PS Chapter 3

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PS Chapter 3

  1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.1Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Essentials ofEssentials of Public SpeakingPublic Speaking Cheryl Hamilton, Ph.D. 5th Edition5th Edition Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Chapter 3 Cheryl HamiltonCheryl Hamilton
  2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.2 Key IdeasKey Ideas  IdentifyIdentify stages in the listening processstages in the listening process  DefineDefine the termthe term listening filterslistening filters  DiscussDiscuss how the filers of culture, gender andhow the filers of culture, gender and technology affect the listening processtechnology affect the listening process  DiscussDiscuss effective listening strategieseffective listening strategies Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  3. 3. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.3Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers Should Know Flashback . . .Flashback . . . One way listeners avoid being persuaded is byOne way listeners avoid being persuaded is by convincing themselves that the speaker’s credibilityconvincing themselves that the speaker’s credibility is questionable and therefore not to be trusted.is questionable and therefore not to be trusted. Aristotle, trained as a Greek field biologist toAristotle, trained as a Greek field biologist to rationally investigate subjects, writes about therationally investigate subjects, writes about the importance of creating credibility (ethos) during aimportance of creating credibility (ethos) during a presentation through arguments that are sound,presentation through arguments that are sound, truthful, and show the audience that you have theirtruthful, and show the audience that you have their best interests at heart. Aristotle came to realizebest interests at heart. Aristotle came to realize that a speaker’s credibility depends less on logicalthat a speaker’s credibility depends less on logical proof and more the listener’s perception of theproof and more the listener’s perception of the speaker.speaker.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.4 Stages of ListeningStages of Listening Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  5. 5. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.5  Listeners are bombarded with stimuliListeners are bombarded with stimuli  Listeners attend to (or ignore) stimuliListeners attend to (or ignore) stimuli  Selective attend to things of interestSelective attend to things of interest  Gender, age, culture and emotions affectGender, age, culture and emotions affect attentionattention  Goal: help listeners focusGoal: help listeners focus Stages of Listening: ReceiveStages of Listening: Receive Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  6. 6. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.6  Listeners understanding of the messageListeners understanding of the message  Can be affected byCan be affected by – Frame of Reference – Vocabulary – Attitudes about the speaker – Gender – Culture Stages of Listening: ComprehendStages of Listening: Comprehend Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  7. 7. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.7  Most serious problems occur hereMost serious problems occur here  Listeners supply meaningListeners supply meaning  Words can have different meaningsWords can have different meanings  Listeners assume they understand and canListeners assume they understand and can stop listeningstop listening  Goal: Maximize understandingGoal: Maximize understanding Stages of Listening: InterpretStages of Listening: Interpret Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  8. 8. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.8  ListenersListeners think aboutthink about the messagethe message  Listeners assign a value judgmentListeners assign a value judgment  Judgments affected byJudgments affected by – Attitude toward the speaker – Appearance, gestures, visual aids (visual code) – Speaking voice (verbal code) – Importance of topic  Goal: Anticipate issuesGoal: Anticipate issues and respondand respond Stages of Listening: EvaluateStages of Listening: Evaluate Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  9. 9. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.9  Feedback from the listenersFeedback from the listeners  Speakers need feedback to know if and howSpeakers need feedback to know if and how they have communicatedthey have communicated  Feedback and be verbal or non-verbalFeedback and be verbal or non-verbal  Goal: Adequately interpret feedbackGoal: Adequately interpret feedback Stages of Listening: RespondStages of Listening: Respond Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.10  Listeners decide what content they will retainListeners decide what content they will retain  Most listeners retain 10% - 25%Most listeners retain 10% - 25%  Goal: Help listeners decide what informationGoal: Help listeners decide what information is important to rememberis important to remember Stages of Listening: MemoryStages of Listening: Memory Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Receive ComprehendRespond Evaluate Interpret
  11. 11. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.11 Major Listening FiltersMajor Listening Filters  CultureCulture  GenderGender  TechnologyTechnology Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.12Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Listening filters: CultureListening filters: Culture  Types of culturesTypes of cultures – Individualistic Cultures – places move value on the individual and on individual rights • Examples: The US, Australia, Great BritainExamples: The US, Australia, Great Britain • More problem orientedMore problem oriented – Collectivistic Cultures – places more value on group identity and group right the individual and on individual rights • Examples: Japan, Korea, MexicoExamples: Japan, Korea, Mexico • More relationship orientedMore relationship oriented
  13. 13. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.13Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Listening filters: CultureListening filters: Culture  Culture and message contextsCulture and message contexts – Message context – The information that surrounds an event. (Hall & Hall 1990, p.6) – Low Context messages • Communicators tend to be from individualisticCommunicators tend to be from individualistic culturescultures • Messages should be direct and clearly spelled outMessages should be direct and clearly spelled out • The meaning is provided by wordsThe meaning is provided by words • Presentation is organizedPresentation is organized
  14. 14. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.14Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Listening filters: CultureListening filters: Culture  Culture and message contextsCulture and message contexts – High Context messages • Communicators tend to be from collectivisticCommunicators tend to be from collectivistic culturescultures • Messages should be brief, indirect and implicitMessages should be brief, indirect and implicit • Receivers take responsibility in determiningReceivers take responsibility in determining meaningmeaning • The context is the most important part of theThe context is the most important part of the presentation (e.g. setting, facial expressions,presentation (e.g. setting, facial expressions, gestures, speaker’s friends)gestures, speaker’s friends)
  15. 15. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.15Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Listening filters: CultureListening filters: Culture  Culture and timeCulture and time – Monochromic cultures • Time is a sacred resource and is controlled throughTime is a sacred resource and is controlled through schedules and appointments (Smith & Bond 1994, p.schedules and appointments (Smith & Bond 1994, p. 149)149) • Tend to be individualistic/low context culturesTend to be individualistic/low context cultures • Monochromic cultures prefer speakers who are onMonochromic cultures prefer speakers who are on time, direct and get to the point.time, direct and get to the point.
  16. 16. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.16Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers Should Know Listening filters: CultureListening filters: Culture  Culture and timeCulture and time – Polychromatic cultures • Relationships are the most important element inRelationships are the most important element in using time. The use of time is flexible tousing time. The use of time is flexible to do right bydo right by people to whom we have obligationspeople to whom we have obligations (Smith & Bond(Smith & Bond 1994, p. 149).1994, p. 149). • Audiences in Polychromatic cultures expectAudiences in Polychromatic cultures expect speakers to build on history, use personal stories,speakers to build on history, use personal stories, are have content that is implicit.are have content that is implicit.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.17Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers Should Know Listening filters: GenderListening filters: Gender WomenWomen View communication asView communication as a cooperative toola cooperative tool Better at decoding theBetter at decoding the non-verbal and emotionalnon-verbal and emotional aspects of a messageaspects of a message Tend to talk as much asTend to talk as much as menmen Give supportive verbalGive supportive verbal and non-verbal responsesand non-verbal responses Tend to listen moreTend to listen more carefully when the speakercarefully when the speaker is a manis a man MenMen – View communication as a competitive tool – Tend to recall the factual aspects of a message – Tend to talk as much as women – Tend to interrupt, ask questions and give minimal response – Tend to listen more carefully when the speaker is a man
  18. 18. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.18 Gender: Listening OrientationsGender: Listening Orientations  PeoplePeople – Women show preference overall – Both men and women show preference in situations involving friends  ActionAction  ContentContent – Men show overall preference – Both men and women show a preference in instructional situations  TimeTime Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  19. 19. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.19 PromotingPromoting androgynousandrogynous listeninglistening  Analyze your audience carefullyAnalyze your audience carefully  Don’t talk down to either genderDon’t talk down to either gender  Relate importance of your topic to both menRelate importance of your topic to both men and women in the introductionand women in the introduction  Use a variety of examplesUse a variety of examples  Use nonsexist vocabularyUse nonsexist vocabulary  Avoid gender-linked termsAvoid gender-linked terms Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  20. 20. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.20Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Listening filters: TechnologyListening filters: Technology  Can both hamper and help listeningCan both hamper and help listening  The key is adapting your message to yourThe key is adapting your message to your audienceaudience  Use proper wording so that your audienceUse proper wording so that your audience will positively react to your messagewill positively react to your message
  21. 21. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.21 Technology: E-Mail TipsTechnology: E-Mail Tips  Watch tone of voiceWatch tone of voice  Keep sentences and paragraphs shortKeep sentences and paragraphs short  MentionMention social tiessocial ties when appropriatewhen appropriate  Apologize even when you think it’s not yourApologize even when you think it’s not your faultfault  Use adjectives, verbs and adverbs that fit theUse adjectives, verbs and adverbs that fit the receiver’s preferred sensory channelreceiver’s preferred sensory channel Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  22. 22. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.22Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know The Receiving Stage:The Receiving Stage: Stimulate and MotivateStimulate and Motivate  Stimulate using Attention Grabbers -Stimulate using Attention Grabbers - In the introduction & throughout, use a startling statement, brief examples, personal narratives, questions, humorous anecdote, etc.  MotivateMotivate by showing listeners how your presentation will benefit them in some way.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.23Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Needs that motivate listeners (Table 3.2)Needs that motivate listeners (Table 3.2)  Reduce stress and anxietyReduce stress and anxiety  Earn more moneyEarn more money  Gain personal satisfactionGain personal satisfaction  Impress others and gainImpress others and gain esteemesteem  Develop self-confidenceDevelop self-confidence  Try something new andTry something new and excitingexciting  Solve a pressing problemSolve a pressing problem  Achieve desired goals withAchieve desired goals with less effortless effort  Improve prestige or powerImprove prestige or power  Improve rank/positionImprove rank/position with new skillwith new skill  Gain a feeling of pride inGain a feeling of pride in the jobthe job  Reach more customersReach more customers  Increase job stability andIncrease job stability and securitysecurity  Look more attractiveLook more attractive  Become healthierBecome healthier  Improve parenting skillsImprove parenting skills  Help othersHelp others  Make a difference in theMake a difference in the worldworld
  24. 24. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.24 Comprehend Stage:Comprehend Stage: Maximize UnderstandingMaximize Understanding  Analyze the audienceAnalyze the audience  Personalize with narrativesPersonalize with narratives  Increase speaking rateIncrease speaking rate  Make sure what you say is what you intend toMake sure what you say is what you intend to saysay  Pay attention to the visual part of thePay attention to the visual part of the messagemessage  Prepare for misunderstandingPrepare for misunderstanding Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  25. 25. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.25 Interpret Stage:Interpret Stage: Circumvent 100% communication mythCircumvent 100% communication myth  Message filtered through frame of referenceMessage filtered through frame of reference  Pay attention to visual and vocal codesPay attention to visual and vocal codes  MinimizeMinimize conflicting messagesconflicting messages Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  26. 26. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.26 Evaluate stage:Evaluate stage: Counteract Resistance to PersuasionCounteract Resistance to Persuasion  Strengthen personal credibilityStrengthen personal credibility  Highlight credibility of your sourcesHighlight credibility of your sources  Keep listeners from evading your messageKeep listeners from evading your message  Keep listener’s attention on the speechKeep listener’s attention on the speech Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  27. 27. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.27 Respond stage:Respond stage: Read listeners’ feedback cuesRead listeners’ feedback cues  Put feedback cues in contextPut feedback cues in context  Don’t generalize from single listenerDon’t generalize from single listener responseresponse  Look for subtle signs of inattentionLook for subtle signs of inattention Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  28. 28. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.28 Memory stage:Memory stage: Make message easy to rememberMake message easy to remember  Incorporate cues to aid memoryIncorporate cues to aid memory  Don’t state key ideas in the first or secondDon’t state key ideas in the first or second sentencesentence  Use visualsUse visuals Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know
  29. 29. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.29Chapter 3 – Listening: What Speakers and Listeners Should Know Essentials ofEssentials of Public SpeakingPublic Speaking Cheryl Hamilton, Ph.D. 5th Edition5th Edition Public Speaking Ethics and You Chapter 1 Cheryl HamiltonCheryl Hamilton

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