zoopraxiscopeInvented 1867 – moving photos watched through a slit
Motion Pictures• Louis Lumiere invented 1896: portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe
Le Voyage Dans La Lune (A Trip To The Moon) (1902)• First “Motion” picture
The Great Train Robbery (1903)• The first narrative film
The Perils of Pauline (beginning in 1• A series of short suspenseful serials
The Birth of a Nation (1915)• The first American epic film
Intolerance (1916)• One of the greatest epic films of all time
Broken Blossoms (1919)• A silent film masterpiece, dealing with controversial subject areas including racial prejudice and child abuse.
Way Down East (1920)• A powerful melodrama starring silent film immortal Lillian Gish.
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921)• Memorable for the visit of the Four Horsemen - war, conquest, famine, and death
Orphans of the Storm (1921-2)• Set against the backdrop of the French Revolution
The Covered Wagon (1923)• A landmark silent western film.
Greed (1924)• Originally at 10 hours, but severely edited down, one of the masterpieces of the silent era
The Big Parade (1925)• At its time, it was the largest grossing silent film ever. Focus WW I - extremely realistic battle scenes.
Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ (1925)• First filmed in 1907, this remake cost $2 million at the time, and is one of the most outstanding examples of silent film spectaculars.
The General (1927)• Buster Keatons silent masterpiece, a great comedy set during the Civil War. The acrobatic stuntwork, Keatons deadpan expressions, location photography and sight gags are remarkable.
The Circus (1928)• Charlie Chaplin as The Tramp -
The Virginian (1929)• A western film and adaptation of a pulp novel The film is most known for the Virginians response to a card-game insult - he pulls out his gun, lays it on the card table, and responds: "If you want to call me that, smile."
All Quiet on the Western Front (1930• Based on the anti-war novel by Erich Maria Remarque and one of the best anti- war films
Scarface , the Shame of the Nation (1932)• A violent, fast-paced, intense crime/gangster melodrama, the first of the great gangster films.
Im No Angel (1933)• One of Mae Wests funniest films
She Done Him Wrong (1933)• A lusty Gay 90s spoof, with racy dialogue and great one-liners. "Come up sometime n see me."
Of Human Bondage (1934)• The first and best film version of Somerset Maughams tragic, classic literary novel.
David Copperfield (1935)• film adaptation of the Charles Dickens novel
Modern Times (1936)• One of the last great "silent" comedy masterpieces, with music, sound effects, and very limited gibberish dialogue/singing
The Hurricane (1937)• spectacular disaster film set in the South Seas.
Pygmalion (1938),• A delightful romantic comedy, the first film version of George Bernard Shaws stageplay and screenplay
Of Mice and Men (1939)• A film adaptation of John Steinbecks Depression-era classic novel
Turning Points• 1940 Disneys groundbreaking Fantasia introduced a "Fantasound" stereo-like, multi-channel soundtrack• 1940 Citizen Kane: It has been the most highly-regarded film in cinematic history, with many ground-breaking film techniques. The controversial film, banned from advertising in all of Hearsts newspapers, was noted for its creative experiments with sound (i.e., overlapping dialogue and layered sound), for its numerous complex flashbacks (and non-linear storytelling), and for Gregg Tolands cinematography, including innovative camera angles (low-angle shots revealing ceilings), montage, mise-en-scene, deep-focus compositions, tracking shots, whip pans, lengthy takes, and dramatic or expressionistic low-key noirish lighting.
• 1941 The first, generally-acknowledged film noir was released, JohnHustons The Maltese Falcon.• 1942 Tweety Bird• 1942-ff Propaganda films• 1945 Roberto Rossellinis influential landmark film Open City formallyintroduced Italian neo-realism, marked by a gritty and realistic post-warfilm style. Characteristics included the use of on-location cinematography,grainy low-grade black-and-white film stock and untrained actors inimprovised scenes.• 1945 The rarely-seen film Momotaro: The Holy Soldier of the Sea,financed by (and starring) the Japanese Imperial Navy and directed byMitsuyo Seo, was the first feature-length anime film ever made.• 1955 Blackboard Jungle was the first film to feature a rock-n-roll song,"Rock-Around-The-Clock." (sung by Bill Haley and His Comets during thecredits). It was the first major Hollywood film to use R&R on itssoundtrack. It inspired the next years popular R&R film, Rock Around theClock (1956).• 1959 New Wave Film: jump cut, the hand-held camera, natural lighting,non-linear storytelling, on-location shootings, and loose, improviseddirection and editing.
1964 Michelangelo Antonionis and cinematographer Carlo DiPalmas visually-impressive French-Italian co-production Red Desert made spectacular use of therecently-perfected telephoto lens, to create a shallow depth-of-field. It was alsoAntonionis first film in color, used in extreme and expressive ways. 1966 After an appeal by Warner Bros., Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf becamethe first film containing profane expletives and frank sexual content to receive theMPAAs Production Code seal of approval. 1967 Director Arthur Penns Bonnie and Clyde was promoted with the slogan forits anti-heroes: "Theyre young. Theyre in love. They kill people." The anti-establishment, violent film, originally criticized at the time of its release, was aimedat youth audiences by its American auteur and producer/star Warren Beatty. 1967 The first contemporary music (rock n roll concert) industry film, MontereyPop (1968), was filmed at the historic Monterey International Pop Festival inCalifornia, featuring such performers as Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Mamas andthe Papas, Janis Joplin, The Who 1968 Stanley Kubricks 2001: A Space Odyssey reinvented the science fictiongenre. 1969 Sam Peckinpahs ultra-violent western The Wild Bunch was exceptional forits non-glorification of bloodshed, and its slow-motion, heavily-edited, stylizedviews of multiple deaths -- it was influential for other filmmakers ranging fromMartin Scorsese to John Woo to Quentin Tarantino in years to come.
• 1972 The popular, low-budget, adult-oriented, X-rated Deep Throat, thesecond hard-core pornography feature film released in the US (after Behind theGreen Door) contributed to the explosion of the porn industry and porn chic bybeing exhibited in many mainstream film theatres.• 1973 The science-fiction classic Westworld was the first movie to make use of"digitized images",• 1975 Jim Sharmans The Rocky Horror Picture Show, a film version of theoriginal international stage hit, was a commercial failure when originallyreleased, but has since achieved major cult film status, and has beenconsidered the longest-running midnight movie of all time• 1977 Star Wars• 1988 Director Martin Scorseses controversial movie The Last Temptation ofChrist opened in nine cities despite objections by some Christians who felt thefilm was sacrilegious.• 1993 Spielbergs Holocaust drama Schindlers List demonstrated the power ofthe medium to influence audiences and capture the reality of past history.• 1994 Director Oliver Stones controversial work on the medias exploitativeprecoccupation with violence by following the path of two serial killers on amurder spree, Natural Born Killers, came under critical fire for its own graphic,on-screen violence.
• 1995 Danish director Lars von Trier announced the manifesto of theDogme 95 collective and movement, a return to simplicity in film-making.Ten goals or principles of the collectives Vow of Chastity included on-location shoots, use of hand-held cameras and use of digital-video (DV),an uncredited director, no special effects or fixes in post-production, andno major enhancement of sound or light even on set. This type of film-making stood in sharp contrast to Hollywoods big-budget blockbusters.• 1999 The pseudo-documentary, low-budget (budgeted at $22,000),media-savvy cult film The Blair Witch Project, grossed $240 millionworldwide• 2000 The emerging cinema of China, beginning in the mid-1980s andafter (i.e., Zhang Yimous Raise the Red Lantern (1991) and The Story ofQiu Ju (1992), Chen Kaiges Farewell, My Concubine (1993), and TianZhuangzhuangs The Blue Kite (1993)), began to capture critical attention.• 2002 The independently-produced romantic comedy My Big Fat GreekWedding became the most profitable movie of all time, earning more than$240 million at the box office, while costing only about $5 million to make.• 2004 Michael Moores controversial Fahrenheit 9/11 won the top prize,Palme DOr at the Cannes Film Festival. It also broke the record forhighest opening-weekend earnings in the US for a documentary, andestablished a significant precedent for a political documentary.