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1
CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction …………………………………………….2
Chapter 2: Literature review ……………………………………….4
2.1 Vinay and Darbel...
2
Chapter No 1
INTRODUCTION
Thesis Question:
How the translator of animal farm use the theory of Viney and Darbelnet in he...
3
learning a foreign language and then having an access to that substance. The ease of translation
is directly related to ...
4
Chapter No 2
LITERATURE REVIEW:
Translation has always been understood to refer to a written transfer of a message or
me...
5
text. Moreover these are applied in order to see the levels of differences occur in writing in
different languages.
The ...
6
OVERVIEW:
According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, “Translating consists
in reproducing in...
7
Chapter No 3
3.1 INTRODUCTIONTO SOURCE TEXT
Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novel by George Orwell, publishe...
8
Time magazine chose the book as one of the 100 best English-language novels (1923 to 2005); it
also featured at number 3...
9
Chapter No 4
APPLICATION OF THEORIES AND TRANSLATION ANALYSIS
4.1 Analysis With Reference To Vinay And Darbelnet’s Model...
10
Examples
It was a stirring tune, something between “Clementine” and “La cucaracha”.
.»‫کوراشا‬ ‫«الکو‬ ‫آهنگ‬ ‫و‬ »‫«کل...
11
‫بود‬ ‫خشن‬ ‫و‬‫خشک‬ ‫صدایش‬
Beasts of England
‫انگلستان‬ ‫حیوانات‬
Goes upon two legs
‫کنند‬ ‫می‬ ‫حرکت‬ ‫پا‬ ‫دو‬ ‫رو...
12
‫ها‬ ‫کاه‬ ‫روی‬ ‫چارپایان‬
The birds jumped onto their perches.
‫شاخسارها‬ ‫روی‬ ‫پرندگان‬
In succession
‫کردن‬ ‫تکرار...
13
Threw the animals into the wildest excitement
‫داد‬‫هیجان‬ ‫همه‬ ‫به‬
Unfortunately
‫زیاد‬ ‫تاسف‬ ‫با‬
The uproar awoke...
14
Remember also that
‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫این‬ ‫نکته‬ ‫دومین‬
Must not
‫هرگز‬
Drink alcohol
‫نوشیدن‬ ‫مشروب‬
Smoke tobacco
‫کشیدن‬...
15
Picked up the tune
‫کردن‬ ‫همسرایی‬
Passed out of my mind
‫بودم‬ ‫برده‬ ‫خاطر‬ ‫از‬
 Adaptation:
This involves changin...
16
Chapter No 5
5.1 FINDINGS
The translator has successfully created equivalent effect in the translation. The translation...
17
5.2ROLE OF TRANSLATOR
Role of translator is very important as she has to do a very important job-translation of
text. S...
18
CONCLUSION
In a nutshell, we can say that translator has tried her best to convey the sense of a ST. The
translated ver...
19
Vinay, J. -P. and J. Darbelnet (1958/1995) Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A
Methodlology for Translation...
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translation Animal Farm according to Viney and Darbelnet theory

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translation Animal Farm according to Viney and Darbelnet theory

  1. 1. 1 CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction …………………………………………….2 Chapter 2: Literature review ……………………………………….4 2.1 Vinay and Darbelnet’s Model……………………………5 Reasearch Hypothesis ……………………………………….6 Chapter 3……………………………………………………………..7 3.1 Introduction to Source Text……………………………………….7 3.2 Introduction to Target Text………………………………………..8 Chapter 4: Application of Theories and Translation Analysis……….9 4.1 With Respectto Vinay/ Darbelnet Model ………………………...9 Chapter 5………………………………………………………………16 5.1 Findings ……………………………………………………………16 5.2 Role of Translator ………………………………………………….17 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………...18
  2. 2. 2 Chapter No 1 INTRODUCTION Thesis Question: How the translator of animal farm use the theory of Viney and Darbelnet in her translation? how the manner and the style are different in the two languages? Key Words: Viney and Darbelnet's model, animal farm, Mehnush Javahari Thesis statement: Viney and Darbelnet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. They noted the differences and identified the translation strategies and ‘procedure’ in the texts of both the languages i.e. source text and target text. The two general strategies identified by them are: 1. Direct translation 2. Oblique translation Both the strategies comprising seven procedures can be found in the translation of the text Animal Farm into Qale-ye-heyvanat. Translation studies is a new discipline which deals with the theory and phenomena of translation. The nature of translation studies is interdisciplinary or multilingual. It encompasses languages. Lingustics, communication studies, philosophy and cultural studies. The diversity of translation studies makes it interesting, to readers of different culture to take part in it and help the people to understand the wide range of books and journals in different languages. Through ages traslation has been done. In the beginning, Bible was translated but later on, literatures, philosophies, and many other materials of the renowned scholars have been translated. Translation gives an access to the substance, to the reader of a particular culture instead of
  3. 3. 3 learning a foreign language and then having an access to that substance. The ease of translation is directly related to the translator. In everyday language, translation is thought of as a text which is “representation” or “reproduction” of an original one produced in another language. (see House 2001:247) If we look for a definition in a generaldictionary, we can find it described as, “the process of translating words or text from one language to another.” “the written or spoken rendering of the meaning of the word, speech, book, or other text, in another language.” (The New Oxford Dictionary of Translation 1998) It is selected two texts for this project. One is in English language (the source text) and the other is it’s translation in Farsi language (target text). For the purpose of analysis, this project will apply the models, approaches and theories on respective texts, more specifically the translated text. The following novels are selected for the analysis in this project. Novel is Animal Farm by George Orwell's and its translation is Qale-ye-heyvanat by Mehnush Jawahari. METHODOLOGY As the purpose of this study was to analyze the available means in Persian to translate English sentences and their frequencies, we needed some practical and suitable data. It seems that novels and short stories are more appropriate because they include various adventures and dialogs. The story “Animal Farm” by George Orwell (1945) was chosen as a source to identify and analyze Viney and Darbelnet's model. This book has different translations in Persian which are suitable for our aim to deal with different structures used in Persian to translate those sentences. One translation was chosen and then the phrase and sentences were selected in the first three chapters of the original book, afterwards their equivalent structures in the translation was indentified and categorized. This was categorized according to their theories and strategies put forward by Viney and Darbelnet and then they were put in different groups which would be discussed in the following section.
  4. 4. 4 Chapter No 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: Translation has always been understood to refer to a written transfer of a message or meaning from one language to another. For a formal definition, Dubois says “translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences” (in Bell, 1991: 5). The theoretical framework for Translation theories, models and analogies has to be drawn, for the understanding of the Translation system, and to determine its validity for application in real life translation. The explanation of the system is the theory of the scientist which, when passed on to the other, is realized as a model. A theory is an explanation of a phenomenon, the perception of the system and order of something observed. It has no tangible manifestation. It is an idea which constitutes the internal representation of phenomenon. A model is, in contrast, an external manifestation, rather than an internal representation of the explanation; a realization of the theory/pedagogy. It exists as a tangible object or form which ‘stands’ for the idea embodied in the theory/pedagogy. Translation theory, in fact, limits its activities to the level of technique or that of method, while what is required is a principled approach from which the rest can flow. In order to assess that how far the translator has succeeded in making the text to meet all the standards of textuality, different translation theories, models and approaches are applied on the text. The applied theories, models and approaches help to check the validity of the translated
  5. 5. 5 text. Moreover these are applied in order to see the levels of differences occur in writing in different languages. The model selected to analyze the target text in present project is;  Vinay and Darbelnet’s Model 2.1 VINAY AND DARBELNET’S MODEL: Vinay and Darbelnet’s comparative stylistic analysis was based on French and English language text, they compared the differences between English and French. They noted different strategies, procedures and difference between the languages. There were two different translation strategies found by them i.e. the direct translation and the oblique translation or ‘literal vs. free’. These categories are noted during the analysis of ST and TT.  Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible strategies:  Literal translation or ‘word-for-word’ translation The direct translation covers borrowing, claque and literal translation aspects.  Borrowing – the SL word is transferred directly to the TL, such as the Computer  Calque, where the SL expression is literally transferred to the TL, such as the English character ‘Snow White’ in Persian becomes ‘‫برفی‬ ‫,’سفید‬ or ‘wireless’ would be transferred as ‘‫سیم‬ ‫.’بی‬  Oblique (free) translation covers four strategies: transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation.  Transposition – interchange of parts of speech that don’t affect the meaning, a clouse phrase ( as soon as Iget up,‫)ـــــــــــــ‬ for a phrase (‫شدن‬ ‫بیدار‬ ‫محض‬ ‫)به‬  Modulation – reversal of point of view (it isn’t expensive / it’s cheap)  Equivalence – same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is particularly useful for proverbs and idioms (‘‫بود‬ ‫دانا‬ ‫که‬ ‫هر‬ ‫بود‬ ‫’توانا‬ is recognizable in English as ‘Knowledge is power’)  Adaptation – cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant (‘ ‫جمع‬‫ه‬ ’ for ‘weekend’)
  6. 6. 6 OVERVIEW: According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source- language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”. This project is about translation analysis of Animal Farms (English text) by George Orwell's translated as Qale-ye-heyvanat (Farsi text) by Mehnush Jawahari. Although the manner and the style of English language differs to some extent as compared to Farsi language, even if the translator tries her best to retain authenticity. In this project, it is going to analyze that how the manner and the style are different in the two languages. "To translate, one must have a style of his own, for otherwise the translation will have no rhythm or nuance, which come from the process of artistically thinking through and moulding the sentences; they cannot be reconstituted by piecemeal imitation. The problem of translation is to retreat to a simpler tenor of one's own style and creatively adjust this to one's author." Research Hypothesis: The translation theories of Vinay and Darbelnet is applicable on the target text. It will be analyzed whether this hypothesis is true or not. Since the Persian language is rich, it is usually evidant that no single model is applied completely. The
  7. 7. 7 Chapter No 3 3.1 INTRODUCTIONTO SOURCE TEXT Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novel by George Orwell, published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and then on into the Stalin era in the Soviet Union. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude that was critically shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War. The Soviet Union, he believed, had become a brutal dictatorship, built upon a cult of personality and enforced by a reign of terror. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell described Animal Farm as a satirical tale against Stalin ("un conte satirique contre Staline"), and in his essay "Why I Write" (1946), he wrote that Animal Farm was the first book in which he had tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, "to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole". The original title was Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, though the subtitle was dropped by U.S. publishers for its 1946 publication and subsequently all but one of the translations during Orwell's lifetime omitted it. Other variations in the title include: A Satire and A Contemporary Satire. Orwell suggested the title Union des républiques socialistes animales for the French translation, which recalled the French name of the Soviet Union, Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, and which abbreviates to URSA, the Latin for "bear", a symbol of Russia. Orwell wrote the book from November 1943 to February 1944, when the wartime alliance with the Soviet Union was at its height and Stalin was regarded highly by the British people and intelligentsia, a circumstance that Orwell hated. It was initially rejected by a number of British and American publishers, including one of Orwell's own, Victor Gollancz. Its publication was thus delayed, though it became a great commercial success when it did finally appear partly because the Cold War so quickly followed World War II.
  8. 8. 8 Time magazine chose the book as one of the 100 best English-language novels (1923 to 2005); it also featured at number 31 on the Modern Library List of Best 20th-Century Novels. It won a Retrospective Hugo Award in 1996, and is also included in the Great Books of the Western World selection. 3.2 INTRODUCTIONTO TARGET TEXT Ghale-ye-heyvanat is the translation of George Orwell the novel Animal Farm. It is translated by Mahnush Jawahari. She was a talented and principled lady. She never compromised for wrong reasons. Jawahari had a taste for poetry and essay writing since her earlier age. Her essays were published in the local feminine magazines, regularly. She abridged and translated Animal Farm a few years back in a fluent and easy language. Translation is an art and a good translation calls for the fact that the translator is a creator too. She is a story writer as well a translator. She has a command over language and expression.
  9. 9. 9 Chapter No 4 APPLICATION OF THEORIES AND TRANSLATION ANALYSIS 4.1 Analysis With Reference To Vinay And Darbelnet’s Model Vinay and Darbelnet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. They noted the differences and identified the translation strategies and ‘procedure’ in the texts of both the languages i.e. source text and target text. The two general strategies identified by them are: 1. Direct translation 2. Oblique translation Both the strategies comprising seven procedures can be found in the translation of the text Animal Farm into Ghale-ye-Hyvanat. Some aspects of Vinay and Darbelnet’s model were found in the TT, such as:  Borrowing: The SL word is transferred directly to the TL. There are number of words seen in the translation of which are borrowed directly from ST.
  10. 10. 10 Examples It was a stirring tune, something between “Clementine” and “La cucaracha”. .»‫کوراشا‬ ‫«الکو‬ ‫آهنگ‬ ‫و‬ »‫«کلمانتین‬ ‫ریتم‬ ‫بین‬ ‫بود‬ ‫چیزی‬ ‫آن‬ ‫نوای‬  Calque: This is a special kind of borrowing where the sourcelanguage expression or structure is transferred in a literal translation. This technique is not observed in the TT. Was not found in the first chapter of translation.  Literal Translation: This is ‘word for word’ translation which is referred as being most common between the languages of same family and culture. Some part of the first chapter of the novel is translated literally: Example: Rats had creptout of their holes. ‫خزیده‬ ‫بیرون‬ ‫به‬ ‫هایشان‬ ‫سوراخ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ها‬ ‫موش‬.‫بودند‬ The votes was taken at once. .‫شد‬ ‫گرفته‬ ‫رای‬ ‫بالدرنگ‬ Good night ‫بخیر‬ ‫شب‬ His voice was hoarse.
  11. 11. 11 ‫بود‬ ‫خشن‬ ‫و‬‫خشک‬ ‫صدایش‬ Beasts of England ‫انگلستان‬ ‫حیوانات‬ Goes upon two legs ‫کنند‬ ‫می‬ ‫حرکت‬ ‫پا‬ ‫دو‬ ‫روی‬ Whatever goes upon four legs ‫می‬ ‫حرکت‬ ‫پا‬ ‫چهار‬ ‫روی‬ ‫چه‬ ‫هر‬‫کند‬ In all of the above example ‘word for word’ translation is adopted however the meaning is fully preserved.  Trasposition: this is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense. Examples: The horses whinnied ‫اسبان‬ ‫شیهه‬ The straw ‫کاهها‬ The ducks quacked ‫مرغابیان‬ ‫کواک‬ ‫کواک‬ The animals settled down in the straw
  12. 12. 12 ‫ها‬ ‫کاه‬ ‫روی‬ ‫چارپایان‬ The birds jumped onto their perches. ‫شاخسارها‬ ‫روی‬ ‫پرندگان‬ In succession ‫کردن‬ ‫تکرار‬ The cows lowed ‫گاوان‬ ‫کشیدن‬ ‫ماق‬ The sheep bleated ‫گوسفندان‬‫بع‬ ‫بع‬  Modulation: It changes the semantic and point of view of the sourcelanguage.most part of the first chapter is traslated in this way. Singing for themselves ‫کردن‬ ‫بازخوانی‬ The whole farm ‫مزرعه‬‫حیوانات‬ ‫تمام‬ Beasts of England ‫مرغزار‬ ‫حیوانات‬ ‫همه‬
  13. 13. 13 Threw the animals into the wildest excitement ‫داد‬‫هیجان‬ ‫همه‬ ‫به‬ Unfortunately ‫زیاد‬ ‫تاسف‬ ‫با‬ The uproar awoke Mr Jones, who sprang out of bed and let fly a charge of Number 6 shot into the darkness ‫کر‬ ‫در‬‫هوایی‬ ‫تیر‬ ‫شش‬ ‫و‬ ‫پرید‬ ‫بیرون‬ ‫تخت‬ ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫پرید‬ ‫خواب‬ ‫از‬ ‫همهمه‬ ‫صدای‬ ‫از‬ ‫جونز‬ ‫آقای‬‫د‬ I merely repeat ‫است‬ ‫این‬ ‫من‬ ‫تاکید‬ ‫تنها‬ I am old and my voices is hoarse ‫همچنین‬ ‫به‬ ‫نیز‬ ‫ام‬ ‫حنجره‬ ‫تارهای‬ ‫و‬ ‫ام‬ ‫شده‬ ‫پیر‬ ‫که‬ ‫اگرچه‬ It is called ‫سرود‬ ‫این‬ ‫نام‬ Remember always your duty of enmity towards man and all his ways ‫هیچ‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫انگارید‬ ‫خود‬ ‫دشمن‬ ‫همیشه‬ ‫را‬ ‫آدم‬‫نخورید‬ ‫را‬ ‫او‬ ‫فریب‬ ‫ترفندی‬ An enemy ‫دشمنان‬ Whatever has wings is a friend ‫است‬ ‫دوستان‬ ‫از‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫بال‬ ‫دو‬ ‫هرچی‬
  14. 14. 14 Remember also that ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫این‬ ‫نکته‬ ‫دومین‬ Must not ‫هرگز‬ Drink alcohol ‫نوشیدن‬ ‫مشروب‬ Smoke tobacco ‫کشیدن‬ ‫سیگار‬ ‫یا‬ ‫پیپ‬ It was agreed by an overwhelming majority that rats were comrades. ‫دانستند‬ ‫دوستان‬ ‫جمله‬ ‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫ها‬ ‫آن‬ ‫آراء‬ ‫اکثریت‬ ‫تصویب‬ ‫با‬ Major continued ‫گرفت‬ ‫سر‬ ‫از‬ ‫سخن‬ ‫باز‬ ‫میجر‬  Equivalence: It refers to where language describes the same situation by different stylistic of structure means. It is particularly useful in traslating idioms and proverbs. Example: Cleared his throat ‫کرد‬ ‫هایی‬ ‫سرفه‬ ‫تک‬
  15. 15. 15 Picked up the tune ‫کردن‬ ‫همسرایی‬ Passed out of my mind ‫بودم‬ ‫برده‬ ‫خاطر‬ ‫از‬  Adaptation: This involves changing the cultural reference, when a situation in source culture does not exist in target culture. Example: A few of the words ‫بیتی‬ ‫چند‬ I have little more to say ‫بکشانم‬ ‫اطناب‬ ‫به‬ ‫را‬ ‫کالم‬ ‫خواهم‬ ‫می‬ ‫باز‬
  16. 16. 16 Chapter No 5 5.1 FINDINGS The translator has successfully created equivalent effect in the translation. The translation fulfills all the requirements of a good translation given by Roman Jacobson. The translator has adopted a natural and easy form of expression which is useful for the readers with insufficient background of Persian language. The translator has tried enough to avoid deviation from the ST structure. In TT, ‘word for word’ translation was scarcely present during the translation but mostly she has done ‘sense for sense’ translation. TT does seem to be literally translated but actually it attains the nearest possible translation, so that students could be familiar with the message conveyed in the ST. At some places an awkward effect is produced in TT because of the semantic translation. The translator has tried to keep the TT readers close to the source text culture. Moreover, the meaning has been kept as close as possible to the semantic and syntactic structures of the original. The translation conforms to Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation shift approach. In translational shift approach, all aspects of Vinay and Darbelnet’s model were applicable on the TT. (Borrowing, Calque, Literal translation, Transposition, Modulation, Equivalance and Adaptation) The translator fulfilled the role as an agent of reconciliation, and a mediator. She tried to bridge up the gaps present in the ST, recreate the text and maintain the structure to help the reader to understand. She also tried to maintain the meaning and maintains the act of communication. A translator stands between the S.T and TT. She is the mediator between two languages and two cultures. Translator has omitted so many lines and words while translating to resolve the conflict and convey the message. During the application it became clear that no model was perfect or universal. From every model some aspects were applicable and some not.
  17. 17. 17 5.2ROLE OF TRANSLATOR Role of translator is very important as she has to do a very important job-translation of text. She has to keep in mind his role while translating the text. The role of translator, from the time of Cicero was ambiguous. According Cicero a translator must be either an interpreter or a rhetorician but according to Savory and Reiss, there are two types of translator; Technical translator: who is concerned with content. Literary translator: who is concerned with form. Other writers have stated that technical translation is literal and literary translation is free and vice versa. But all the discussions, sum ups the main points of role of translator as an agent of reconciliation, and a mediator. 1. A translatir tries to bridge up the gaps present in the original aource text. 2. He tries to recreate the text and maintain the structure to help the reader to understand. 3. He tries to maintain the meaning and maintains the act of communication. 4. A translator stands between the S.T and TT. He is the mediator between two languagesand two cultures. 5. He reconciles the signs, which stands as ymbols in one culture and is devoid in anotherculture. 6. He tries to resolve the conflict and conveys the message. He (translator) is likeambassador between two cultures. 7. He first decodes the S.T and then encodes it in TT.
  18. 18. 18 CONCLUSION In a nutshell, we can say that translator has tried her best to convey the sense of a ST. The translated version Ghale-ye-heyvanat is a successful effort on the part of ,as it conveys the same theme of the TT by Margaret Mitchell. As every theory has its ownprinciple, in the same way on any text any specific theory cannot be applied. To some extent it is impossible to fulfill every principle of any model during its application on TT. So, our application of Vinay and Darbelent models on our TT proves partially successful. Further the translator has played her role as an agent of communication and she is successful in fulfilling the gap between two cultures. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hatim, b. and J. Munday (2004) Translation: An Advanced Resource Book, London and Newyork: Routledge. Jakobson, R. (1959/2004) ‘On linguistic aspects of translation’, in L. Venuti (ed.) (2004), pp. 138-43. Munday, J. (2012) Introducing translation studies, USA ana Canada: Routledge. pp. 85-109
  19. 19. 19 Vinay, J. -P. and J. Darbelnet (1958/1995) Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodlology for Translation, translated and edited by Juan Sager and Marie-Jo Hamel, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Original French published 1958 as Stylistique comparee du francais et de l’anglais: Methode de traduction, Paris: Didier.
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