                       ...
Objectives



       1              Provide an overview of the Green challenge global companies are (or will 
            ...
Overview


                      The Imperative                   The Reality




                                        ...
CEO focus on environmental issues has doubled


   •    Corporate social responsibility rises on 
                        ...
There is a shift from cost to return as we ascend the
value curve
                                                        ...
The Four Key Pressures on Organizations
                                                                                  ...
In response, Industrial Sector companies are implementing
Green Initiatives, especially within the areas of PLM and SCM.

...
For example, many Japan-based Electronics companies
are reducing energy needs & CO2 emissions via Green
Factories and Gree...
Where is the Carbon in the Supply Chain?

                                 Everywhere! Supply Chain activities create sign...
Introducing the IBM Carbon Distribution Model
Carbon Analysis needs to be seen from a total Product Lifecycle View

      ...
Sustainable Supplier Strategy Development

                                                                               ...
The Sourcing Strategy Articulation – Carbon, Technology & Distance
  Tons of CO2 per 1 Ton of Steel sourced from various l...
The Need to Embrace Carbon as a New Decision Variable




© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
Some Intriguing Analysis from CIBC
That Corroborates some of the IBM findings




                                        ...
Network Optimization Strategy


                       Market Demand                                        Potential DC L...
Helping a Network become Leaner and Greener


                             100 DC’s               40 DC’s
                ...
Carbon Reduction Needs to be a Value Chain Affair


                                              A Value Chain Network Vi...
Noise in the Supply Chain is Neither Lean nor Green
The Carbon Reverse Bullwhip Effect




                               ...
Across Your Entire Supply Chain




© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
12 Ideas to Make Your Supply Chain Greener




                                   21
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
Exploring the Ideas




           Redesign the product    Reconfigure Manufacturing        Shift to Green Suppliers




 ...
Exploring the Ideas (continued)




   Plan for reverse supply chain activity    Consolidate shipments          Plan small...
Operational Scenario # 1
Quantifying the impact of shipment frequency on cost and carbon can help establish a greener inve...
Operational Scenario # 2
Supplier choice can impact component cost, carbon emission, and inventory all of which can be
qua...
Operational Scenario # 3
Some levers such as better routing can create a win-win case for both reducing carbon and cost in...
An Overview of our Thinking and Capabilities




© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
IBM’s Environmental Heritage

                                1992                                                  2000  ...
Illustrating IBM’s Three Step Approach
1                                                       2                          ...
The IBM Energy and Efficiency Framework




                                            Strategy


                       ...
Challenge Areas

                                                                      Market Forces                      ...
The Green SCM Coverage Matrix



                                                                                   Use an...
IBM Green Sigma™ Dashboard (Voice of the Environment)




                                   33
© Copyright IBM Corporatio...
IBM Carbon Tradeoff Modeler




                                   34
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
Case Study
A Division of a Fortune 500 Company




                                                                       ...
Dimensions of the Analysis


         Input Data                                                                          ...
Results of the Analysis



                                                       Compare sourcing options by
            ...
Cognos-Based Business Intelligence




© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
The IBM SCM Practice

   By leveraging innovative ideas from our research division and proven best practices from
    our ...
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A Greener And Leaner Supply Chain {Fiu 19 20 Feb 2009}

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An overview of IBM's thinking around Green Supply Chain Management

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A Greener And Leaner Supply Chain {Fiu 19 20 Feb 2009}

  1. 1. Thoughts on Carbon as the New Muda © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  2. 2. About the Presenter Mondher Ben-Hamida, CPIM, CSCP Associate Partner / Global Electronics SME IBM GBS Supply Chain Strategy Practice Education Experience Overview Education Experience Overview Mondher is an Associate Partner in the IBM Supply Chain Strategy group. The practice is 1997 Master of Science in responsible for providing strategic and operational guidance to senior executives within Industrial Engineering and client organizations. Mondher is an Industrial Engineer and a Global Supply Chain Strategist Operations Research, with over 13 years of global management and manufacturing consulting experience. University of Minnesota, Primary focus has been the design and implementation of Supply Chain Management Minneapolis, MN, USA. strategies and tools, Advanced Planning and Scheduling solutions and Theory-Of- Constraints initiatives. Mondher is a frequent speaker at various supply chain events 1995 Master of Engineering in (APICS, SCC, AMR, etc.) and has published a number of articles on various topics ranging Industrial Engineering, from supply chain strategy to reducing the environmental impact of logistics operations. He ENIT, Tunis, Tunisia is also a co-inventor of a supply chain carbon modeling tool (patent pending). Mondher is a universal citizen and his passion for solving global supply chain problems along with his fluency in 4 languages has led him to operate in four continents Languages Sample Engagements Languages Sample Engagements • Helped one of the world’s largest fabless companies (wireless phone chip segment) define and • English Fluent implement a comprehensive supply chain collaboration model (VMI, Consignment and • French Fluent Schedule Sharing) with three of its most strategic customers on 3 continents. • Italian Fluent • Led a major supply chain strategy definition for one of Europe’s largest industrial • Arabic Fluent conglomerates. Activities included assessing state of current operations model, compiling and documenting appropriate best practices and devising a novel supply chain vision that is customer centric (secured agreement on a new market segmentation) and emphasizes the Specialization agreed upon core competency (fulfillment). Specialization • Led a major supply chain strategy redesign effort at McDonald’s. This executive level initiative • Supply Chain Strategy assessed competitive trends and provided a global vision for the future supply chain integration • Global Issues in SCM model along with a ‘playbook’ of practical steps to achieve the vision • Enterprise Sustainability • Selected by AMR Research as an SME and voting panelist for the 2007 World’s Top 25 Supply • Advanced Planning Tools Chains • Served as the Make Best Practices Lead and co-author of SCOR 7.0 2 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  3. 3. Objectives 1 Provide an overview of the Green challenge global companies are (or will  be) facing 2 Provide an overview of the dynamics between environmental goals and  operational realities 3 Provide an Overview of IBM’s approach to tackling the green challenge 3 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  4. 4. Overview The Imperative The Reality The Question Can Lean and Green co‐exist? Can Lean and Green co‐exist? 4 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  5. 5. CEO focus on environmental issues has doubled • Corporate social responsibility rises on  External forces impacting the organization the CEO agenda – The only three external forces  48% 2004 consistently rising on CEOs’ agendas  44% 2006 42% are all linked to corporate social  2008 responsibility (CSR) – CEO focus on environmental issues  has doubled globally with strong  differentiation between Geos 18% 17% 15% 12% 12% 9% Source: IBM CEO Study 2008, n = 1,130 5 out of 6 CEOs no longer agree with Nobel Environmental Socio-Economic People Skills Issues Factors economist Milton Friedman’s view that the sole purpose of business is to increase profits. 5 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  6. 6. There is a shift from cost to return as we ascend the value curve Help your e.g. customers Operational Carbon Management Growth Platform Efficiency Values-based Strategic Self Regulation Philanthropy Legal & Compliance Cost Return Alignment of  Measurable cost  Access to new  Adherence to  Incorporates the  Alignment of  Measurable cost  Access to new  Adherence to  Incorporates the  charitable  savings through  markets, new  law in the  company's value  charitable  savings through  markets, new  law in the  company's value  activities with  efficient or win‐ partnerships or  countries of  system and/or  activities with  efficient or win‐ partnerships or  countries of  system and/or  social issues that  win scenarios product/service  production,  code of conduct  social issues that  win scenarios product/service  production,  code of conduct  support business  innovations that  operation and  to guide business  support business  innovations that  operation and  to guide business  objectives generate  behavior  distribution objectives generate  behavior  distribution revenue revenue 6 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  7. 7. The Four Key Pressures on Organizations Global Pressures Costs Global Pressures • Laws, Rising energy, raw • Increasing regulatory Rising costs of materials and waste requirements, many enforced Regulation, energy, transport, management costs globally • waste disposal and Scarcity of resources Standards • Carbon credits & trading raw materials; • Risk from adverse weather To reduce emissions of risks for physical Regional / Local Pressures greenhouse gases assets due to climate Regional / Local Pressures • EU/Germany lead the agenda such as the EU change / global • Exchange rate $ vs. EUR and for CO2 reduction Emissions Trading warming • ‘export’ Exit of Nuclear Power Scheme, Climate • Higher ‘eco’ tax in Germany generation in Germany Change Levy or • • Source of local supply and EU Regulation for energy Building Regulations security of source using products implementing measures under study Organisation Global Pressures Stakeholder New Global Pressures • Customers environmentally • Customers increasing Pressures Business aware demand for • Greater demand for more From investors, market Developments in environmentally preferable environmentally preferable and financial analysts, markets, knowledge products and services products and services • employees, consumers and new technologies, Operational efficiencies or NGO’s about the which enable business Regional / Local Pressures environmental and to cut their carbon • Regional / Local Pressures Corporate policy extending economic emissions while • beyond the bounds of law, high consequences of Availability for resources increasing productivity efficiency is a basic requirement • climate change and finding potential Local competitors • Premiums start at higher costs new revenue • Local talent management opportunities 7 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  8. 8. In response, Industrial Sector companies are implementing Green Initiatives, especially within the areas of PLM and SCM. Product End-of-Life Product Introduction Supply Chain Service & Sourcing & Logistics Repair Concept Procurement Product Recycle/ Availability Reuse Sell Design Disposal Manufacturing Take‐back  Green Factories  eco‐design &  Logistics Sustainability Inverse  Refurbishment  Manufacturing eco‐communication and Re‐use  Greening the Supply Chain  Recycling  eco‐management  Green Initiatives Also Green IT… Carbon Management … Water Management 8 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  9. 9. For example, many Japan-based Electronics companies are reducing energy needs & CO2 emissions via Green Factories and Green Products. Epson’s Green Factory 2010 Project will Sharp will upgrade all their plants into reduce production energy consumption green factories via their 10-step green through scalable minimum Fabs factory concept Panasonic aims for zero Fujitsu’s Green Policy 21 emission clean factories Themes include: Green Factory, Green Management, Canon has established an Green Products, Green eco-factory certification Solutions, Green Earth system and is expanding this globally Ricoh will reduce CO2 Top 5 Basic Sustainability emissions by 12%, far Categories for Manufacturers: ● Material selection exceeding the pace agreed to ● Sourcing policies in the Kyoto Protocol ● Resource consumption and emissions ● End-of-life postponement and Mitsubishi Electric uses their procurement and green management factory policies to make a clear difference on the ● Customer demand and fulfillment environment by eliminating the use of hazardous Source: “Making Sustainability Real”, IDC substances through the product lifecycle Company #MI211085, March 2008 9 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  10. 10. Where is the Carbon in the Supply Chain? Everywhere! Supply Chain activities create significant carbon emissions, making supply chain an important focus for clients Customers & Suppliers & Channels seeking to reduce their carbon footprint Manufacturers Flows: Product, Process, Information, Cash Service & Design Plan Source Make Deliver End-of-Life SC Strategy Procurement Integrated Ops Logistics Integrated Ops PLM •Design for the •How can the total •How can we best •What operations •What distribution •How can field Environment network be measure a strategy (facility network strategy service operations •Carbon footprint optimized supplier’s carbon location, operating (facility locations, reduce carbon thinking throughout considering service, impact (product, model) provides the sizes, transport footprint with better product lifecycle cost, “green” packaging, best trade-off modes) provides routing and parts design tradeoffs upstream logistics) between cost, the best tradeoff of inventory tracking? •What CO2 impact and ultimately service, carbon? cost, service and •Feedback loop to is there from compliance with •Is there a role for carbon? engineering to various inventory carbon reduction sustainable factory / •How can packaging reduce impact concepts & requirement? facility mgmt? be reduced and •Various strategies planning •How should we recycled? to reduce impact methodologies evaluate carbon throughout lifecycle offsets? Asset Management Sustainable facilities management: Green building & renewable energy; carbon footprint asset management; Asset utilization (Real-time data on energy usage; Carbon dashboard) Finance Paperwork Reduction; Environmental Cost Accounting; Environmental Tax Benefits Tracking 10 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  11. 11. Introducing the IBM Carbon Distribution Model Carbon Analysis needs to be seen from a total Product Lifecycle View IBM SCM Carbon Distribution Model™ Phased Product Lif ecycle View Our goal can be f ormulated rather simply: Lower the outer edge Time Design & Inbound Internal Outbound Service Sourcing Logistics Operations Logistics and Use 11 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  12. 12. Sustainable Supplier Strategy Development As-Is ABC ABC, Inc Classic Value Equation = Least Production Cost despite the Transportation Cost To-Be Mexico China ABC Unit Cost Volume Carbon Impact Distance New “Green” Value Equation = Actual Cost (Production + Transportation) + Corresponding Carbon Cost 12 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  13. 13. The Sourcing Strategy Articulation – Carbon, Technology & Distance Tons of CO2 per 1 Ton of Steel sourced from various locations / manufacturing technologies CO2 Tons Asia / Pacific Europe North America 2.5 2.0 Δ = 1.1T 1.72 1.5 1.46 1.0 1.06 0.5 0.70 0.49 0.25 Sourcing Options Source: 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Manufacturing Technology Transportation 13 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  14. 14. The Need to Embrace Carbon as a New Decision Variable © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  15. 15. Some Intriguing Analysis from CIBC That Corroborates some of the IBM findings 15 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  16. 16. Network Optimization Strategy Market Demand Potential DC Locations Demand Volume DC Location Classic Optimization Approach Green Optimization Approach Minimize Total Cost – select DC’s so as to Minimize CO2 Emissions – objective function Vs. minimize the total DC and transportation changes from minimization of total cost to costs of meeting demands minimization of total CO2 emissions (equivalently, total miles traveled) 16 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  17. 17. Helping a Network become Leaner and Greener 100 DC’s 40 DC’s 100 DC’s 40 DC’s Logistics  CO2 $’s Emissions © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  18. 18. Carbon Reduction Needs to be a Value Chain Affair A Value Chain Network View Leverage – + Prevailing View IBM View What is a fabless company Carbon Footprint? What is its environmental responsibility? 18 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  19. 19. Noise in the Supply Chain is Neither Lean nor Green The Carbon Reverse Bullwhip Effect Extended Supply Chain View Suppliers Plants Retailers Inventory Carbon Produced Produced Caron Classic Buildup Bullwhip Process End Customers Effect Amount of Amount of Inventory Carbon Inefficiencies Inefficiencies True Customer Demand 19 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  20. 20. Across Your Entire Supply Chain © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  21. 21. 12 Ideas to Make Your Supply Chain Greener 21 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  22. 22. Exploring the Ideas Redesign the product Reconfigure Manufacturing Shift to Green Suppliers Shorten Distances Alter service-level agreements Shrink packaging 22 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  23. 23. Exploring the Ideas (continued) Plan for reverse supply chain activity Consolidate shipments Plan smaller routes Coordinate with partners Take a life-cycle view Start now: define a green strategy 23 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  24. 24. Operational Scenario # 1 Quantifying the impact of shipment frequency on cost and carbon can help establish a greener inventory replenishment policy Shipment frequency Carbon in  Carbon in  Inventory  Carbon in  Carbon in  Inventory  Inventory Transp. cost Inventory Transp. cost Transp. Warehousing cost Transp. Warehousing cost Scenario 1 • LOW shipment frequency • HIGH shipment size Inventory Scenario 2 • HIGH shipment frequency • LOW shipment size Inventory 24 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  25. 25. Operational Scenario # 2 Supplier choice can impact component cost, carbon emission, and inventory all of which can be quantified to support a green procurement strategy Supplier choice Component  Carbon in  Carbon in  Component  Carbon in  Carbon in  Transp. cost Inventory Transp. cost Inventory Cost Transp. Warehousing Cost Transp. Warehousing Supplier 1 • LOW price • LONG distance Inventory Supplier 2 • HIGH price • SHORT distance Inventory 25 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  26. 26. Operational Scenario # 3 Some levers such as better routing can create a win-win case for both reducing carbon and cost in the supply chain Routing efficiency Carbon in  Carbon in  Carbon in  Carbon in  Transp. cost Inventory Transp. cost Inventory Transp. warehousing Transp. warehousing Inefficient routing Inventory Efficient routing Inventory 26 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  27. 27. An Overview of our Thinking and Capabilities © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  28. 28. IBM’s Environmental Heritage 1992 2000 2005 2007 IBM becomes Charter member of IBMers quot;jamquot; on Founding member SM charter member of World Wildlife Fund's innovations for a of The Green Grid EnergyStar program Climate Savers Program better planet, and IBM invests $20M Reduction in IBM’s total worldwide CO2 emissions attributable 40% solely to its energy conservation efforts between 1990 and 2005. 1990 Start measuring Big Green Innovations global greenhouse Intelligent Utility Network gas emissions Saved more than $100M since 1998 by conserving energy 1996 2000 2003 In remarks at a White House Charter member of Charter member 1971 briefing on climate change, World Resources of Chicago 2006 IBM formally Vice President Gore app- Institute's Green Climate establishes a lauded IBM's new PFC Power Market Exchange® Qualifies for and joins corporate policy emissions reduction goal. Development U.S. EPA's Green on Environmental Affairs Group Power Partnership; quot;These developments send a strong message: also joins EPA A healthy environment and a healthy economy 2002 SmartWaySM go hand in hand,quot; the Vice President said. quot;Through Transport Partnership technology and innovation, we can turn this challenge Charter member of into a huge opportunity for business and for America. U.S. EPA's Climate And the sooner we act, the easier it will be.quot; Leaders program 28 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  29. 29. Illustrating IBM’s Three Step Approach 1 2 3 Set substantive goals Be transparent in reporting Demonstrate leadership Effective global goals should document integrated Disclosure programs, commitments and Partnerships and collaborations are important if results from across all aspects of your business performance against goals – consistently and you desire improving performance of your independent of performance level supply chain 45% 17yrs 1st Between 1990 and 2007, IBM’s global Annual corporate environmental First company to receive U.S. EPA’s Climate Protection Award twice. energy conservation actions reduced or reports released every year since 1990 avoided CO2 emissions by an amount equal First in the semi-conductor U.S. Dept. of Energy's Voluntary Greenhouse to 45% of our 1990 emissions. manufacturing industry to establish Gas Emissions Reporting for 13 years numeric goal for reducing PFC New goal: to extend the above achievement (since inception) emissions. by reducing CO2 emissions by 12% Reported to the Carbon Disclosure Project for between 2005 and 2012. First in ComputerWorld’s Top 12 5 years (since inception) Green IT vendors. Charter memberships in World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program, World Resources Institute's Green Power Market Development Group, U.S. EPA Climate Leaders and ‘Stewardship’ IBM’s actions for Chicago Climate Exchange climate protection (PDF on ibm.com) Member of U.S. EPA’s SmartWay Transport Partnership and Green Grid Consortium 29 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  30. 30. The IBM Energy and Efficiency Framework Strategy People Information Products & Services Reduce Manage Demand Supply IT Property Operations 30 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  31. 31. Challenge Areas Market Forces • Customers • Regulations / Legislation / Targets • Shareholders • Pressure groups • Financial & Market Analysts • NGOs • Competition • Media Strategy  What do you want to achieve with your energy & environment efficiency efforts?  How integrated is your energy efficiency strategy with your overall business strategy?  Do you have an integrated program of action?  How do you finance our energy efficiency program? People Information Products & Services • How do you establish and implement effective • How do you measure and monitor information • What are the new green market opportunities green HR policies regarding travel, work on energy efficiency consistently and and how can you exploit them? place, collaboration? efficiently? • How can you design our products & services • How do you engage with our employees, your • How do you demonstrate to be more energy-efficient & environmentally- business and alliance partners on the green regulatory and policy compliance? preferable? agenda? • Do you have an energy efficiency scorecard • How do you optimize these benefits and key performance measures? throughout the full product lifecycle? • How do you enable and sustain behavior change across your organization? IT Property Operations • How do you manage energy efficiency in: • How do you integrate energy efficiency & • How can you make your end-to-end operations • Buildings, offices and branches? environment management into an IT Strategy? more energy-efficient & less impacting to the • Production plants? environment? • How do you identify which areas of IT provide • Distribution centers & stores? • Supply Chain: Procurement, Logistics, the greatest opportunities for energy efficiency? • How does the property portfolio contribute Warehouse, Manufacturing • How do you minimize energy consumption in to your carbon footprint & ecological balance • CRM: Targeting / Segmentation, Sales each area of IT, now and in the future? sheet and how can you improve it? • Waste & Recycling • How do you optimize to get more IT capacity • How do you work towards a more • How do you communicate your green for less energy? sustainable property portfolio? credentials (Branding, Marketing, • How do you address capacity/power issues? Communications)? 31 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  32. 32. The Green SCM Coverage Matrix Use and EOL Plan Make Deliver Design & Source Logic Tools Strategic SNOW WSP SCE Tactical CarBan CarBan GARS SNAP Virtual Command Center Operational Green Sigma Green Sigma VRP GARS 32 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  33. 33. IBM Green Sigma™ Dashboard (Voice of the Environment) 33 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  34. 34. IBM Carbon Tradeoff Modeler 34 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  35. 35. Case Study A Division of a Fortune 500 Company Deliver Make Source Direct Shipments Suppliers Dealers X-Docks X Plant Location W/H Plant X Flow attributes modeled: • CO2 emissions • Transportation Problem Analyze inbound transportation to establish carbon emissions  Problem Analyze inbound transportation to establish carbon emissions  • Cost ($) Scope baseline and suggest reduction opportunities Scope baseline and suggest reduction opportunities • Fuel Type • Mode • Consolidation • Various inventory metrics 35 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  36. 36. Dimensions of the Analysis Input Data Business Insights Carbon Analyzer Parts Parts Scenario Analysis Scenario Analysis Business Impact Business Impact Suppliers Suppliers Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity Analysis Carbon Impact Carbon Impact Locations Locations Sourcing Analysis Sourcing Analysis Cost Impact Cost Impact Mode Mode Shipment Analysis Shipment Analysis Shipments Shipments Carbon Metrics Analytics Components Cost & Business Metrics • Mile-Tons Transported  Regression Model  Transportation Cost • Carbon Emission (Tons and $’s) Carriers  Distance Calculator  Average Inventory Level Carriers • Cost per Mile-Ton  Cost Optimization Model  Inventory Carrying Cost • Carbon KG per Mile-Ton  Carbon Calculator  Inventory Turns  Cost Calculator  Order Frequency  Business metrics calculators  Inventory Availability  Cost Of Goods Sold  Inventory Liability 36 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  37. 37. Results of the Analysis Compare sourcing options by Compare sourcing options by carbon, cost and business carbon, cost and business metrics metrics Identify top operational actions based on Identify top operational actions based on overall carbon reduction potential overall carbon reduction potential 37 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  38. 38. Cognos-Based Business Intelligence © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009
  39. 39. The IBM SCM Practice By leveraging innovative ideas from our research division and proven best practices from our internal supply chain group, we are uniquely positioned to help our clients improve their supply chain strategy and operations Supply Chain Strategy Practice Advisory Services Internal Supply Chain Research 39 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2009

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