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Community participation

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Community participation

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Definition of community participation
Importance of community participation
Participation as amean and as an end
Core features of community participation
Factors that affect community participation positively
Archtypes of community participation

Definition of community participation
Importance of community participation
Participation as amean and as an end
Core features of community participation
Factors that affect community participation positively
Archtypes of community participation

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Community participation

  1. 1. Prof Dr MONA ABOSEREA Zagazig University
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Definition of community participation • Importance of community participation • Participation as amean and as an end • Core features of community participation • Factors that affect community participation positively • Archtypes of community participation
  3. 3. • Stages of community participation • Proces s of community participation in health programmes • Possible partners in community participation • community participation in different approaches • Obstacles to community participation
  4. 4. Definition of community • A community is a set of people living together with common interests. There are different things that bind us together as occupation, religion , launage, belifs ,culture ,values and norms. • Oxford dictionary defines participation as • to have a share in or to take part in
  5. 5. Definition of community participation • Community participation is a process by which individuals and families assume responsibility of their own health ,develop their capacity to contribute to development and enables them to be agents for their own development instead of being passive beneficiaries of development aid.
  6. 6. • Community engagement is a dynamic relational process that facilitates communication, interaction, involvement, and exchange between an organization and a community for a range of social and organizational outcomes
  7. 7. • Community involvement The active involvement of people living together in some form of social organization and cohesion in the planning, operation and control of primary health care, using local, national and other resources. In community involvement, individuals and families assume responsibility for their and their communities' health and welfare, and develop the capacity to contribute to their own and their communities’ development
  8. 8. • Community mobilization is a process through which action is stimulated by a community itself, or by others, that is planned, carried out, and evaluated by a community's individuals, groups, and organizations on a participatory and sustained basis to improve the health, hygiene and education levels so as to enhance the overall standard of living in the community.
  9. 9. Why participation is important ??? • provides an open forum for the community to discuss its problems and find efficient and economic solutions. • making people aware of their needs • results in better decisions • people are more likely to implement the decision that they made themselves rather than the decisions imposed on them
  10. 10. CONT. • participation improves communication and cooperation • develop local leaders who can further educate and mobilise the people in the community • people develop new skills through community participation • higher achievement at lower cost
  11. 11. Core features of participation • It is a voluntary involvement of people . • The people who participate affect and share control over development initiatives, decisions and resources . • It is a process of involvement of people in different stages of the program. • The ultimate aim is to improve the wellbeing of people who participate.
  12. 12. Factors that affect the degree of community participation positively • -locally available resources • -relavance • -education status of the community • -community infrastrature • -economic factors
  13. 13. • -social and cultural factors • -political stability • -motivated community • -Good leadership • -a sense of owenership
  14. 14. Stages of participation
  15. 15. Degrees of participation 1- Co-option • -token involvement of local people • -representatives are chosen but have no real power 2- compliance • -tasks are assigned with incentives • - outsiders decide the agenda and direct the people 3- consultation • Local opinions are asked • Outsiders analyze and decide
  16. 16. 4- cooperation -local people work together with outsiders to determine priorities - responsibility remains with outsiders for directing the process 5-co-learning -local people and outsiders share their knowledge to create new understanding - local people and outsiders work together to form action plans with outsider facilitation
  17. 17. • The process of involving “new” communities in partnerships. It highlighted the need to: • identify and define the community you seek to engage • learn about the community’s culture and norms • identify possible partners • conduct interviews with key people in the community • plan and conduct the first community meeting to gain community feedback
  18. 18. Possible community partners or stakeholders to consider • Family members affected by the problem • Health care providers • Staff of community-based human services organizations • Local and state departments of health and human services • Community members, leaders, outreach workers and concerned citizens
  19. 19. • Schools and educators • Staff from federal government agencies • Policy-makers, including elected officials • Community health workers (CHWs) or health promoters
  20. 20. Stakeholders analysis • it is a useful tool to assess whom the program will affect and who should have astake in the program. • The stakeholders include different people from the affected population,local authorities and agencies.
  21. 21. Participation matrix • Participation matrix is a tool to identify how stakeholders may be involved in different stages of the program
  22. 22. Role of community participation in finance generation • Community participation can also include finance generation activities and this may be a key starting point in giving the communities greater responsibilities and removing dependence on external support and promoting sustainability
  23. 23. Community participation in different situations • top-down approach • -bottom-up approach
  24. 24. Top-down approach • In traditional approach ,health care planning are made by senior persons in health services the so called experts . • Research may be carried out through survey to what the community thinks or believes to be the problem . but in the end it is usually the health workers who makes the decisions on what goes into the program based on medically defined needs .all the decision making and priorities are set by the external agency
  25. 25. Bottom –up approach • In this type of participation , members of the community make decisions
  26. 26. Qualitative analysis of community participation • How much does the community know about the program ? • How much do they know about the organization carrying out the program? • What responsibility do they carry out on behalf of the program? • What kind of difficulities do they find in undertaking their responsibility?
  27. 27. • How satisfied are they with the involvement? • Do they have any suggestions to improve their participation in the program? • Are all sections of the community equally involved in the program?
  28. 28. Obstacles to community participation -inaccessible services in right quality and quantity -inadequate understanding of local abilities and resources -people dependence on the government and not on their self -resistance to empower people
  29. 29. -absence of confidence and ability of people in the machinery of health administration. - un equal domination of power relations in favor of rich people and to the disadvantage of poorer section of the community . -heterogenesity of interests. - sustained efforts missing . - - legal obstacles.
  30. 30. Disadvantages of community participation -participation doesn’t occur automatically , it is a process .it involves time ,hence it may lead to delayed start of a project. - participation leads to decentralization .people at the top should be ready and willing to share power with the people. - sometimes develop dependancy syndrome. - can result in shifting of th burden into poor

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