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Information Resources 1

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Power Point Presentation By Patient Counseling Team, Alexandria, Egypt. Presented in February 2009. Divided in four parts. This is part 1.

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Information Resources 1

  1. 3. Information Resources Satisfying the Pharmacists' Qualification Needs
  2. 4. <ul><li>Would you please write down two questions you have in mind and want to know where to get the answers from??? </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li>What is the reason for your search???!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>How would you mostly manage it ??!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Would you categorize your question in relation to “types of pharmaceutical information” ???!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul>
  4. 7. Strategies for Evaluation of Information Requests
  5. 8. <ul><ul><li>Receive the enquiry: Note contact details (background information, i.e. name, status, phone number….etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine and clarify the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate (appraise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate an answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate the response </li></ul></ul>Systematic search approach in dealing with an inquiry:
  6. 9. To carry out medicines' information provision roles effectively pharmacists need to know HOW TO
  7. 10. Find Information Evaluate Information Put into Practice
  8. 11. <ul><li>Search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In practice, when we attempt to find information relevant to a clinical problem our goal is to find the most useful information in the shortest time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usefulness of information = (Relevance * validity) / Work to access </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary sources relevant to the topic should be consulted first , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then progress via secondary sources to locate primary literature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because journal coverage varies with different secondary systems, it is important to use more than one secondary source for a thorough search </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Primary sources Tertiary sources Secondary sources Types Of Information Resources
  11. 14. <ul><li>Publication of original research that has not been interpreted or changed by others </li></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  12. 15. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current & original information </li></ul></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  13. 16. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of scientific methods and statistics is needed to properly interpret the information </li></ul></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  14. 17. <ul><li>When to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When looking for the most up-to-date information </li></ul></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  15. 18. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific journal articles which report results of case studies, research or clinical trials </li></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  16. 27. <ul><li>Where to find primary literature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality (peer-reviewed) resources in particular relevance to pharmacy include: </li></ul></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  17. 28. <ul><li>Where to find primary literature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pharmaceutical Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annals of Pharmacotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Journal of Pharmacy Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Journal of Health-Systems Pharmacy </li></ul></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  18. 30. <ul><li>Resources which provide access to primary literature </li></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  19. 31. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide efficient access to primary literature </li></ul></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  20. 32. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users need to be familiar with searching electronic databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lag time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database scope </li></ul></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  21. 33. <ul><li>When to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you need to find primary literature </li></ul></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  22. 34. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing & abstracting databases such as the PubMed </li></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  23. 35. <ul><li>Collection of data & concepts drawn from primary literature </li></ul>Tertiary Literature !!!
  24. 36. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient & easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is usually well established </li></ul></ul>Tertiary Literature !!!
  25. 37. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information may bee too old to be useful </li></ul></ul>Tertiary Literature !!!
  26. 38. <ul><li>When to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you need to find background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you need a quick answer </li></ul></ul>Tertiary Literature !!!
  27. 39. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Reference books </li></ul><ul><li>Drug monograph collections </li></ul><ul><li>Review articles </li></ul>Tertiary Literature !!!
  28. 40. Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice <ul><li>Evaluation tips !!! </li></ul>
  29. 41. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AHFS Drug Information </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  30. 42. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martindale : the complete drug reference </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  31. 43. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Merck Manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.merck.com /pubs/ </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  32. 44. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive pharmacy review </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  33. 45. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British National Formulary (BNF) </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  34. 46. <ul><li>Designed as a digest for rapid reference & it may NOT always contain ALL the information necessary for prescribing & dispensing </li></ul><ul><li>It includes key information on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispensing and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration of medicines </li></ul></ul>**British National Formulary** (BNF)
  35. 47. <ul><li>Core resources on medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See also, the WHO model formulary 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http:// www.who.int/emlib/ModelList.aspx?Language = EN&MdType =FORMULARY </li></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  36. 48. <ul><li>Pharmacology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodman and Gilman’s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  37. 49. <ul><li>Pharmacology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lippincott’s clinical pharmacology </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  38. 50. <ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockely’s Drug Interactions </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  39. 51. <ul><li>Adverse drug reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myeler’s Side Effects of Drugs </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  40. 52. <ul><li>Pharmacotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avery’s Drug Treatment </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  41. 53. <ul><li>Pharmacotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  42. 54. <ul><li>Pharmacotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics </li></ul></ul>Key Tertiary Drug Information Resources for Pharmacy Practice
  43. 56. <ul><li>They usually contain more current information about a specific topic than textbooks </li></ul>Reviews & Systematic Reviews
  44. 58. How is a Review Made ??!!
  45. 59. How is a Review Made ??!!
  46. 60. How is a Review Made ??!!
  47. 61. How is a Review Made ??!!
  48. 62. Where to Find Systematic Reviews??
  49. 63. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cochrane Database </li></ul>
  50. 64. <ul><li>Reactive: </li></ul><ul><li>Information or advice given by the pharmacist in response to questions or enquiries about medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive (active): </li></ul><ul><li>The preparation of newsletters, bulletins, websites, etc. in an attempt to educate or raise awareness of key therapeutic issues </li></ul>Drug Information Provision
  51. 65. <ul><li>Consult their peers </li></ul><ul><li>Expert opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out a literature search </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical industry representatives </li></ul>How Do Healthcare workers Mostly Manage Their Information Needs ?!!!
  52. 66. <ul><li>The major disadvantage of making clinical decisions based on expert opinions is the susceptibility of the opinion to bias , as it is NOT based on systematically collected information </li></ul>Expert opinions !!!!
  53. 67. <ul><li>Formulate answerable questions, </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and acquire the best evidence to answer the question, </li></ul><ul><li>Critically appraise the evidence for its validity, impact and applicability </li></ul>Carry out a literature search ???!!!!
  54. 68. <ul><li>Integrate the findings with clinical expert and patient factors to extract a &quot;clinical bottom line&quot; or answer </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the four previous steps for effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul>Carry out a literature search ???!!!!
  55. 69. <ul><ul><li>Choice of therapy (including indications and contraindications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration and dosage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product information, availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul></ul>Most Frequent Categories of Enquiry Received by Pharmacists
  56. 70. <ul><ul><li>Drugs in breastfeeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of tablets and other dosage forms </li></ul></ul>Most Frequent Categories of Enquiry Received by Pharmacists
  57. 71. <ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical (stability, compatibility, formulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacology (including pharmacokinetics) </li></ul></ul>Most Frequent Categories of Enquiry Received by Pharmacists
  58. 72. <ul><li>Before using the internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/credibility/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// library.albany.edu/usered/webeval / </li></ul></ul>The Internet
  59. 73. <ul><li>Welcome to internet for medicine: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.vts.intute.ac.uk /he/tutorial/medic </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.vts.intute.ac.uk /he/tutorial/health </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.vts.intute.ac.uk/acl/tutorial/wellbeing </li></ul>The Internet
  60. 74. <ul><li>Before using the internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become familiar with search techniques and the range of information available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan your search strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use sites you know are trustworthy and that give details of who produces them and when they were last updated </li></ul></ul>The Internet
  61. 75. <ul><li>Before using the internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the need to critically evaluate resources you find on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish who is responsible for the resource and what expertise or qualifications they have in field </li></ul></ul>The Internet
  62. 76. <ul><li>Before using the internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't use information from a site that is not convincingly authoritative (this could have disastrous consequences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware that the internet can be volatile – information can change or disappear without warning </li></ul></ul>The Internet
  63. 80. <ul><li>One of the most popular is provided by the Health on the Net (HON) Foundation, a non-profit organization founded in 1995 whose mission is to guide Web users to sound, reliable information </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.hon.ch/home.html </li></ul>Quality of Information on The Internet
  64. 81. <ul><li>Wikipedia !!! </li></ul>Quality of Information on The Internet
  65. 82. Problems with Wikipedia <ul><li>Many articles are written anonymously , </li></ul><ul><li>Many contributors are students still studying the very topics about which they write, </li></ul>
  66. 83. <ul><li>Some Wikipedia authors self - identify as &quot; pre - hospital care workers, &quot; and </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can purposefully add misinformation </li></ul>Problems with Wikipedia
  67. 87. <ul><li>Conclusions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia has a more narrow scope, is less complete, and has more errors of omission than the comparator database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia may be a useful point of engagement for consumers, but is not authoritative and should ONLY be a supplemental source of drug information </li></ul></ul>
  68. 88. <ul><li>http :// www . medscape . com / viewarticle / 584450_1 </li></ul>
  69. 89. <ul><li>Selected Internet Sites </li></ul>
  70. 90. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Annals of Pharmacotherapy </li></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  71. 93. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>International Journal of Pharmacy Practice </li></ul>Primary Literature !!!
  72. 95. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The PubMed Database </li></ul>Secondary Literature !!!
  73. 105. Reviews at PubMed

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