Psychology of gender

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  • Sex, gender, and sexuality are interlinked
  • Psychology of gender

    1. 1. Psychology of Gender
    2. 2. “Aik Insaan ki Tasveer Banayen”
    3. 3. Is Gender Important?
    4. 4. Gender Development
    5. 5. PRIMO Diamond (2006) proposed • gender pattern --- how a person behaves in comparison to others in society and culture; • reproductive considerations --- what are the reproductive capabilities, aspirations, and actualities; • identity --- how a person views himself in regard to gender and sex; • mechanisms --- abilities to experience and perform typical features of sex; and • sexual orientation --- type of sexual and romantic partner toward whom one is attracted.
    6. 6. “One is sex and one does gender” (Diamond, 2002, p. 323)
    7. 7. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY Gender Development
    8. 8. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY Sexual Development • BIOLOGICAL • BINARY •GENITALS • BRAIN • HORMONAL • CHROMOSOMAL • REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    9. 9. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY Sexual Deviance HERMAPHRODITE INTERSEXED
    10. 10. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY HERMAPHRODITE INTERSEXED Gender Development SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF SEX • GENDER IDENTITY • GENDER ROLE (intra-role and inter-role conflict) • GENDER TYPING • GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES (Sexism, gender stereotypes, gender discrimination)
    11. 11. GENDERSEX HERMAPHRODITE INTERSEXED Gender Deviance SEXUALITY GID TGTS
    12. 12. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY HERMAPHRODITE INTERSEXED GID MtF-TGMtF-TS Sexuality Development • SEXUAL ORIENTATION • SEXUAL AROUSAL
    13. 13. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY HERMAPHRODITE INTERSEXED GID MtF-TGMtF-TS Sexual Orientation BISEX HOMO TRANSVESTITE
    14. 14. GENDERSEX SEXUALITY HERMAPHRODITE PSEUDO-HERM GID MtF-TGMtF-TS Culture Based Deviance (Hijra) BISEX HOMO TRANSVESTITE
    15. 15. How You Became Aware of Your Gender and Gender Differences? (any incident)
    16. 16. How Gender Develops?
    17. 17. Socializing Agents • Parental Role • Peers • School • Media • Religion • Culture • Neighbourhood (geographical location) • Sexual Experiences
    18. 18. Developmental Trajectory • 2-3 years (objective) • 3-4 (gender identity, general outlook, similarities/differences) • 5-7 (gender constancy, gender invariance) • By 7-8 years (sexual preferences) • Adolescence (puberty, sexual orientation, abstract concept)
    19. 19. Theoretical Perspectives (Gender Differences And Gender Development)
    20. 20. Biological Perspective Genes • 20-48% role • Environment ---52-80% • Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Women (CAIS) --- XY chromosome but female genitals because of insensitivity to androgen • no effect of chromosome --- person can still develop female gender role because of sex assigned on the basis of genitals
    21. 21. Cont… Sexual Deviance (hermaphrodite/intersexed) • Dany-dash syndrome --- XY • Duplication of short arm of X chromosome in XY genotype • Testicular Feminization Syndrome --- high level testosterone • 5 alpha-reductase Deficiency Syndrome --- deficiency of hormone (dihydrotestesterone) • Klinefelter’s Sydrome –- XXY • Turners’ Syndrome --- XO • exposure to high androgen level to the female foetus • Cloacal extrophy
    22. 22. Cont… Hormones • Androgens and estrogens • Less level of androgen in men effect sexual behaviour • High testosterone in women --- more spatial skills (but not in men) Does hormones effect cognitive abilities? • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in female child --- exposure to androgen in prenatal stage • More spatial ability in girls • Playing with male toys • More active • Career oriented • Less interest infants and having children • Homosexuality • Can have male genitals
    23. 23. Brain areas (dimorphic) •Men --- right hemisphere (men’s cognitive abilities are more strongly localised) – more lateralization in men – Brain damage in specific areas effect men more (right --- spatial abilities; left – verbal abilities) •Women --- both (more bilateral) – Corpus callosum in women is larger – Emotions are right hemisphere controlled and cognitive abilities in left – Women use left hemisphere more in processing emotions
    24. 24. Psychodynamic • Phallic stage --- 3-6 years • By age 5 --- develop gender identity • Fantasize about genitals and parents ---- resolution of feelings ---- start identifying with one of the parent --- internalize values of that parent ---- exhibit same behaviour • Gender identity is genital identity (dichotomous) • If the child fails to accept his/ her genitals ---- will fail to accept being male or female Criticism ---- blind child cannot see genitals and see social aspects of gender • Unconscious and semiconscious fantasies is the process of linking gender identity with gender role
    25. 25. • Castration anxiety--- identify with fathers • Object choice (wanting someone, mother) changes to object identity (wanting to be like someone, father) • Becoming like father is like achieving mothers • Earlier identify both --- more with mothers • Gender identity depends upon with whom he identify more • Girls --- Earlier they have for both parents • Gender construction is difficult for boys • Society plays a role ---- valuing male for power and choice
    26. 26. • Identify-disidentify • A ‘watchful, protective’ father, typically in conjunction with a sufficiently ‘attuned’ mother able to recognize her son’s masculinity. • Fear of heteronormativity (not castration anxiety) leads to Separation-individuation process
    27. 27. Social learning theory Observation Differential reinforcement (Bailey & Zucker, 1995; Mischel, 1978) – Teaching by parents – Pressure by people – Institutions to behave in certain way Identification ---- Through observation start associating with parents considering them as powerful, effective and having control over rewards (mother dressing up --- father appreciating)
    28. 28. • Begin to value gender appropriate behaviours --- learn to apply label for themselves • Gender identity --- self- label • Acquisition of gender appropriate behaviours ---- regulated by cognitive process i.e., actual performance of behaviour depends upon reinforcement histories • Modeling of a behaviour depends upon – Positive relationship with model – Positive consequences of model’s behaviour – Model is powerful – Same sex model and have gender role congruence • Models change with change in norms
    29. 29. Gender Deviance Father absent (physically, emotionally, or socially) – Father feels that child is rejecting him and become psychologically absent from the child’s life • Encouragement and appreciation for showing cross- gendered behaviour; lack of discouragement; appearance may be a triggering factor • Parents’ desire of daughter • No male peers --- In school teased (less gender based experiences) • Have female friends (learning cross-gendered behaviour) • Child believes he likes girl things so he is a girl Remedy • Parents’ role is important ---- making gender typed activities
    30. 30. Gender Role Socialization Theory • Based on social learning perspective • Different people and objects (act as role models) reward child to fit in gender-role norms • Emphasize sex differences • Actual sex differences may not present but appear to be • Response bias higher in self-report measures • Learn gender roles based on social expectations e.g. differences in spatial abilities in instructed and non- instructed situation • Differences in emotional display (low-power vs. high power emotions) --- motives ere important
    31. 31. Cont…. Agents of socialization • Parents – Differential treatment --- more by fathers – Emotion – Gender-role beliefs • Other people – Peers (Harris’s theory on group socialization) ---Generalization from home to outside (size of peer group differ) – Siblings --- sex typing – Neighborhood – Teachers • Toys • Books • Television
    32. 32. Social Role Theory • Difference in gender roles leads to gender differences in behaviour • Societal role structures influence behaviour --- abstract conditions of society than concrete way of environment effecting behaviour • Division of labour – Men --- agentic; Women --- Communal – Men --- more powerful; women --- relationship oriented – Men --- millitary role; women --- nursing role – Differential status • Biosocial theory (Wood and Eagly, 2002) --- hunting in women is hindered by reproductive qualities
    33. 33. Cognitive developmental theory • Child’s active role in structuring the world • Child view of reality is different from adult (Piaget) --- qualitative difference • Gender is physical category based on anatomy (Kohlberg) • Children do not have permanent gender identities until the concept of conservation emerge (5-7 years) i.e., gender does not change if someone plays with trucks or dolls • By 3 years develop gender identity --- by hearing label from others, but don’t know – gender never change – every one has gender – gender differences are physical/ anatomical
    34. 34. • Till develops conservation concept • Once develop stable gender identities ---- prefer gender typed activities (I am a boy, therefore I like boy things, behaving like boy is rewarding) • Start identifying with father because he is like him and like other men • Same for girls but they are not as typed as boys ---- can identify with both --- men are more powerful According to Kohlberg (1968) 1. Gender Constancy may not emerge still child develops gender typing
    35. 35. Cont… • Social cognitive perspective (Bandura, 1986 ) – Interaction of cognition and environment – Early role of environment in rewarding and punishing that helps in developing gender identity (gender label) – Gradually children shift from external to internal standards
    36. 36. Gender Schema Theory Schemas • Gender Schematic --- apply gender category in everything to make decisions – Divide world in masculine and feminine categories • Gender aschematic --- Androgyny • Gender is pervasive dichotomy that guides our behaviour (Bem, 1981) • Helps in processing information • Social learning helps in developing schemas and cognitive processing (encoding) helps in maintaining these
    37. 37. Cont… • Cross-gendered individuals can also be gender schematic • People prefer to act as per their gender that depends upon how much they are gender typed
    38. 38. Biased-interaction Theory • A person may be predisposed biologically (biased- predisposition) to develop gendered behaviours • Role models are very important to influence development • goodness of fit • Child explores similarities and differences with other (same-different theory)
    39. 39. Attachment Theories Depends upon quality of mother child relationship (not separation) Baby boy’s ‘internal working models’ are gendered from the beginning of life that are constructed through interactions with parents who treat him as ‘male’ in relation to their own gendered selves Gender development is facilitated by same sex parent.
    40. 40. Cognitive theories of Sex Typing Labeling After labeling themselves as masculine or feminine, individuals may then try to act in accordance with these identities and behave in other masculine or feminine ways as well (Lippa, 2002).
    41. 41. Gender Analysis

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