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International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting onOrigin of Sandstone Uranium Deposits: A Global Perspective SANDSTON...
OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS  •   BASAL CHANNEL  •   ROLL FRONT  •   TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERS...
INTRODUCTIONThe uranium miningactivities in Argentinabegan in the 1950s.The systematicexploration led to thediscovery of s...
INTRODUCTIONConsequently, sevenmining centres were inoperation in the countryand produced a historicaltotal of 2,600 tons ...
INTRODUCTION      In 1992, Argentina began to import uranium due to      economic reasons, situation that progressively le...
INTRODUCTIONCurrently, the CNEA, Provincial (Chubut, La Rioja,Santa Cruz), Senior Producers and Junior Companiesare carryi...
URANIUM RESOURCES IN ARGENTINA (CNEA)          Cost Category:  USD 260 / kg U                         REASONABLY         ...
ARGENTINE         NPPs                                a                           ATUCHA I                           357 M...
U DEMAND IN ARGENTINA                           OPERATION     REMAINING        DEMAND        NPP                  START   ...
      - Yellow Cake IMPORTS            KAZA, CANADA, CZECH REP- UO2 CONVERSION   DIOXITEK S.A.         - FUEL FABRICATION...
OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS  •   BASAL CHANNEL  •   ROLL FRONT  •   TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERS...
UDEPO PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION              1. Surficial              2. Phosphate              3. Black shale             ...
SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS           IN ARGENTINA Basal channel:    Cerro Solo (Chubut province)    Los Adobes (Ch...
200 km                            24º S                                                                              CERR...
CERRO SOLO       U DEPOSITSchematic Geology:Chubut Group - CerroBarcino Formation (K) :tuffs.                             ...
CERRO SOLO           U DEPOSITMineralalogy: uraninite - pitchblende (organicmatter, pyrite, marcasite), uranophilite (pyri...
CERRO SOLO      U DEPOSITIdentified Resources (< USD 260 / kg U): 9,200 t U.Average Grade: 0.20 % U.                      ...
200 km                            24º S                                                                              LOS ...
LOS ADOBES        U DEPOSITTotal Production: 120 t U @ 0.12 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + IX ...
CERRO CONDOR          U DEPOSITTotal Production: 56 t U @ 0.08 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + ...
200 km                            24º S                                                                               LOS...
LOS COLORADOS           U DEPOSITTotal Production: 55 t U @ 0.064 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution...
200 km                            24º S                                                                              ARRO...
ARROYO PERDIDO      U DEPOSITSW                                                  NE m    Gamma                      Gamma ...
200 km                            24º S                                                                                SI...
SIERRA PINTADA       U DEPOSIT          Total Production: 1,800 t U @ 0.09 – 0.29 % U.          System: heap leaching + di...
200 km                              24º S                                                                                ...
Don Otto         25º20         25º20                    M.M. de                    M.M. M.                         de     ...
DON OTTO      U DEPOSITTotal Production: 202 t U @ 0.1 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution +ion excha...
200 km                              24º S                                                                                ...
ACOSTA SITE        U DEPOSITSStrata-bound U mineralizationhosted by grey micaceous pelitesis associated with high contents...
200 km                              24º S                                                                                ...
LOS CHIHUIDOS      U DEPOSITSFeatures of U occurrences:Thickness= 0.10 – 0.20 metersU= 0.21 %V= 0.95 – 1.20 %Cu= 1.00 – 1....
OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS  •   BASAL CHANNEL  •   ROLL FRONT  •   TABULAR ISL URANIUM PERS...
TC PROJECT ON ISL    "Geology favorability, production feasibility and     environmental impact assessment of uranium     ...
LOGICAL FRAMEWORKGO               The country sustainably produces the uranium toA               cover local demand for th...
TC PROJECTS / INTERNATIONAL U COMMUNITY                                          37
U PROJECTS ON ISL STAGE            INVESTMENT- PROFIT         PROJECTS                         0                   U Prosp...
1                                   ISL PROSPECTING PROJECT200 km                                24º S                   ...
1             ISL PROSPECTING PROJECT         The compilation of previous information, field    reconnaissance, the gather...
1           U PROSPECTING AREAS     N                                 oil drilled hole    5 km                            ...
2                                   ISL EXPLORATION PROJECT200 km                                24º S                   ...
2                     U ANOMALIESBased onairborneradiometricsurveys and thefield geologicalreconnaissance, some exploratio...
2                 SCHEMATIC CROSS - SECTIONW                Cerro Solo U deposit       ISL area of interest    E          ...
2   UPWELLING CO2 (U)                        45
2                      DRILLING SURVEY                       N                           drilled hole                     ...
2                 LOGS CROSS - SECTION    SW                                               NE     m    Gamma              ...
3             ISL FEASIBILITY / R & D PROJECT        200 km                              24º S                           ...
3         DON OTTO     U           DEPOSIT    - Type: Sandstone Hosted.    - Subtype: Tabular U-V.                        ...
3                PROJECT PURPOSE     The main purpose is to address studies and pilot      tests to determine the block l...
3                                                                                                                         ...
3                                                   U RESOURCESTOR LA YESERA                                              ...
3            SAMPLING    - Petrological Studies.    - Petrophysical Determinations.    - Chemical Analyes.                ...
3                         STUDIES ON PELITES                                              633 Counts / MinStudies by J-L L...
3                 STUDIES ON PELITES    Natural        U mineral   Natural    Ligth                      Light         U m...
3                     STUDIES ON SANDSTONES                                             3124 Counts / MinStudies by J-L Le...
3                   STUDIES ON SANDSTONES    Natural                    Natural    Light                      Light       ...
3                    REMAKS ON DETERMINATIONS    - The weak compaction of the sediments allowed the      circulation of fl...
3         DRILLING PROGRAM                               North    Mineralized Area     Planned Borehole     Executed Boreh...
3        DRILLING PROGRAM    W                       E        Borehole                                60
3                                DRILLING PROGRAM                                                                         ...
3                                                                           DRILLING PROGRAM                              ...
3             DRILLING PROGRAM RESULTS                            Borehole 2    Mineralized   Reference         Apparent  ...
OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS  •   BASAL CHANNEL  •   ROLL FRONT  •   TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERS...
ARGENTINE URANIUM DEPOSITS                             Uranium Resources – t U                     < 500    500 – 1.000   ...
URANIUM RESOURCES BY DEPOSITS                       CNEA, ARGENTINA                 Cost Category:  USD 260 / kg U     RE...
URANIUM PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA                 1952 - 1997                                             Granite           ...
FINAL CONSIDERATIONSIt can be pointed outthat the existence ofextensive basins withhigh uranium potentialand differentmine...
FINAL CONSIDERATIONSIn this context, theuranium depositsrelated tosandstones, now adays constitute themost attractiveexplo...
FINAL CONSIDERATIONSISL technology wouldconstitute a moresustainable option foruranium production.As an explorationstrateg...
FINAL CONSIDERATIONSThe role of theIAEA TechnicalCooperation ishighly relevant forimproving thecapability ofArgentina tost...
National Atomic                        Energy Commission                THANK YOU!   Luis Lópezlopez@cnea.gov.ar          ...
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SIERRA PINTADA   U DEPOSIT Tuff        Mineralogy: uraninite,             brannerite, coffinite,             uranophane, F...
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  1. 1. International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting onOrigin of Sandstone Uranium Deposits: A Global Perspective SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS AND PERSPECTIVES ON ISL IN ARGENTINA.OUTCOMES OF THE IAEA TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROJECT ARG 03/012-014. Luis López National Atomic lopez @cnea.gov.ar Energy Commission Vienna, 29 May – 1 June 2012 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS • BASAL CHANNEL • ROLL FRONT • TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERSPECTIVES – IAEA TC • PROSPECTING • EXPLORATION • FEASIBILITY / RESEACH & DEVELOPMENT• FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThe uranium miningactivities in Argentinabegan in the 1950s.The systematicexploration led to thediscovery of severaluranium deposits. Airborne radiometric surveys (1950 – 1970) 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONConsequently, sevenmining centres were inoperation in the countryand produced a historicaltotal of 2,600 tons of U. 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION In 1992, Argentina began to import uranium due to economic reasons, situation that progressively led to the closing of national production in 1997. 350 - 300 - USD constant 2009 250 -USD / kg U 200 - 150 - Closing of U 100 - production in Argentina 50 - 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - l l 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2010 2012 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONCurrently, the CNEA, Provincial (Chubut, La Rioja,Santa Cruz), Senior Producers and Junior Companiesare carrying out several uranium projects that havedifferent degrees of development. 6
  7. 7. URANIUM RESOURCES IN ARGENTINA (CNEA) Cost Category:  USD 260 / kg U REASONABLY INFERREDIDENTIFIED RESOURCES ASSURED RESOURCES RESOURCES 8,600 t U 11,000 t U Total 19,600 t U Source: NEA – IAEA Red Book, 2011 (in press) 7
  8. 8. ARGENTINE NPPs a ATUCHA I 357 Mwe b Slightly Enriched U N a c b EMBALSE 648 Mwe Natural U c ATUCHA II (start up 2012 - 2013) 745 Mwe0 1000 km Natural U 8
  9. 9. U DEMAND IN ARGENTINA OPERATION REMAINING DEMAND NPP START OPERATION Atucha I 1974 2012 – 2027 800 t U Embalse 1984 2012 – 2033 1,400 t U Atucha II 2012 – 2013 40 years 3,700 t U(start up 2012 - 2013) CAREM --- 40 years 600 t U Total 6,500 t U Current Consumption: 120 t U per year 9
  10. 10.  - Yellow Cake IMPORTS KAZA, CANADA, CZECH REP- UO2 CONVERSION DIOXITEK S.A. - FUEL FABRICATION CONUAR S.A. 10
  11. 11. OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS • BASAL CHANNEL • ROLL FRONT • TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERSPECTIVES – IAEA TC • PROSPECTING • EXPLORATION • FEASIBILITY / RESEACH & DEVELOPMENT• FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 11
  12. 12. UDEPO PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION 1. Surficial 2. Phosphate 3. Black shale 4. Lignite/coal 5. Carbonate-hosted 6. Collapse-breccia pipe 7. Paleoproterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate 8. Sandstone-hosted 9. Proterozoic unconformity 10. Metasediment-hosted 11. Metasomatite-related 12. Intrusive 13. Granite-related 14. Polymetallic iron oxide breccia complex 15. Volcanic-related 16. Other typesSource: IAEA, 2011 12
  13. 13. SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS IN ARGENTINA Basal channel: Cerro Solo (Chubut province) Los Adobes (Chubut province) Cerro Condor (Chubut province) Roll front: Los Colorados (La Rioja province) Arroyo Perdido (Chubut province) Tabular: Sierra Pintada (Mendoza province) Don Otto (Salta province) Acosta (Salta province) Los Chuhuidos (Neuquen province) Tectonic/ Lithologic Mafic dykes/ sills in Proterozoic sandstones 13
  14. 14. 200 km 24º S CERRO SOLO U DEPOSIT San Jorge Basin (Cretaceous) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Basal channel (U,Mo, Re) 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic 48º S Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Mesozoic-Cenozoic Quaternary volcanics. intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Benítez et al, 1993; Bianchi & Páez, 2005 14
  15. 15. CERRO SOLO U DEPOSITSchematic Geology:Chubut Group - CerroBarcino Formation (K) :tuffs. U U U UChubut Group - LosAdobes Formation (K):fluvial sediments. UFm Cañadón Puelman (J) :andesites. Source: Benítez, 1997 15
  16. 16. CERRO SOLO U DEPOSITMineralalogy: uraninite - pitchblende (organicmatter, pyrite, marcasite), uranophilite (pyrite, barytine), coffinite(pyrite, organic matter). 16
  17. 17. CERRO SOLO U DEPOSITIdentified Resources (< USD 260 / kg U): 9,200 t U.Average Grade: 0.20 % U. 17
  18. 18. 200 km 24º S LOS ADOBES U DEPOSIT & 32º S CERRO CONDOR U DEPOSIT San Jorge Basin 40º S (Cretaceous) Type: Sandstone-hosted Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Cretaceous Triassic Mesozoic Paleozoic Precambrian Paleozoic Subtype: Basal channel 48º S Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Mesozoic-Cenozoic Quaternary volcanics. intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W Source: Fuente & Gayone, 1999 78º 56º S 18
  19. 19. LOS ADOBES U DEPOSITTotal Production: 120 t U @ 0.12 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + IX resins. 19
  20. 20. CERRO CONDOR U DEPOSITTotal Production: 56 t U @ 0.08 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + IX resins. 20
  21. 21. 200 km 24º S LOS COLORADOS U DEPOSIT Paganzo Basin (Carboniferous) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Roll front 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Mesozoic-Cenozoic Quaternary volcanics. Cretaceous-Tertiary 48º Sintrusives Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Belluco et al, 1999; Caudillo Resources, 2012 21
  22. 22. LOS COLORADOS U DEPOSITTotal Production: 55 t U @ 0.064 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + IX resins. 22
  23. 23. 200 km 24º S ARROYO PERDIDO U DEPOSIT San Jorge Basin (Cretaceous) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Roll front ? 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic 48º S Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Mesozoic-Cenozoic Quaternary volcanics. intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Benítez & Marveggio, 2005; López, 2010 23
  24. 24. ARROYO PERDIDO U DEPOSITSW NE m Gamma Gamma Gamma25 SP R SP R SP R T u f f75 F l125 U u v i U a U l U U175 C y 0 200 m U U c l e 24
  25. 25. 200 km 24º S SIERRA PINTADA U DEPOSIT San Rafael Basin (Lower Permian) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype:Tabular (Strata-bound volc.) 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Mesozoic-Cenozoic Quaternary volcanics. Cretaceous-Tertiary 48º Sintrusives Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S 25 Source: Salvarredi, 1999; Navarra, 2001-6; Kleiman, 2012
  26. 26. SIERRA PINTADA U DEPOSIT Total Production: 1,800 t U @ 0.09 – 0.29 % U. System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution + ion exchange resins. Identified Resources (< USD 130 / kg U): 10,100 t U. Average grade: 0.10 % U.Source: NEA-IAEA Red Book, 2011 (in press) 26
  27. 27. 200 km 24º S DON OTTO U DEPOSIT Salta Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Tabular (U, V) 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Gorustovich, 2010; López et al 2010 27
  28. 28. Don Otto 25º20 25º20 M.M. de M.M. M. de Güemesde M. Güemes GÜEMES DON OTTO Depósito de uranio U El Leñadero DEPOSIT Localidad25º40 Los Berthos El Desecho Los Berthos LOS BERTHOS Fallas Emmy 00 55 10 Km 10 Km Sinclinal N Bosquejo geológico del Distrito Tonco Amblayo Bosquejo geológico del Distrito Tonco Amblayo Depósitos modernos Cover Quaternary Depósitos modernos Grupo Payogastilla Tertiary Sediments Grupo Payogastilla 25º30 Subgrupo Santa Bárbara 25º30 Subgrupo Santa Bárbara Cretaceous AMBLAYO Subgrupo Balbuena Tertiary AMBLAYO AMBLAYO Subgrupo Balbuena Basin Subgrupo Pirgua Pedro NICOLÁS P. Subgrupo Pirgua Nicolás Pedro Nicolás Precambrian Formación Puncoviscana Basement Don Otto Formación Puncoviscana DONOtto Don OTTO U Deposit Depósito de uranio Depósito de uranio El Leñadero Town Localidad 25º40 EL Leñadero El LEÑADERO El Desecho Localidad Fallas Fault 25º40 ELDesecho El DESECHOEmmy Fallas 0 5 10 Km Sinclinal Syncline Emmy EMMY 0 5 10 Km Sinclinal 28
  29. 29. DON OTTO U DEPOSITTotal Production: 202 t U @ 0.1 %.System: heap leaching + dilute sulphuric acid solution +ion exchange resins. 29
  30. 30. 200 km 24º S ACOSTA SITE U DEPOSITS Salta Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Tabular (U, Cu, Zn) 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Ferreira et al, 2012 30
  31. 31. ACOSTA SITE U DEPOSITSStrata-bound U mineralizationhosted by grey micaceous pelitesis associated with high contentsof Cu and Zn. 31
  32. 32. 200 km 24º S LOS CHIHUIDOS U DEPOSITS Neuquen Basin (Cretaceous) 32º S Type: Sandstone-hosted Subtype: Tabular (U, V, Cu) 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S Source: Rojas, 1999 32
  33. 33. LOS CHIHUIDOS U DEPOSITSFeatures of U occurrences:Thickness= 0.10 – 0.20 metersU= 0.21 %V= 0.95 – 1.20 %Cu= 1.00 – 1.90 % 33
  34. 34. OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS • BASAL CHANNEL • ROLL FRONT • TABULAR ISL URANIUM PERSPECTIVES – IAEA TC • PROSPECTING • EXPLORATION • FEASIBILITY / RESEACH & DEVELOPMENT• FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 34
  35. 35. TC PROJECT ON ISL "Geology favorability, production feasibility and environmental impact assessment of uranium deposits exploitable by the in situ leaching technology (ISL)" (ARG 3/012 – 14)Associated with the IAEA Regional TC Project “Upgrading ofUranium Exploration, Exploitation and Yellowcake Production Techniques taking Environmental Problems into Account” 35
  36. 36. LOGICAL FRAMEWORKGO The country sustainably produces the uranium toA cover local demand for the nuclear power plantsLPUR High uranium potential areas studied,P within the mining cycle of In Situ Leaching technologyOSEO GeologyU Environmental favourability ProductionT impact Qualified OperativeP and uranium feasibility assessment staff equipmentsU exploration performedT performedS performedI Project managing, applied geological investigation, getting exploration permits,NP drilling and logging, pilot tests, hydrogeological studies, cost analysis,U environmental and aquifer vulnerability studies, fellowships, scientific visits,TS expert missions, purchasing and setting up equipments 36
  37. 37. TC PROJECTS / INTERNATIONAL U COMMUNITY 37
  38. 38. U PROJECTS ON ISL STAGE INVESTMENT- PROFIT PROJECTS 0 U ProspectingGenerative 1 (Neuquina Basin) D 5 EExploration VDiscovery Y U Exploration 2 (San Jorge Basin) EEvaluation 10 e L a O r PPre Feasibility s 15 M Feasibility / R&D EFeasibility 3 (Don Otto Deposit) N 20 TProduction 30 38
  39. 39. 1 ISL PROSPECTING PROJECT200 km 24º S Neuquina Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary) 32º S 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S 39
  40. 40. 1 ISL PROSPECTING PROJECT The compilation of previous information, field reconnaissance, the gathering of logging and sampling data from oil wells, chemical analyses and results interpretation are some of the tasks being performed. 40
  41. 41. 1 U PROSPECTING AREAS N oil drilled hole 5 km 41
  42. 42. 2 ISL EXPLORATION PROJECT200 km 24º S San Jorge Basin (Cretaceous) 32º S 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S 42
  43. 43. 2 U ANOMALIESBased onairborneradiometricsurveys and thefield geologicalreconnaissance, some explorationtargets with ISLpossibilities weredefined. 43
  44. 44. 2 SCHEMATIC CROSS - SECTIONW Cerro Solo U deposit ISL area of interest E CO2 emission water flow Tuffs Fluvial sediments 2 km U Andesites Granites 44
  45. 45. 2 UPWELLING CO2 (U) 45
  46. 46. 2 DRILLING SURVEY N drilled hole mineralised levelThe drilling surveyperformed has 0 500 mgiven encouragingresults:- 3 U mineralizedlevels.- Hypothesis of rollfront deposit type. 46
  47. 47. 2 LOGS CROSS - SECTION SW NE m Gamma Gamma Gamma 25 SP R SP R SP R T u f f 75 F l 125 U u v i U a U l U U 175 C y 0 200 m U U c l e 47
  48. 48. 3 ISL FEASIBILITY / R & D PROJECT  200 km 24º S Don Otto U Deposit (Cretaceous) 32º S 40º S Sedimentary Rocks Quaternary Jurassic Devonian Tertiary Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Cretaceous Mesozoic Paleozoic Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Quaternary volcanics. 48º S Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusives Cretaceous-Tertiary Paleozoic-Mesozoic volcanics intrusives Mesozoic volcanics Precambrian undifferentiated Paleozoic volcanics 54º W 66º W W 78º 56º S 48
  49. 49. 3 DON OTTO U DEPOSIT - Type: Sandstone Hosted. - Subtype: Tabular U-V. 49
  50. 50. 3 PROJECT PURPOSE  The main purpose is to address studies and pilot tests to determine the block leaching feasibility to recover the uranium from the remaining resources of the deposit.  This project is not based on the uranium production itself but on developing a technology that could help for the uranium exploitation of similar deposits located in the district. 50
  51. 51. 3 U RESOURCES SECTOR LA YESERA SECTOR TAPÓN NORTE SECTOR TAPÓN SUR 1 CH.43 Nivel +50 Nivel +50 CH.40 Quebrada del Tapón CH.34 CH.45 CH.36 CH.33 Nivel "0" Nivel "0" CH.26 CH.22 CH.25 CH.27 Nivel -40 Nivel -40 TN-60 ICH.47 CH.46 Chiflón TN-80 II CH.26 CH.25 CH.30 CH.28 CH.19 CH.22 CH.21 CH.20 CH.23 TN-80 III pa Ram Nivel -80 Nivel -80 TN-120 III CH.37 CH.36 TN-120 X TN-120 IX TN-120 VIII TN-120 VII TN-120 VI TN-120 V TN-120 IV TN-120 II CH.38 CH.39 TN-140 III TN-140 II Nivel -120 TN-140 VII TN-160 X TN-160 IX TN-160 VIII TN-180 VII TN-180 VI TN-180 V TN-180 IV TN-180 III TN-180 II SECTOR CENTRAL SECTOR SUR 1 SECTOR NORTE Nivel +50 Nivel +50 0-XVI Nivel "0" Cortaveta C Cortaveta B Cortaveta A O- III a O- IV a Nivel "0" CH.17 CS-40-1 Nivel -40 Nivel -40 CH.16 CS-80-1 CH.5 CH.7 CH.2 Nivel -80 Nivel -80 CS-90-1 Ram CS-100 VII CS-100 V CS-110 IV CS-110 III CS-100 II YACIMIENTO DON OTTO CH.15 pa CH.14 CH.10 CH.13 CH.12 CH.11 DPTO. SAN CARLOS - SALTA Nivel -120 Nivel -120 CORTE VERTICAL DE LABOREOS ESTIMACION DE RESERVAS Al 31-08-81 t.c.f. 0,05% U O 3 8 RAR PR Paño c/explotación Recursos Perspectivas Reservas IR Mined Out 0 50 100 150m Perfil Longitudinal del Yacimiento Don Otto. 3º NIVEL MINERALIZADO Current Identified Resources: 216 t U 51
  52. 52. 3 U RESOURCESTOR LA YESERA SECTOR TAPÓN NORTE RAR PR IR Mined Out Nivel +50 CH.43 CH.40 CH.36 Nivel "0" Nivel -40 TN-60 I TN-80 II TN-80 III R ampa Nivel -80 TN-120 III TN-120 II CH.37 CH.36TN-120 IX TN-120 VIII TN-120 VII TN-120 VI TN-120 V TN-120 IV CH.39 CH.38 Nivel -120 TN-140 III TN-140 II TN-140 VIITN-160 IX TN-160 VIII TN-180 VII TN-180 VI TN-180 V TN-180 IV TN-180 III TN-180 II 52 SE1 SECTOR NORTE
  53. 53. 3 SAMPLING - Petrological Studies. - Petrophysical Determinations. - Chemical Analyes. 53
  54. 54. 3 STUDIES ON PELITES 633 Counts / MinStudies by J-L Lescuyer and R. Sol (AREVA) 54
  55. 55. 3 STUDIES ON PELITES Natural U mineral Natural Ligth Light U mineral U mineral Ultraviolet Ultraviolet Ligth Ligth U mineral 55
  56. 56. 3 STUDIES ON SANDSTONES 3124 Counts / MinStudies by J-L Lescuyer and R. Sol (AREVA) 56
  57. 57. 3 STUDIES ON SANDSTONES Natural Natural Light Light U mineral U mineral Ultraviolet Ultraviolet Ligth Ligth U mineral U mineral 57
  58. 58. 3 REMAKS ON DETERMINATIONS - The weak compaction of the sediments allowed the circulation of fluids enriched in Uranyl (UO2)+2 ions. - The sedimentary environment allowed the precipitation of yellow products both in the preserved porosity (sandstones) and microporosity (pelites).Studies by J-L Lescuyer and R. Sol (AREVA) 58
  59. 59. 3 DRILLING PROGRAM North Mineralized Area Planned Borehole Executed Borehole 1 Km 59
  60. 60. 3 DRILLING PROGRAM W E Borehole 60
  61. 61. 3 DRILLING PROGRAM North Level 0 -40 -160 -140 -80 -160 -120evel 0 -150 -160 -1600 -150 -160 Borehole 4 Borehole 1 Borehole 2 Borehole 3 Referenciashole 4 Emplaz Borehole 5 -160 Cota d Referencias E+20/19+12 Denom Emplazamiento equipo perforación Planne Borehole 5 -160 Cota de impacto E+20/19+12 Denominación sondeo Execut Planned Sc 50 m Executed 0 Scale 61 0 50m.
  62. 62. 3 DRILLING PROGRAM BOREHOLE 3 E 2570 2550 North Level 0 -40 2530 -160 -140 -80 W 3 -160 -120 2510 -150 -160 -160 Level LEVEL 0 24900 Borehole 4 Borehole 1 Borehole 2 -40 Borehole 3 Referencias 22º Emplazamiento equipo perforación Borehole 5 -160 Cota de impacto Referencias E+20/19+12 Denominación sondeo Emplazamiento equipo perforación Planned -80le 5 -160 Cota de impacto E+20/19+12 Denominación sondeo REFERENCE Executed Planned Scale 50 m Executed 0 50m. Mealla Fm. 0 Scale 50m. -120 Yacoraite Fm. 0 20 40 m -160 U mineralization 62
  63. 63. 3 DRILLING PROGRAM RESULTS Borehole 2 Mineralized Reference Apparent Average Grade Layer Level (m) Thickness (m) (% U) 2 - 143 1 0.068 1 - 166 1 0.020 Borehole 4 Mineralized Reference Apparent Average Grade Layer Level (m) Thickness (m) (% U) 3 - 166 1 0.040 2 - 162 1 0.068 63
  64. 64. OUTLINE• INTRODUCTION• SANDSTONE-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS • BASAL CHANNEL • ROLL FRONT • TABULAR• ISL URANIUM PERSPECTIVES – IAEA TC • PROSPECTING • EXPLORATION • FEASIBILITY / RESEACH & DEVELOPMENT FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 64
  65. 65. ARGENTINE URANIUM DEPOSITS Uranium Resources – t U < 500 500 – 1.000 1,000-10,000 10,000 – 100,000 > 100,000 TotalG < 0,03 3 9 65 32 6 115ra 0.03 – 0.10 13 26 96 31 6 172d 0.10 – 1.00 33 106 282 89 7 517es 1.00 – 5.00 5 3 13 10 0 31% > 5.00 0 0 1 0 2 3U Grand Total 54 144 457 162 21 838Source: IAEA, 2009 65
  66. 66. URANIUM RESOURCES BY DEPOSITS CNEA, ARGENTINA Cost Category:  USD 260 / kg U RESOURCES IDENTIFIED UNDISCOVEREDCERRO SOLO 9,200 t U ---SIERRA PINTADA 10,200 t U ---OTHER 200 t U 11,600 t U 19,600 t U0 11,600 t U Source: NEA – IAEA Red Book, 2011 (in press) 66
  67. 67. URANIUM PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA 1952 - 1997 Granite 10% Other sandstone 26% Sierra Pintada 64% Total: 2,600 t USource: NEA-IAEA Red Book, 2011 (in press) 67
  68. 68. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSIt can be pointed outthat the existence ofextensive basins withhigh uranium potentialand differentmineralization modelsconfigures promisingconditions to developnew uraniumresources inArgentina. 68
  69. 69. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSIn this context, theuranium depositsrelated tosandstones, now adays constitute themost attractiveexploration targetsin the country. 69
  70. 70. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSISL technology wouldconstitute a moresustainable option foruranium production.As an explorationstrategy, new surveysshould be addressed toUpper Cretaceous -Tertiary basins,includinghydrogeological studies. 70
  71. 71. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSThe role of theIAEA TechnicalCooperation ishighly relevant forimproving thecapability ofArgentina tostrategically planand efficiently carryout its uraniummining projects. 71
  72. 72. National Atomic Energy Commission THANK YOU! Luis Lópezlopez@cnea.gov.ar 72
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. SIERRA PINTADA U DEPOSIT Tuff Mineralogy: uraninite, brannerite, coffinite, uranophane, Fe and Ti oxides. Sandstone U Source: Salvarredi, 1999 75

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