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Eco-friendly Processing
of
Naturally Coloured Cotton
and
Organic Cotton
Presented By:
Mona Verma
Ph.D. Research Scholar
De...
Introduction :
India is the world’s third largest producer of cotton
textile—after China and USA—and the second largest
co...
Cotton is produced in three zones in India, the Northern zone
comprising the states of : Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
Th...
Cotton –
Advantages of Cotton
• Absorbs up to 27 times its
own weight in water
• Has a comfortable, soft
hand
• Is easy to...
What is Eco-Friendly?
Eco-friendly fabrics are made from fibres that do not require
the use of any pesticides or chemicals...
Organic Cotton
Organic cotton is cotton that has been grown on earth that has been
without the use of chemical pesticides ...
Why Go Organic or Eco-Friendly?
Social responsibility:
Chemicals and pesticides invade drinking water and groundwater,
po...
Absorption:
Not only do its chemicals reach into our groundwater, conventional
clothing is worn next to our most porous or...
OCIA Regulations (for cotton)
OCIA International (Organic Crop Improvement Association) is a non profit,
member owned orga...
EKO Quality Symbol
The square EKO quality symbol is an international quality symbol for
Control Union Certifications sust...
Organic and ecological textiles:
The organic & ecological textiles is continuing to grow, led by
the increasing awareness ...
GOTS – GLOBAL ORGANIC TEXTILE STANDARD
GOTS is a standard for organic textiles and it is formulated by four
organic bodies...
Environmental Management
 Waste water treatment
 Storage, packaging and transport
 Quality assurance system
 End prod...
Control Union Certifications Standards:
The natural fibres have to be organic. The standards reject any textiles
which con...
 Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used
a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals.
Due to...
Properties of Enzymes
Used in Textiles
2. Enzyme accelerates
the reaction
An enzyme accelerates the
rate of particular rea...
3. Alternative for
polluting chemicals
Enzymes can be used as best
alternative to toxic, hazardous,
pollution making chemi...
5.Enzyme are easy to control
Enzymes are easy to control because
their activity depends upon
optimum condition
6.Enzymes a...
The mechanism of working of enzymes
a) Substrate fits exactly into active site
b) Enzymes join with substrate for short wh...
Step-1 Desizing
After weaving, the sizing agent and natural non-cellulosic materials
present in the cotton must be removed...
Nowadays amylases are commercialized and
preferred for de-sizing due to their high
efficiency and specificity, completely...
Step-2 Scouring
Scouring is removal of non-cellulosic material present on the surface of
the cotton.
Raw cotton contains a...
Traditional scouring Enzymatic scouring
Scouring, improves the wet ability of the
fabric and normally uses alkalis, such a...
The purpose of cotton bleaching is to decolourise natural pigments and to
confer a pure white appearance to the fibres.
(H...
Therefore, replacement of hydrogen peroxide by an enzymatic
bleaching system would not only lead to better product quality...
Bio-polishing
Bio-polishing is a finishing process that improves fabric quality by mainly
reducing fuzziness and pilling p...
Stone washing of denim by using traditional method
Denim is heavy grade cotton. In this dye is mainly adsorbed on the
surf...
These disadvantages lead to give rise the process of use of enzymes.
Cellulase enzyme is used in denim washing.
Cellulas...
Desizing
Scouring
Bleaching
Dyeing
Finishing
Composting
Enzymes used in cotton textile processing
Amylase, Lipase
Pectinas...
Use minimum to start so that less is wasted and therefore, will cause
least discharge to the environment.
Reuse and recy...
Processing Of Silk
Degumming
Bleaching
Dyeing
Finishing
Degummase ,cellulase,
proteolytic enzymes
Hydrogenperoxide
Sulphon...
Ahmed et al. carried out the dyeing of the natural dyes kamala
,indigo, turmeric and heena on mulberry silk . It was found...
Processing Of Wool
Finishing
Dyeing
Bleaching
Scouring
Carbonizing Triwool solvent
Low pressure and low
temerature plasma
...
Schumacher et al. shown that protease treatment improves the whiteness as
well a s dyeability with lanasol reactive dye.
B...
Alternative solution for non eco-friendly chemicals to reduce
pollution load on environment
Processing Of Polyester
Polymerization
Spinning
Drawing
dyeing
Disperse dyes were initially was developed for acetate fibre. However,
with the introduction of polyester and other hydrop...
Because of low hydrophilicity , the surface of PET fabrics can not wet easily
this causes some difficulties in finishing, ...
PET Plastic
PET plastics are also known as Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE). PET's
recycling code within the three chasin...
Disperse Dye Chemical Class Of Dye Status Of Dye
Yellow 7
Yellow 23
Reddish yellow
Reddish yellow
Banned
Alternative
Blue ...
Processing Of Acrylic
Polymerization
Spinning
Drawing
Washing
Crimping
Drying
Dyeing
The selection of proper dyes and
chem...
Polymer
chips
Vessel
For
Heating
Polymer
Meter
pump Filteration
Spinneret
Filament
Wound
On
Bobbins
Cutting
Draw
rollers
P...
The main pollutant present in the nylon exhaust dye liquor are exhausted dye
acetic acid, dye fixing agents and heavy meta...
Bamboo textiles have many fantastic properties that combined
make this a truly amazing fabric :
breathable and cool, has ...
Polylactic Acid Fibres
Cargill Dow polymers which was started in 1997, is the leader in the
technology of polylactic acid ...
Renewable resource
A renewable resource such as corn is milled, separating starch
from the raw material. Unrefined dextros...
Soy
Soy fabrics are derived from the hulls of soybean-a manufacturing by
product. Soy fabrics can be blended (i.e. 30%) or...
Lyocell
Lyocell is a regenerated cellulose fiber made from dissolving
pulp (bleached wood pulp). It was developed and firs...
Processing of
lyocell
PLASMA TECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE
PROCESSING
What is Plasma?
Highly reactive material used to modify the surface of the
substr...
How plasma is produced?
1) By providing heat to gas (high temperature) or when
kinetic energy of gas particles rises equal...
How Plasma Works On Textiles?
· It is only a surface reaction.
· Modifies the surface in nm range (100nm)
 Coat the fib...
General Application of Sol-Gel for Textile Use
Recently, investigations have been conducted to improve properties of
text...
What is Microencapsulation???
Technique to prepare microcapsules, small
particles that contain a core- material
surrounded...
Aromatherapeutic Textiles
Textiles
Essential oils
Infection
Disease
Indisposition
Uses
Cures
Biodégradation
Reasons for using
microencapsulation
Process Chemicals used Health hazards
Singeing Small amounts of exhaust
gases, negligable impact
_______
Desizing - Enzyme...
Process Chemicals used Health hazards
Chemical
finishing:
- Anti-
crease
- Flame
proofing
- Softening
- CH2O
- Phosphorus
...
Organic farming contributes to the different
ecosystems include:
Protecting surface and groundwater quality (eliminating
...
According to R.B. CHAVAN the dye consumption pattern indicates that
in the next five years, the sulphur, direct ,vat and i...
Advantages of bi functional reactive dyes:
 high dye affinity and high dye fixation
Stable dye fibre bond
Less dye to b...
Higher fixation rate of Cibacron LS reactive dye
Alternative reducing systems solution for dyeing
cotton with vat dye
Vat dyes are used by using sodium hydro sulphite as r...
Other problems associated with the use of Na2S2O4 are its cost and
low storage stability.
Researchers have developed alter...
Alternative reducing systems solution for dyeing cotton
with vat dye
Sodium sulphide is commonly used for the reduction i...
The chitosan has many excellent properties, such as broad spectrum
anti-biotics, non –toxic, bio-compatibility, bio-degra...
A range of textile products based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such
as triclosan, metal and their salts, organometall...
Thank you
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres
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Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres

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Environmental friendly processing of textile fibres

  1. 1. Eco-friendly Processing of Naturally Coloured Cotton and Organic Cotton Presented By: Mona Verma Ph.D. Research Scholar Deptt. of Textile and Apparel Designing, CCSHAU,HISAR mona.verma35057@gmail.com
  2. 2. Introduction : India is the world’s third largest producer of cotton textile—after China and USA—and the second largest cotton consumer after China. Cotton accounts for 40% of the total global fibre production and is the most important fibre in the world. Cotton as a crop as well as a commodity plays an important role in the agrarian and industrial activities of the nation and has a unique place in the economy of our country. Cotton popularly known as “White Gold” is grown mainly for fibre. India has been a traditional home of cotton and cotton textiles. It provides livelihood to 60 million people who depend on cotton cultivation, processing, trade and textiles (Singh, 2010) .
  3. 3. Cotton is produced in three zones in India, the Northern zone comprising the states of : Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. The Central zone comprising the states of : Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat The Southern zone comprising the states of : Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In Haryana the cotton area includes five major districts in this belt namely: Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind and Bhiwani and constitutes more than 90% area of crop in the state.
  4. 4. Cotton – Advantages of Cotton • Absorbs up to 27 times its own weight in water • Has a comfortable, soft hand • Is easy to launder •Takes dye easily, good color retention • Is durable and strong • Conducts heat well • Resists abrasion • Resists pilling and moths • Is easy to handle and sew Disadvantages- Shrinks and wrinkles Colour loss by bleeding and sunlight Damaged by mildew
  5. 5. What is Eco-Friendly? Eco-friendly fabrics are made from fibres that do not require the use of any pesticides or chemicals to grow. They are naturally resistant to mould and mildew and are disease free. Hemp, linen, bamboo and ramie are eco-friendly fibres.
  6. 6. Organic Cotton Organic cotton is cotton that has been grown on earth that has been without the use of chemical pesticides and defoliants for at least three years. Fertilizers that are used include compost, manure, naturally derived mineral and plant fertilizers and crop rotation. Insect controls involve the use of beneficial insects and natural pesticides certified for organic crops. Organic cotton feels softer, smells cleaner, and is less likely to trigger allergies. The sustainable farming practices used to grow organic cotton do not pollute groundwater, surface water, soil, or air. In fact, soil quality is actually improved by the production of organic cotton.
  7. 7. Why Go Organic or Eco-Friendly? Social responsibility: Chemicals and pesticides invade drinking water and groundwater, polluting its fish and even reaching human consumption. Organic and eco fibres grow without any pesticides or chemical fertilizers. Biodegradable: Eco and organic fabric biodegrade naturally over time. Synthetic fibres eventually become waste and let off harmful toxins when they degrade. Health: Many people are allergic or dislike wearing synthetic textiles. Eco fabrics have all the properties of the new synthetic breathable fibres with added softness and drape. They feel better against the skin.
  8. 8. Absorption: Not only do its chemicals reach into our groundwater, conventional clothing is worn next to our most porous organ- our skin. Organic and eco-fibers are natural and do not contain irritating chemicals. Many of them are also considered hypoallergenic and naturally anti-bacterial. Popularity: Organic foods have been around for awhile and it is a natural evolution that organic and eco friendly fabrics will also gain popularity. Eco and Organic fabrics once considered an alternative are now entering into the mainstream.
  9. 9. OCIA Regulations (for cotton) OCIA International (Organic Crop Improvement Association) is a non profit, member owned organization which always provides its members with the highest quality of certification as well as providing access to global organic markets. There are different regulations depending on where the fabric is being produced and where it is being sold and OCIA takes each different area and it’s regulations into account before certifying. All of our organic cotton is produced in China and India, and to sell in Canada there are no regulations or further certifications that a product has to fall under. To sell an “organic” product in the United States, the product must be certified under the NOP (National Organic Program). This is covered under the OCIA certification therefore we are certified under this program as well.
  10. 10. EKO Quality Symbol The square EKO quality symbol is an international quality symbol for Control Union Certifications sustainable textile products. It is used when raw materials originate from organic cultivation and are processed using the sustainable textile production methods. When the EKO quality symbol is attached to our fabric, it means: 1. The fabric's fibres come from inspected, organic farming, from organic production methods or from NOP certified cotton. 2. The fabric complies with the Control Union Certifications Standards.
  11. 11. Organic and ecological textiles: The organic & ecological textiles is continuing to grow, led by the increasing awareness of the consumers who are now informed of the risks conventional textiles pose to health and the environment. For ensure the customer in your responsible project, it is important to ask for a control of your goods or activities in order to guarantee the organic or ecological propriety. For that, Ecocert offers you to certify according to: •GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard) for a social and environmental responsibility. •OCS (Organic Content Standard) to guarantee the traceability of organic textiles . •Ecological & Recycled Textiles (Ecocert Standard) to claim the environmental quality.
  12. 12. GOTS – GLOBAL ORGANIC TEXTILE STANDARD GOTS is a standard for organic textiles and it is formulated by four organic bodies OTA (Organic Trade Association) USA, SA (Soil Association) UK, JOCA (Japan Organic Cotton Association) and IVN Germany. The standard gives clear restrictions and requirements for – Organic Fibre Production Product Label Textile Auxiliaries, dyestuff and pigments All stages of production eg. Spinning, weaving, knitting, pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, finishing. Accessories
  13. 13. Environmental Management  Waste water treatment  Storage, packaging and transport  Quality assurance system  End product criteria  Residue in accessories Social compliance The GOTS certification is issued by certification bodies such as Control union, IMO, ecocert etc. Texanlab is able to test products as per GOTS requirement and certification can be done only by certification bodies.
  14. 14. Control Union Certifications Standards: The natural fibres have to be organic. The standards reject any textiles which contain heavy metals, which are toxic or non-degradable. The input of additives, which harm the environment, is prohibited during the total production process, and the finished products may not contain residues or harmful means. CU Certifications encompass all stages of textiles production which include raw materials origin, pre-treatment (washing, bleaching, etc.), dyeing and printing, after treatment, storage, labelling of the final product and packaging.
  15. 15.  Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. Due to the ever-growing costs for water and energy worldwide investigations are carried out to substitute conventional chemical textile processes by environment-friendly and economically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. Enzymes are used in a broad range of processes in the textile industry.  Enzymes are specific and fast in action and small amounts of enzyme often save large amounts of raw materials, chemicals, energy and water. Cotton Textile Processing
  16. 16. Properties of Enzymes Used in Textiles 2. Enzyme accelerates the reaction An enzyme accelerates the rate of particular reaction by lowering the activation energy of reaction. The enzyme remains intact at the end of reaction by acting as catalyst 1. Enzymes operate under milder condition Each enzyme have optimum temperature and optimum pH i.e. activity of enzyme at that pH and temperature is on the peak. For most of the enzyme activity degrades on the both sides of optimum condition
  17. 17. 3. Alternative for polluting chemicals Enzymes can be used as best alternative to toxic, hazardous, pollution making chemicals . Also some pollutant chemicals are even carcinogenic. When we use enzymes there is no pollution . 4. Enzyme acts only on specific substrate Most enzymes have high degree of specificity and will catalyse the reaction with one or few substrates One particular enzyme will only catalyse a specific type of reaction. Enzymes used in de-sizing do not affect cellulose hence there is no loss of strength of cotton
  18. 18. 5.Enzyme are easy to control Enzymes are easy to control because their activity depends upon optimum condition 6.Enzymes are biodegradable At the end of reaction in which enzymes used we can simply drain the remaining solution because enzymes are biodegradable and do not produce toxic waste on degradation hence there is no pollution
  19. 19. The mechanism of working of enzymes a) Substrate fits exactly into active site b) Enzymes join with substrate for short while. c) Enzymes alter substrate into products and products are released . d) Enzymes are not used in the process and continue action if more substrate is provided. E + S ES (Enzyme substrate products) ES E + Different products.
  20. 20. Step-1 Desizing After weaving, the sizing agent and natural non-cellulosic materials present in the cotton must be removed in order to prepare the fabric for dyeing and finishing. Before the discovery of amylases, de-sizing used to be carried out by treating the fabric with acid, alkali or oxidizing agents at high temperatures. (Etters & Annis 1998; Cegarra 1996) CONVENTIONAL DESIZING A) Acid desizing, B) Oxidative desizing Disadvantages of acid desizing: May degrade cotton. Disadvantages of oxidative desizing: Residual peroxide, High pH due to caustic, and high TDS. Steps Involved in Cotton Textile Processing
  21. 21. Nowadays amylases are commercialized and preferred for de-sizing due to their high efficiency and specificity, completely removing the size without any harmful effects on the fabric. The starch is randomly cleaved into water soluble dextrins that can be then removed by washing. This also reduced the discharge of waste chemicals to the environment and improved working conditions. The chemical treatment was not totally effective in removing the starch, leading to imperfections in dyeing, and also resulted in a degradation of the cotton fibre destroying the natural, soft feel of the cotton.
  22. 22. Step-2 Scouring Scouring is removal of non-cellulosic material present on the surface of the cotton. Raw cotton contains about 90 % of cellulose and various non-cellulosic such as waxes, pectins, proteins, fats, lignin-containing impurities and colouring matter. The goal of the cotton preparatory process is the remove the hydrophobic and non-cellulosic components and produce highly absorbent fibres that can be dyed and finished uniformly.
  23. 23. Traditional scouring Enzymatic scouring Scouring, improves the wet ability of the fabric and normally uses alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide. However, these chemicals also attack the cellulose, leading to reduction in strength and loss of fabric weight. Furthermore, the resulting wastewater has:  high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand),  high BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)  high salt content [Buschle-Diller et al. 1998]. Enzymatic, leaves the cellulose structure almost intact, preventing cellulose weight and strength loss. It has a number of potential advantages over traditional scouring. It is lower BOD, COD, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), Performed at neutral pH, which reduces total water consumption . The treated yarn/fabrics retain their strength properties.  The weight loss is reduced or limited compared with processing in traditional ways.  and it increases cotton fibre softness.
  24. 24. The purpose of cotton bleaching is to decolourise natural pigments and to confer a pure white appearance to the fibres. (Hedin et al., 1992; Ardon et al., 1996) Step- 4 Bleaching Mainly flavonoids are responsible for the colour of cotton. The most common industrial bleaching agent is hydrogen peroxide. Conventional preparation of cotton requires high amounts of alkaline chemicals and consequently, huge quantities of rinse water are generated. However, radical reactions of bleaching agents with the fibre can lead to a decrease in the degree of polymerisation and, thus, to severe damage.
  25. 25. Therefore, replacement of hydrogen peroxide by an enzymatic bleaching system would not only lead to better product quality due to less fibre damage but also to substantial savings on washing water needed for the removal of hydrogen peroxide. An alternative to this process is to use a combination of suitable enzyme systems. Amyloglucosidases, pectinases, and glucose oxidases are selected that are compatible concerning their active pH and temperature range.
  26. 26. Bio-polishing Bio-polishing is a finishing process that improves fabric quality by mainly reducing fuzziness and pilling property of cellulosic fibre. The objective of the process is elimination of micro fibrils of cotton through the action of cellulase enzyme . The main characteristics imparted to the fabric during bio-polishing treatment are as follow: Cleaner surface is obtained conferring a cooler feel. Lustre is obtained as a side effect Fabric obtains softer feel. Tendency of the fabric to pill ends. (Stewart, 2005; Cavaco-Paulo, 1998; Cavaco-Paulo et al., 1996; Lenting and Warmoeskerken, 2001).
  27. 27. Stone washing of denim by using traditional method Denim is heavy grade cotton. In this dye is mainly adsorbed on the surface of the fibre. That is why fading can be achieved without considerable loss of strength. In traditional process sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate was used called as pumice stones. Disadvantage of these method are as follows: Pumice stones cause large amount of back-staining. Pumice stones are required in very large amount. They cause considerable wear and tear of machine. (Pedersen and Schneider, 1998)
  28. 28. These disadvantages lead to give rise the process of use of enzymes. Cellulase enzyme is used in denim washing. Cellulase works by loosening the indigo dye on the denim in a process known as “Bio-Stonewashing”. A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones. The use of less pumice stones results in less damage to garment, machine and less pumice dust in the laundry environment. More recently, some authors showed that laccase was an effective agent for stone-washing effects of denim fabric with and without using a mediator. (Campos et al., 2001; Pazarloglu et al., 2005). Enzymatic treatment to denim
  29. 29. Desizing Scouring Bleaching Dyeing Finishing Composting Enzymes used in cotton textile processing Amylase, Lipase Pectinase , Cellulase Oxidoreductase Oxidoreductase, Xylanase Cellulase ,Lipase Cellulase ,Protease
  30. 30. Use minimum to start so that less is wasted and therefore, will cause least discharge to the environment. Reuse and recycle the products wherever possible so that their useful life is enhanced and the period to discard them to environment is delayed. Change ,replace or design the processes in order to be more environmental friendly by use of eco-friendly chemicals ,energy conserving routes. Points to be remember while starting processing of textile fibres
  31. 31. Processing Of Silk Degumming Bleaching Dyeing Finishing Degummase ,cellulase, proteolytic enzymes Hydrogenperoxide Sulphonated sulphone type reactive dyeing Glyoxal
  32. 32. Ahmed et al. carried out the dyeing of the natural dyes kamala ,indigo, turmeric and heena on mulberry silk . It was found that the general appearance luster and texture of kamla dyed silk fabric was better than that of the other dyed samples. Eco-friendly dyeing of silk fabric
  33. 33. Processing Of Wool Finishing Dyeing Bleaching Scouring Carbonizing Triwool solvent Low pressure and low temerature plasma treatment Protease
  34. 34. Schumacher et al. shown that protease treatment improves the whiteness as well a s dyeability with lanasol reactive dye. Bleaching of wool : 3 stabilizer with H2O2 Sodium nitrilotriacetate Sodium di-ethylene triaminopentamethyl phosphate Sodium pyrophosphate+ ammonium oxalate Environment friendly Sokolowaska et al. synthesized 1:2 iron complexed azo dyes and compared their properties with 1:2 chromium and 1:2 cobalt commercial analogs. They found that the new black dyes are very good for wool and nylon from the light and rubbing fastness point of view, at the same time they are eco-friendly.
  35. 35. Alternative solution for non eco-friendly chemicals to reduce pollution load on environment
  36. 36. Processing Of Polyester Polymerization Spinning Drawing dyeing
  37. 37. Disperse dyes were initially was developed for acetate fibre. However, with the introduction of polyester and other hydrophobic fibres, disperse dyes became a large and pre eminent group of dyes. To produce acceptable dyeing results, three innovative methods for application of these dyes on polyester and acetate fibres were developed. The three methods are: carrier dyeing, high temperature dyeing, thermosol dyeing. Modification in dyeing processes resulted in reduced cycle time and less water, chemicals and energy consumption. This reduced the pollution load in the effluent. During polyester dyeing, chlorinated carriers should be avoided and high BOD/COD acetic acid should be replaced by alternative products like Duracid. Safe disperse dyes with ecofriendly dispersing agents should be used. Ecofriendly dyeing of polyester
  38. 38. Because of low hydrophilicity , the surface of PET fabrics can not wet easily this causes some difficulties in finishing, washing and dyeing. In addition ,due to the buildup of electrostatic charge and pilling on the surface of PET fabrics, the wearing comfort of the clothing is diminished. In order to solve these problems , many attempts have been made to modify the low hydropilicity of the surface of PET fabrics. Enzymatic hydrolysis is more advantageous than conventional hydrolysis by alkali treatment as it consumes less amounts of energy further no harsh chemicals are required. Lipase ,cutinase and esterase enzymes are used for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus enzyme hydrolysis on ester linkages cause producing hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of the fabric , so surface hydrophilicity of PET fabrics could be increased.
  39. 39. PET Plastic PET plastics are also known as Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE). PET's recycling code within the three chasing arrows, is a number one. These plastics are usually beverage bottles (i.e. water, soda, and fruit juice bottles). According to the EPA, plastic accounts for 12% of the total amount of waste we produce. Recycling plastic reduces air, water, and ground pollution. Recycling is only the first step; investing and purchasing products manufactured from recycled materials is the next of many steps to living sustainably. Clothing can be made from plastics. Seventy percent of plastic-derived fabrics come from polyester, and the type of polyester most used in fabrics is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic clothing come from reused plastics, often recycled plastic bottles. The Coca Cola Company, for example, created a "Drink2Wear" line of T-shirts made from recycled bottles.
  40. 40. Disperse Dye Chemical Class Of Dye Status Of Dye Yellow 7 Yellow 23 Reddish yellow Reddish yellow Banned Alternative Blue 1 Blue364 Blue367 Greenish blue Bright greenish Greenish blue Banned Alternative Alternative Red 151 Red 334 Bright red Bright red Banned Alternative Red 1 Red 94 Red Bright red Banned Alternative Red 17 Red 94 Red Bright red Banned Alternative Blue3 Blue23 Bright blue Bright blue Banned Alternative Blue7 Blue83 Greenish blue Blue Banned Alternative Blue26 Blue31 Blue Blue Banned Alternative Yellow56 Reddish yellow Banned
  41. 41. Processing Of Acrylic Polymerization Spinning Drawing Washing Crimping Drying Dyeing The selection of proper dyes and chemicals are of great importance for eco-friendly acrylic dyeing. One positive aspect of acrylic dyeing from ecological point of view is 90- 97% exhaustion of cationic dyes on acrylic fibre. The following dyes are available in India are safe for acrylic dyeing: Basic yellow:2,11,13,25,28 Basic orange: 22 Basic red:13,14,18,22,29 Basic violet:7,14,16 Basic blue:13,54,146 Basic brown: 1 Basic black: 36
  42. 42. Polymer chips Vessel For Heating Polymer Meter pump Filteration Spinneret Filament Wound On Bobbins Cutting Draw rollers Processing Of Nylon Staple product Cooling air Feed rollers
  43. 43. The main pollutant present in the nylon exhaust dye liquor are exhausted dye acetic acid, dye fixing agents and heavy metallic compounds. In place of acetic acid which is used for maintain the ph in nylon dyeing ,suitable substitute should be used . the use of formic acid in place of acetic acid can reduce bod in effluent. levelling agents which contain chlorinated hydrocarbon or bleaching with active chlorine must be avoided to eliminate significant amount of AOX( activated carbon absorbable organo halogens) in the effluent. The following safe dyes are available in India for dyeing nylon. Acid yellow:11,17,23,36,42,59,73,76,99,114.132,244,45 Acid orange: 7,10A,74,80,82,86 Acid red:1,14,18,35,37,52,70,88,183,194,195,219 Acid blue: 25,89,113,120 Acid green: 1,9,10 Acid brown:45,48,345,348,349 Dyeing Of Nylon
  44. 44. Bamboo textiles have many fantastic properties that combined make this a truly amazing fabric : breathable and cool, has a  nice lustre wonderful silky softness. quickly absorb and evaporate human sweat. naturally antibacterial avoids pilling and shrinkage problems. Bamboo fibers are quickly emerging now in the fashion world. The fabric woven with bamboo yarn is light, almost Bamboo -Thick Pulp - Fine Pulp - Bamboo Fibre - BambooYarn - Fabric. Bamboo Fibre
  45. 45. Polylactic Acid Fibres Cargill Dow polymers which was started in 1997, is the leader in the technology of polylactic acid (PLA). A new synthetic biodegradable polymer is obtained from the renewable source such as corn. It is also possible to use other plant materials such as rice, wheat, sugar beets and even agricultural waste.
  46. 46. Renewable resource A renewable resource such as corn is milled, separating starch from the raw material. Unrefined dextrose/sugar, in turn, is processed from starch. Fermentation The dextrose/sugar is turned into lactic acid using a fermentation process similar to that used by beer and wine producers. Intermediate production Through a special condensation process, a cyclic intermediate dimer, referred to as lactide, is formed. Polymer production This monomer lactide is purified through vacuum distillation. Ring opening polymerization of the lactide is accomplished with a solvent free melt process.
  47. 47. Soy Soy fabrics are derived from the hulls of soybean-a manufacturing by product. Soy fabrics can be blended (i.e. 30%) or made entirely out of soy fibres. Soy clothing is largely biodegradable, so it has a minimal impact on environment and landfills. Although not as durable as cotton or hemp fabrics, soy clothing has a soft, elastic feel. Soy clothing is known as the vegetable cashmere for its light and silky sensation. Soy fabrics are moisture absorbent, anti-bacterial, and UV resistant.
  48. 48. Lyocell Lyocell is a regenerated cellulose fiber made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp). It was developed and first manufactured for market development as Tencel. Lyocell first went on public sale as a type of rayon in 1991. It shares many properties with other cellulosic fibers such as cotton, linen, ramie and rayon. Some main characteristics of lyocell fibers are that they are soft, absorbent, very strong when wet or dry, and resistant to wrinkles; lyocell fabric can be machine- or hand-washed or drycleaned, it drapes well, and it can be dyed many colors, and can simulate a variety of textures such as leather, and silk.
  49. 49. Processing of lyocell
  50. 50. PLASMA TECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE PROCESSING What is Plasma? Highly reactive material used to modify the surface of the substrate. i.e. Plasma activation or modification. It is a substance, usually a gas whose atoms have one or more electrons detached and hence ionized. Overall neutral as it consists of equal no of –ve & +ve ions called plasma. Plasma processing: · High density plasma not suitable for textile applications. · Plasma density depends on temperature and magnetic field applied.
  51. 51. How plasma is produced? 1) By providing heat to gas (high temperature) or when kinetic energy of gas particles rises equal to ionization energy of gas. E.g. Atmosphere of most stars, gases on the upper atmosphere of earth (about 400km) gas within the glass tubing of Neon advertising signs. 2) To pass high energy electrons to low pressure gas. The individually charged plasma particles can be controlled by electric or magnetic field. 3) By applying electric field to low pressure gas.
  52. 52. How Plasma Works On Textiles? · It is only a surface reaction. · Modifies the surface in nm range (100nm)  Coat the fibre with nm thin film depending on gas used. This technique can be used to make fibre. Hydrophilic properties can be imparted by oxygen plasma. · Hydrophobic properties can be imparted by Hexafloroethane plasma. · Improve colour fastness. · Improve dyeing rates. · Improve shrinkage resistance. · Reduce inflammability. · Improved pigment fixation. · Flouring plasma for medical textiles. · Anti felting on wool. · To facilitate the removal of size & contaminants
  53. 53. General Application of Sol-Gel for Textile Use Recently, investigations have been conducted to improve properties of textile fabrics by embedding various finishes in sol-gel coating to enhance fabric performance. The following section will focus on different sol-gel applications that create new functional properties in textile fabrics. Textiles coated with sol-gel are reported to impart many important properties SangeetaYadav,2009
  54. 54. What is Microencapsulation??? Technique to prepare microcapsules, small particles that contain a core- material surrounded by coating or shell of limited permeability (Benita, 1996). The core content may be released by friction, pressure, change of temperature, diffusion through the polymer wall, dissolution of the polymer wall coating, biodegradation etc.
  55. 55. Aromatherapeutic Textiles Textiles Essential oils Infection Disease Indisposition Uses Cures
  56. 56. Biodégradation Reasons for using microencapsulation
  57. 57. Process Chemicals used Health hazards Singeing Small amounts of exhaust gases, negligable impact _______ Desizing - Enzymes or H2SO4 for starch, detergents and alkali for PVA and CMC Bloating and Diarrhoea. Irritant to eyes and skin Scouring NaOH,Na2CO3, surfactants, chlorinated solvents Non-ionic detergents may cause bloating and Diarrhoea, Irritant to eyes and skin. Bleaching -Hypochlorite - Hydrogen - peroxide - Acetic acid Chlorine gas released, causing severe irritation of respiratory tract and eyes tract and eyes Toxic gases Mercerization NaOH, surfactants, acid, liquid ammonium _______ Health Hazards Associated With Chemicals Used In Textile Processing textile Industries
  58. 58. Process Chemicals used Health hazards Chemical finishing: - Anti- crease - Flame proofing - Softening - CH2O - Phosphorus - Softeners - Fluorinated chemicals - Catalyst - Formaldehyde - Ammonia Intense irritation of eyes and nose and headaches. Causing vomiting, and coughing. High concentration can cause respiratory arrest. Water- proofing - Paraffin - Aluminum salts - Zircon salts - Silicone - fluorocarbon resins - Toluene may be used in solvent coating operations can cause, headaches, confusion weakness, and memory loss, and affects function of kidney and liver , formation of ozone which causes asthma
  59. 59. Organic farming contributes to the different ecosystems include: Protecting surface and groundwater quality (eliminating contaminants in surface runoff) Reduced risk in insect and disease control by replacing insecticide with the manipulation of ecosystems Long-term prevention of pests through beneficial habitat planting. Conservation of biodiversity Eliminate the use of toxic chemicals used in cotton. Organically grown crops also yield soils with higher organic matter content, thicker topsoil depth, higher polysaccharide content, and lower modulus of rupture; therefore reducing considerably soil erosion.
  60. 60. According to R.B. CHAVAN the dye consumption pattern indicates that in the next five years, the sulphur, direct ,vat and indigdyes will remain constant , azoic will continue to decline and reactive dye will show increase. The lack may be due to the following factors: High price and limited supply incase of vat dyes Environmental problems associated with vat, sulphur and azoics. Technological obsolescence in case of direct dyes. Most of the reactive dye manufacturers are concentrating on addressing the following environmental problems associated the reactive dyes: Colour in effluent Minimization of chemical usage These problems associated with the reactive dyes can be minimized by using bi-functional reactive dyes. ICI has developed the procion supra range with two monochlorotriazine groups per molecule.this approach led to better dye utilization and resulted in less hydolyzed dye and less effluent. In 1980 sumitomo launched the first range of the hetero bifunctional dyes which carry two different reactive groups.
  61. 61. Advantages of bi functional reactive dyes:  high dye affinity and high dye fixation Stable dye fibre bond Less dye to be removed from fabric after dyeing Rinsing step is much faster Less water is needed for wash off Less dye effluent Approach to minimize the salt load: Dyeing at low liquor ratio Using reactive dye which gives high exhaustion and fixation at low salt concentration Disadvantages of High salt containing dyes Rivers and lakes get polluted with effluent containing high salt concentration Fresh water organism can have toxic effect In the regions where scarce fresg water resources . Such water has to be used for irrigation If the salt content is too high , the soils become overloaded with salt , making the land infertile and Ultimately useless
  62. 62. Higher fixation rate of Cibacron LS reactive dye
  63. 63. Alternative reducing systems solution for dyeing cotton with vat dye Vat dyes are used by using sodium hydro sulphite as reducing agent and sodium hydroxide as an alkali. A few by products are formed are sulphur compound like Na2S and NaHS etc., which pollute air through the formation of H2S. At the same time ,the salts of sulphur in the form of sulphates and sulphites contaminate sewage and lower its ph and show corrosive action on concrete pipes.
  64. 64. Other problems associated with the use of Na2S2O4 are its cost and low storage stability. Researchers have developed alternate reducing system s which are eco-friendly in nature. Such few systems include electrochemical reduction , use of organic reducing agents like hydroxy acetone, iron pentacarbonyl compounds and iron complexes. This reducing system is bio compatible and gives 20 % higher indigo uptake along with less consumption of assisting chemicals.
  65. 65. Alternative reducing systems solution for dyeing cotton with vat dye Sodium sulphide is commonly used for the reduction in the application of sulphur dyes on cotton . Residual sodium sulphide acts as contaminant in the effluent. Sodium sulphide causes no marked odour nuisance above ph 9 but in acetic ph, gaseous H2S is liberated ,which gives fowl smell of rotton eggs and is toxic when inhaled.  Its odour threshold value is 10 ppm. Century mill at mumbai also established , on commercial scale , that sodium sulphide can be totally replaced with glucose obtained from hydrolysis of starch . Other sugars and related substances like hydroxy acetone have been examined in laboratory , but none of them were found to offer any advantage over glucose.
  66. 66. The chitosan has many excellent properties, such as broad spectrum anti-biotics, non –toxic, bio-compatibility, bio-degradation, etc. It is used as anti bacterial and crosslinking with fabric . As a green finishing agent the chitosan can meet the request of environment protection. Meanwhile, the chitosan has some merits such as absorbency, air permeability, microbial degradation, bio activity, sequestering activity, enzyme fixation etc. Its sources is rich, it is suitable for producing the antibacterial fabric with its non –toxic and non-pollution Crease resistant and anti bacterial finish by using Chitosan Mona verma , 2013
  67. 67. A range of textile products based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, metal and their salts, organometallics, phenols and quaternary ammonium compounds have been developed and few of them used commercially. Although the synthetic antimicrobial agents are very effective a range of microbes and give a durable effect on textiles, they are cause of concern due to the associated side effects, action on non-target microorganism and water pollution. Joshi et al. (2009)
  68. 68. Thank you

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